Waterborne diseases


Waterborne diseases

Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. Contaminated drinking water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries. [ [http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/burden/en/index.html WHO | Burden of disease and cost-effectiveness estimates ] ]

Waterborne disease can be caused by protozoa, viruses, bacteria, and intestinal parasites.

Protozoal infections

Parasitic Infections

Bacterial infections

*Botulism - Clostridium botulinum bacteria - gastro-intestinal food/water borne; can grow in food

* Campylobacteriosis

*Cholera - Vibrio cholerae bacteria - gastro-intestinal often waterborne

* Chronic granulomatous disease - caused by the Mycobacterium marinum infection and localized in skin, frequently occurred with aquarium keepers.cite web
last = Petrini
first = B.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Mycobacterium marinum: ubiquitous agent of waterborne granulomatous skin infections
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/7r65j4n6v54772h4/
]

*Diarrheal disease due to "E. coli".

*Dysentery - Shigella/Salmonella bacteria - gastro-intestinal food/water

*Legionellosis - cause Pontiac fever and Legionnaires' disease

*Leptospirosis-

* Otitis externa- "Swimmer's Ear"

*Typhoid - Salmonella typhi bacteria - gastro-intestinal water/food borne. Salmonellosis - due to many Salmonella species. Water/food/direct contact borne.

* Vibrio illness caused by the bacteria of Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus commonly found in seafood and recreational water.cite web
last = Dziuban
first = Eric J. "et al."
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Surveillance for Waterborne Disease and Outbreaks Associated with Recreational Water --- United States, 2003--2004
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5512a1.htm
]

Viral Infections

* Adenovirus infection - its serotypes are typically waterborne.cite web
last = Nwachuku
first = Nena "et al."
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Comparative inactivation of Adenovirus serotypes by UV light disinfection
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/71/9/5633.pdf
]

* Astroviruses -

* Caliciviruses -

* Circoviruses - its human form of Transfusion Transmitted Virus found in feces, saliva, skin and hair cite web
last = Nwachuku
first = Nena
authorlink =
coauthors = Charles P. Gerba
title = Emerging waterborne pathogens: can we kill them all?
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://env1.gist.ac.kr/~aeml/paper/papers(pdf)/27-waterborne_pathogens.pdf
]

* Coronaviruses - cause SARS and excreted in the feces cite web
last = Nwachuku
first = Nena
authorlink =
coauthors = Charles P. Gerba
title = Emerging waterborne pathogens: can we kill them all?
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://env1.gist.ac.kr/~aeml/paper/papers(pdf)/27-waterborne_pathogens.pdf
]

*Enteric Adenoviruses -

*Hepatitis A - Hepatitis A virus - gastro-intestinal water/food borne

* Parvoviruses - associated with Gastroenteritis.cite web
last = Nwachuku
first = Nena
authorlink =
coauthors = Charles P. Gerba
title = Emerging waterborne pathogens: can we kill them all?
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://env1.gist.ac.kr/~aeml/paper/papers(pdf)/27-waterborne_pathogens.pdf
]

* Picobimaviruses - associated with Gastroenteritis in AIDS patients, children and elderlies.cite web
last = Nwachuku
first = Nena
authorlink =
coauthors = Charles P. Gerba
title = Emerging waterborne pathogens: can we kill them all?
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://env1.gist.ac.kr/~aeml/paper/papers(pdf)/27-waterborne_pathogens.pdf
]

*Polio - polioviruses - gastro-intestinal exposure to untreated

* Polyomaviruses - its human form of JC virus cause Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and detected in sewage cite web
last = Nwachuku
first = Nena
authorlink =
coauthors = Charles P. Gerba
title = Emerging waterborne pathogens: can we kill them all?
publisher =
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007

HIV/AIDS
url = http://env1.gist.ac.kr/~aeml/paper/papers(pdf)/27-waterborne_pathogens.pdf
]

*Small Round Structured Virus

Allergic infections

* Hay fever - a part of disease rate is associated with the high frequency of swimming pool attendance in childhood cite web
last = Kohlhammer
first = Y. "et al."
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Swimming pool attendance and hay fever rates later in life
publisher = Blackwell Publishing
accessdate = 9 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mksg/all/2006/00000061/00000011/art00009
]
* Meningitis
* Trihalomethanes - a byproduct of chlorinated water which will cause bladder cancer through inhalation and dermal absorption during showering, bathing, and swimming in pools.cite web
last = Villanueva
first = Cristina M. "et al."
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Bladder Cancer and Exposure to Water Disinfection By-Products through Ingestion, Bathing, Showering, and Swimming in Pools
publisher = American Journal of Epidemiology
accessdate = 17 August
accessyear = 2007
url = http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/165/2/148
]

References

Academic resources

* "Journal of Water and Health", ISSN: 1477-8920, IWA Publishing

ee also

* Food Microbiology
* Free-living amebic infection
* Portable water purification
* Public health
* Swimming pool sanitation
* Water pollution
* Water quality
* Water resources
* Water supply

External links

* [http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueListPage.CatalogueList?ICS1=91&ICS2=140&ICS3=60&scopelist= ICS 91.140.60 Water supply systems] - A series of the ISO standards
* [http://www.who.org World Health Organization]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/ Center for Diseases Control U.S.]
* [http://www.safewateronline.com Safe Water for International Travelers] gives a rating of water safety worldwide
* Genome information on "Shigella" and "Salmonella" is available at the [http://www.ericbrc.org NIAID Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC)]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Waterborne bacterial disease — An illness due to infection with bacteria contaminating the water supply. Waterborne bacterial diseases cause a wide range of syndromes including: acute dehydrating diarrhea (cholera), prolonged febrile illness with abdominal symptoms (typhoid… …   Medical dictionary

  • waterborne — /waw teuhr bawrn , bohrn , wot euhr /, adj. 1. floating or moving on water; supported by water: The ship was waterborne ten months after the keel was laid. 2. transported by ship or boat: waterborne commerce. 3. communicated by water, esp.… …   Universalium

  • waterborne — wa|ter|borne [ˈwo:təbo:n US ˈwo:tərbo:rn, ˈwa: ] adj spread or carried by water →↑airborne waterborne disease/illness etc ▪ waterborne diseases such as cholera ▪ waterborne traffic …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • waterborne — adjective Date: circa 1559 supported, carried, or transmitted by water < waterborne commerce > < waterborne diseases > …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • waterborne — wa•ter•borne [[t]ˈwɔ tərˌbɔrn, ˌboʊrn, ˈwɒt ər [/t]] adj. 1) supported by water 2) transported by ship or boat: waterborne commerce[/ex] 3) communicated by water, esp. drinking water: waterborne diseases[/ex] …   From formal English to slang

  • waterborne — wa·ter·borne wȯt ər .bō(ə)rn, wät , .bȯ(ə)rn adj carried or transmitted by water and esp. by drinking water <waterborne diseases> …   Medical dictionary

  • waterborne — adjective spread or carried by water: waterborne diseases such as cholera …   Longman dictionary of contemporary English

  • waterborne — adj. carried by water; transferred via water (as of diseases) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • History of emerging infectious diseases — The discovery of disease causing pathogens is an important activity in the field of medical science, as many viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminthes and prions are identified as a confirmed or potential pathogen. A Center for Disease… …   Wikipedia

  • International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases — The ICEID or International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases is a conference for public health professionals on the subject of emerging infectious diseases.From CDC page for ICEID [ [http://www.cdc.gov/iceid/ CDC] CDC page for ICEID]… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.