Norops


Norops
Norops
Anolis polylepis, also called Norops polylepis, in Costa Rica, displaying a yellow dewlap
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Lacertilia
Family: Iguanidae
Genus: Norops
Species

c.150, see text

Norops is the proposed generic name for 150 lizard species traditionally classified in the genus Anolis (family, Iguanidae). Guyer and Savage (1986) applied this name to a group that Etheridge (1959) designated the "beta anoles" on the basis of skeletal characters that distinguished them from all other anole species (i.e., "the alpha anoles"). Although Norops is clearly a distinct, monophyletic group, it renders the "alpha anoles" paraphyletic. Guyer and Savage's proposed remedy for this problem involved the designation of four additional genera within the "alpha anoles". However, three of these genera are not supported as monophyletic by recent phylogenetic studies (Jackman et al. 1998, Poe 2004, Nicholson et al. 2005). As a result, recognition of Norops as a genus is premature and likely to confound efforts to study and conserve anoles. This position is stated explicitly in recent phylogenetic studies:

"Four of the Guyer and Savage genera have been shown to be paraphyletic (Poe, 1998; Jackman et al., 1999), and recognition of their remaining genus Norops would necessitate an entirely new Anolis taxonomy. Thus, their generic-level taxonomy is not followed here." -- Poe 2004, p. 38

"The problem with recognizing Norops as a genus is that it necessarily renders Anolis (sensu lato) paraphyletic. Thus recognizing Norops as a genus is inappropriate..." -- Nicholson 2002

In spite of these recommendations, Norops remains widely accepted by workers in mainland Central and South America. However, it is universally rejected by West Indian workers. These differences may be due to the fact the mainland fauna is dominated by only two deeply divergent clades (Norops and Dactyloa in Guyer and Savage's terminology), whereas the West Indian radiation is much more taxomically diverse, and relationships less certain. As a result, some members of Savage and Guyer's Anolis on Cuba are actually more closely related to Cuban species placed in Norops than they are to other Anolis, thus reinforcing the earlier point that recognition of Norops is too problematic to warrant its continued recognition.

Species of genus Norops[1]

Norops poecilopus
  • Norops ahli
  • Norops allogus
  • Norops altae
  • Norops alvarezdeltoroi
  • Norops amplisquamosus
  • Norops anisolepis
  • Norops annectens
  • Norops antonii
  • Norops aquaticus
  • Norops auratus
  • Norops baccatus
  • Norops barkeri
  • Norops bicaorum
  • Norops biporcatus
  • Norops birama
  • Norops bitectus
  • Norops bocourtii
  • Norops bombiceps
  • Norops bouvierii
  • Norops breedlovei
  • Norops bremeri
  • Norops capito
  • Norops carpenteri
  • Norops cobanensis
  • Norops compressicauda
  • Norops concolor
  • Norops confusus
  • Norops conspersus
  • Norops crassulus
  • Norops cumingii
  • Norops cupreus
  • Norops cuprinus
  • Norops cusuco
  • Norops cymbops
  • Norops damulus
  • Norops delafuentei
  • Norops dollfusianus
  • Norops duellmani
  • Norops dunni
  • Norops exsul
  • Norops forbesi
  • Norops fortunensis
  • Norops fungosus
  • Norops fuscoauratus
  • Norops gadovii
  • Norops garmani
  • Norops gibbiceps
  • Norops gracilipes
  • Norops grahami
  • Norops granuliceps
  • Norops guafe
  • Norops guazuma
  • Norops haguei
  • Norops hobartsmithi
  • Norops homolechis
  • Norops humilis
  • Norops ibague
  • Norops imias
  • Norops intermedius
  • Norops isthmicus
  • Norops johnmeyeri
  • Norops jubar
  • Norops kemptoni
  • Norops kreutzi
  • Norops laeviventris
  • Norops lemniscatus
  • Norops lemurinus
  • Norops limifrons
  • Norops lineatopus
  • Norops lineatus
  • Norops liogaster
  • Norops lionotus
  • Norops loveridgei
  • Norops lynchi
  • Norops macrinii
  • Norops macrolepis
  • Norops macrophallus
  • Norops maculiventris
  • Norops mariarum
  • Norops matudai
  • Norops medemi
  • Norops megapholidotus
  • Norops meridionalis
  • Norops mestrei
  • Norops microlepidotus
  • Norops microlepis
  • Norops milleri
  • Norops muralla
  • Norops naufragus
  • Norops nebuloides
  • Norops nebulosus
  • Norops nitens
  • Norops notopholis
  • Norops ocelloscapularis
  • Norops omiltemanus
  • Norops onca
  • Norops opalinus
  • Norops ophiolepis
  • Norops ortonii
  • Norops pachypus
  • Norops pandoensis
  • Norops parvicirculatus
  • Norops pentaprion
  • Norops petersii
  • Norops pijolense
  • Norops pinchoti
  • Norops poecilopus
  • Norops polylepis
  • Norops polyrhachis
  • Norops purpurgularis
  • Norops pygmaeus
  • Norops quadriocellifer
  • Norops quercorum
  • Norops reconditus
  • Norops rhombifer
  • Norops rivalis
  • Norops roatanensis
  • Norops rodriguezi
  • Norops rubribarbaris
  • Norops rubribarbus
  • Norops sagrei
  • Norops salvini
  • Norops scapularis
  • Norops schiedei
  • Norops schmidti
  • Norops sericeus
  • Norops serranoi
  • Norops simmonsi
  • Norops sminthus
  • Norops subocularis
  • Norops sulcifrons
  • Norops taylori
  • Norops tolimensis
  • Norops townsendi
  • Norops trachyderma
  • Norops tropidogaster
  • Norops tropidolepis
  • Norops tropidonotus
  • Norops uniformis
  • Norops utilensis
  • Norops utowanae
  • Norops valencienni
  • Norops vicarius
  • Norops villai
  • Norops vittigerus
  • Norops vociferans
  • Norops wampuensis
  • Norops wermuthi
  • Norops woodi
  • Norops yoroensis
  • Norops zeus

References

  1. ^ Norops, The Reptile Database
  • Guyer, C., & Savage, J. M. (1986). Cladistic relationships among anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae). Systematic Zoology, 35, 509-531
  • Losos, J.B. (2009). Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. University of California Press:Berkeley, Ca. [1]

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