- Louis of Etruria
Louis King of Etruria Reign 1801-1803 Successor Charles Consort Maria Louisa of Spain Issue Charles, King of Etruria, Duke of Parma
Maria Luisa Carlota, Crown Princess of Saxony
Full name Louis Francis Philibert Father Ferdinand, Duke of Parma Mother Maria Amalia of Austria Born 5 July 1773
Died 27 May 1803(aged 29)
Louis (5 July 1773 – 27 May 1803) was the first of only two Kings of Etruria.
Swap of Parma and Etruria
While Louis was staying in Spain, the Duchy of Parma had been occupied by French troops in 1796. Napoleon Bonaparte, who had conquered most of Italy and wanted to gain Spain as an ally against England, proposed to compensate the House of Bourbon for their loss of the Duchy of Parma with the Kingdom of Etruria, a new state that he created from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. This was agreed upon in the Treaty of Aranjuez.
Louis had to receive his investiture from Napoleon in Paris, before taking possession of Etruria. Louis, his wife and his son travelled incognito through France under the name of the Count of Livorno. Having been invested as King in Paris, Louis and his family arrived at his new capital Florence in August 1801.
In 1802, both Louis and his pregnant wife travelled to Spain to attend the double-wedding of Maria Luisa's brother Ferdinand and her youngest sister Maria Isabel. Offshore at Barcelona, Maria Louisa gave birth to her daughter Marie Louise Charlotte. The couple returned in December of that year, after having been notified of the death of Louis's father.
Back in Etruria, Louis's health worsened, and in May 1803, he died at the age of thirty, possibly due to an epileptic crisis.
He was succeeded by his son, Charles Louis as King Louis II of Etruria, under the regency of his mother Maria Louisa.
Marriage and issue
In 1795, Louis came to the Spanish court to finish his education and also to marry one of the daughters of King Charles IV of Spain. On 25 August 1795, he married his first cousin Maria Louisa of Spain at Madrid and was made an Infante of Spain.
The marriage between the two different personalities turned out to be happy, though it was clouded by Louis's ill health: He was frail, suffering chest problems, and since a childhood accident when he hit his head on a marble table, suffered from symptoms that have been identified as epileptic fits. As the years went on, his health deteriorated, and he grew to be increasingly dependent on his wife. The young couple remained in Spain during the early years of their marriage.
The couple had two children:
- Charles Louis Ferdinand (1799–1883)
- Maria Luisa Carlota, Crown Princess of Saxony (1802–1857), married to Crown Prince Maximilian of Saxony, widower of her aunt Caroline, as his second wife and remained childless.
Ancestors of Louis of Etruria 16. Louis, Dauphin of France 8. Philip V of Spain 17. Maria Anna of Bavaria 4. Philip, Duke of Parma 18. Odoardo II Farnese 9. Elisabeth of Parma 19. Dorothea Sophie of the Palatinate 2. Ferdinand, Duke of Parma 20. Louis, Duke of Burgundy 10. Louis XV of France 21. Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy 5. Louise Élisabeth of France 22. Stanisław Leszczyński 11. Maria Leszczyńska 23. Katarzyna Opalińska 1. Louis of Etruria 24. Charles V, Duke of Lorraine 12. Leopold, Duke of Lorraine 25. Eleonora of Austria 6. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor 26. Philippe I, Duke of Orléans 13. Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans 27. Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate 3. Maria Amalia of Austria 28. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor 14. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor 29. Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate 7. Maria Theresa of Austria 30. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 15. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 31. Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
Louis of EtruriaCadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 5 July 1773 Died: 27 May 1803
- 5 July 1773 – 21 March 1801 His Royal Highness the Prince of Piacenza
- 21 March 1801 – 27 May 1803 His Majesty the King of Etruria
Regnal titles Preceded by
King of Etruria
2nd GenerationPrince Carlo · Alexander, Duke of Parma 3rd Generation 4th GenerationOdoardo, Duke of Parma · Cardinal-Prince Francesco Maria 5th GenerationRanuccio II, Duke of Parma · Prince Alessandro · Prince Orazio · Prince Pietro 6th Generation 7th Generationnone 8th Generationnone 9th Generation 10th GenerationLouis I of Etruria · Prince Philip 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generation 17th GenerationPrince Michael · Prince Henry · Prince Amaury*also prince of Luxembourg
^also prince of Nassau
Infantes of SpainThe generations indicate descent from Charles I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante had been largely used in the different realms. 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation 5th Generationnone 6th Generationnone 7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th Generation 12th Generation 13th Generation 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone*title granted by Royal Decree
**consort to an Infanta who was naturalized as a Spanish Infante
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