Brain mapping


Brain mapping

Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

Overview

All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behaviour onto brain regions (see fMRI).

Brain Mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of Brain Mapping.

History

In the late 1980s in the United States, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science was commissioned to establish a panel to investigate the value of integrating neuroscientific information across a variety of techniques. [ Constance M. Pechura, Joseph B. Martin (1991). "Mapping the Brain and Its Functions: Integrating Enabling Technologies Into Neuroscience Research". Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on a National Neural Circuitry Database.]

Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy, physiology, perfusion, function and phenotypes of the human brain. Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory, learning, aging, and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia, autism, and clinical depression. This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project. [ Stephen H. Koslow and Michael F. Huerta (1997). "Neuroinformatics: An Overview of the Human Brain Project".]

Following a series of meetings, the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) evolved. [ Mazziotta and Toga, 1995 ] The ultimate goal is to develop flexible computational brain atlases."'

Current atlas tools

* Talairach Atlas, 1988
* Harvard Whole Brain Atlas, 1995 [ [http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/home.html Harvard Whole Brain Atlas] ]
* MNI Template, 1998 (the standard template of SPM and International Consortium for Brain Mapping)

See also

* BrainMaps Project
* Center for Computational Biology
* FreeSurfer
* Map projection
* Neuroimaging software

References

Further reading

* Rita Carter (1998). "Mapping the Mind".
* F.J. Chen (2006). "Brain Mapping And Language"
* F.J. Chen (2006). "Focus on Brain Mapping Research".
* F.J. Chen (2006). "Trends in Brain Mapping Research".
* F.J. Chen (2006). "Progress in Brain Mapping Research".
* Koichi Hirata (2002). "Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET 2001)".
* Konrad Maurer and Thomas Dierks (1991). "Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials".
* Konrad Maurer (1989). "Topographic Brain Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials".
* Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta (2002). "Brain Mapping: The Methods".
* Tatsuhiko Yuasa, James Prichard and S. Ogawa (1998). "Current Progress in Functional Brain Mapping: Science and Applications".

External links

* [http://www.brainmapping.org BrainMapping.ORG project] This award winning site provides links, news and opportunities to the community. Scientists and researchers are invited to join as members (there is no cost).
* [http://www.bisti.nih.gov/ncbc/ NIH/NCBC]
* For Mapology and the problem of maps, mappings, and map-makers (vulgo: "brains") in general: [http://www.mapology.org]
* [http://www.humanbrainmapping.org Human Brain Mapping]
* National Centers for Biomedical Computing (NCBC)
** [http://magnet.c2b2.columbia.edu/ National Center for Multi-Scale Study of Cellular Networks]
** [http://bioontology.org National Center for Biomedical Ontology]
** [http://cbmc-web.stanford.edu/simbios/ Physics-based Simulation of Biological Structures]
** [http://www.na-mic.org/ National Alliance for Medical Imaging Computing]
** [http://www.partners.org/i2b2 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside]
** [http://www.ncibi.org/ National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics]


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