- Roman civil wars
There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the late Republic. The most famous of these are the war in the 40s BC between Julius Caesar and the optimate faction of the senatorial elite initially led by Pompey and the subsequent war between Caesar's successors, Octavian and Mark Antony in the 30s BC. Following is a list of civil wars in ancient Rome.
Late RepublicRoman Republican
- The Crisis of the Roman Republic - an extended period of political instability and social unrest, from about 133 BC to 44 BC.
- Social War (91–88 BC), between Rome and many of its Italian allies - Roman victory.
- Sulla's first civil war (88–87 BC), between Lucius Cornelius Sulla's supporters and Gaius Marius' forces - Sullan victory.
- Sertorian War (83–72 BC), between Rome and the provinces of Hispania under the leadership of Quintus Sertorius, a supporter of Gaius Marius - Sullan victory.
- Sulla's second civil war (82–81 BC), between Sulla and Marius' supporters - Sullan victory.
- Lepidus' rebellion (77 BC), when Lepidus rebelled against the Sullan regime.
- Catiline Conspiracy (63–62 BC), between the Senate and the dissatisfied followers of Catiline - Senatorial victory.
- Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC), between Julius Caesar and the optimates initially led by Pompey - Caesarean victory.
- Post-Caesarian civil war (44 BC), between the Senate army (led first by Cicero and then by Octavian) and the army of Antony, Lepidus, and their colleagues - Truce results in union of forces.
- Liberators' civil war (44–42 BC), between the Second Triumvirate and the Liberators (Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins) - Triumvirate victory.
- Sicilian revolt (44–36 BC), between the Second Triumvirate (particularly Octavian and Agrippa) and Sextus Pompeius, the son of Pompey - Triumvirate victory.
- Perusine War (41–40 BC), between the forces of Octavian against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia (the younger brother and wife of Mark Antony) - Octavian victory.
- Final War of the Roman Republic (32–30 BC), between Octavian and his friend and general Agrippa against Mark Antony and Cleopatra) - Octavian victory.
After 30 BC, the Roman Empire was unified under leadership of Octavian. In 27 BC Octavian was granted the title of Augustus by the Senate. These two dates are considered to mark the end of the Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire. The period of rule by the Caesars was known as the "Pax Augusti" (peace of Augustus), and was the beginning of the era known as the "Pax Romana" (Roman Peace). The next serious Roman civil war would not be fought until after Nero's suicide in 68 AD, the year before the year of the four emperors.
- Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD ) four emperors, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian, ruled in succession.
From the rule of the Flavian Dynasty until the Year Of The Five Emperors, the Roman Empire experienced an extended period of internal peace and harmony later known as the time of The Five Good Emperors - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius and Marcus Aurelius.
- Year of the Five Emperors (193 AD) where after the first emperor was assassinated and the second executed, the last three, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and Septimius Severus fought for the throne.
- Year of the Six Emperors (238 AD) Maximinus Thrax, the reigning emperor, was challenged by many claimants to the throne until he was deposed, and Gordian III became emperor.
- Roman civil war of 284–285 AD, between Diocletian and Carinus - victory to Diocletian.
- Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306–324), between the co-emperors of the Roman Empire, starting with the usurpation of Maxentius and the defeat of Severus, and ending with the defeat of Licinius at the hands of Constantine I.
- Roman civil war of 350–351 AD, between Constantius II and Magnentius - victory to Constantius.
- Roman civil war of 360–361 AD, between Constantius II and Julian the Apostate - victory to Julian.
- Roman civil war of 387–388 AD, between Theodosius I and Magnus Maximus - victory to Theodosius I.
- Roman civil war of 394 AD, between Theodosius I and Arbogast - victory to Theodosius I.
- Kohn, George Childs, 'Dictionary of Wars, Revised Edition' (Checkmark Books, New York, 1999)
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