- Environmental issues in Iran
Environmental issues in
Iraninclude,balls in urban areas, vehicleemissions, refineryoperations, and industrial effluents which contribute to poor air quality. Most cars use leaded gasand lack emissions control equipment. [ [http://iran-daily.com/1386/2880/html/economy.htm Iran Daily - Domestic Economy - 07/01/07 ] ] Tehran is rated as one of the world’s most polluted cities. However, buses and cars running on natural gas are planned to replace the existing public transportationfleet in the future. Also, energy prices are kept artificially low in Iranthrough heavy state subsidies, resulting in highly inefficient and polluting consumption patterns.
A rising incidence of respiratory
illnessesprompted the city governments of Tehranand Arak, southwest of the capital, to institute air pollutioncontrol programs. These programs aim to reduce gradually the amount of harmful chemicalsreleased into the atmosphere.
Iran’s territory suffers from overgrazing, desertificationand/or deforestation. Industrial and urban wastewater runoff has contaminated rivers and coastal waters and threatened drinking watersupplies. Wetlands and bodies of fresh water increasingly are being destroyed as industry and agriculture expand, and oil and chemical spills have harmed aquatic life in the Persian Gulfand the Caspian Sea. Iran contends that the international rush to develop oil and gas reserves in the Caspian Sea presents that region with a new set of environmental threats. Although a Department of Environmenthas existed since 1971, Iran has not yet developed a policy of sustainable developmentbecause short term economic goals have taken precedence.
World Bankestimates losses inflicted on Iran’s economy as a result of deaths caused by air pollution at $640 million, which is equal to 5.1 trillion rials or 0.57 percent of GDP. Diseases resulting from air pollutionare inflicting losses estimated at $260 million per year or 2.1 trillion rials or 0.23 percent of the GDP on Iran’s economy. A report by the United Nations Environment Programmeranked Iran at 117th place among 133 countries in terms of environmental indexes. [ [http://iran-daily.com/1385/2798/html/ Iran Daily - Front Page - 03/06/07 ] ]
Major Environmental Agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation
Natural hazards: periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along western border and in the northeast.
Wildlife of Iran
*Pollution in Tehran
Geography of Iran
*Water and sanitation - Iran
*Gasoline subsidies - Iran
Economy of Iran
* [http://www.irandoe.org/ Department of Environment - Islamic Republic of Iran]
* [http://www.atiehbahar.com/Resources/Environment.htm Environment in Iran - Brief Sector Study] (2003)
* [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Iran/Profile.html US Dept. of Energy] - Environment Overview for Iran
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