- Wireless Internet service provider
Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs) are
Internet service providers with networks built around wireless networking. The technology used ranges from commonplace Wi-Fi mesh networkingor proprietary equipment designed to operate over open 900MHz, 2.4GHz, 4.9, 5.2, 5.4, and [http://www.motorola.com/business/v/item.jsp?vgnextoid=34149ffbede46110VgnVCM1000008406b00aRCRD&localeId=33 5.8GHz] bands or licensed frequencies in the UHFor MMDSbands. In 2005 the Federal Communications Commissionreleased [http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/FCC-05-56A1.pdf Report and Order, FCC 05-56] that revised the FCC’s rules to open the 3650 MHz band for terrestrial wireless broadband operations. [citeweb|title=FCC: Wireless Services: 3650-3700 MHz Radio Service|url=http://wireless.fcc.gov/services/index.htm?job=service_home&id=3650_3700|publisher= FCC|accessdate=2008-03-17] On November 14, 2007 the Commission released Public Notice [http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-4605A1.pdf (DA 07-4605)] in which the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau announced the start date for licensing and registration process for the 3650-3700 MHz band. [citeweb|title=PUBLIC NOTICE - Released: November 14, 2007|url=http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-4605A1.pdf|publisher= FCC|accessdate=2008-03-17]
The first WISP in the world was a company called Internet Office Parks in Johannesburg, South Africa that was founded by Roy Pater, Brett Airey and Attila Barath in January 1996. These three gentleman got together when realising the South African Telco, Telkom could not keep up with the demand for dedicated Internet links for business use.
Using what was one of the first wireless LAN products available for wireless barcode scanning in stores, called Aironet (now owned by
Cisco), they worked out if they ran a dedicated Telco link into the highest building in a business area or CBD they could wirelessly "cable" up all the other buildings back to this main point and would only require one link from the Telco to connect up hundreds of businesses at the same time. In turn each "satellite" building was wired up with Ethernet so each business connected into the Ethernet LAN and could instantly get Internet access. Due to the immaturity of wireless technology, security issues and being forced constantly by Telkom SA(The government Telco in South Africa) to cease its service, the company closed its doors in Jan 1999. However, this company spawned the Wireless Internet Service Provider "WISP" industry of today.
There were 879
Wi-Fibased WISPs in the Czech Republicas of May 2008, [citeweb|title=Wi-Fi: Poskytovatelé bezdrátového připojení|url=http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.internetprovsechny.cz%2Fwifi-poskytovatele.php&hl=cs&ie=UTF8&sl=cs&tl=en|publisher=internetprovsechny.cz|accessdate=2008-03-17] [citeweb|title=Bezdrátové připojení k internetu|url=http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bezdratovepripojeni.cz&hl=cs&ie=UTF8&sl=cs&tl=en|publisher=bezdratovepripojeni.cz|accessdate=2008-05-18] making it the country with most Wi-Fiaccess points in the whole EU. [citeweb|title=Number of Wi-Fi access points in Prague 1 and Prague 2 nearly doubled year-on-year|url=http://www.ey.com/global/content.nsf/Czech_Republic_E/2007_WiFi_survey_EN|publisher= Ernst & Young|accessdate=2008-03-17] [citeweb|title=CZECH REPUBLIC|url=http://www.volweb.cz/horvitz/os-info/czech.html|publisher=volweb.cz|accessdate=2008-03-17] The providing of wireless Internet has a big potential of lowering the "digital gap" or "Internet gap" in the developing countries. Geekcorpsactively help in Africa with among others wireless network building. The OLPCproject strongly relies on good Internet connectivity, which can most likely be provided in rural areas only with satellite or wireless network Internet access.
WISPs often offer additional services like location based content,
Virtual Private Networking and Voice over IP. Isolated municipal ISPs and larger state-wide initiatives alike are tightly focused on wireless networking.
WISP's are predominantly in rural environments where
cableand digital subscriber lines are not available. WiMaxis expected to become mainstream in the near future, bringing with it dramatic changes to the marketplace by increasing the number of interoperable equipment on the market and making mobile data transmission feasible, increasing the utility of such networks in rural environments. However, high-bandwidth wireless backhauls are already common in major cities, providing levels of bandwidth previously only available through expensive fiber opticconnections.
Typically, the way that a WISP operates is to pull a large and usually expensive point to point connection to the center of the area they wish to service. From here, they will need to find some sort of elevated point in the region, such as a radio or water tower, on which to mount their equipment. On the consumers side, they will mount a small dish to the roof of their home and point it back to the WISP's dish. When operating over the tightly limited range of the heavily populated 2.4 GHz band, as nearly all 802.11-based WiFi providers do, it is not uncommon to also see access points mounted on light posts and customer buildings.
Since it is difficult for a single service provider to build an infrastructure that offers global access to its subscribers, roaming between service providers is encouraged by the
Wi-Fi Alliancewith the " WISPr" protocol. WISPr is a set of recommendations approved by the alliance which facilitate inter-network and inter-operator roaming of Wi-Fi users. Modern wireless technology has comparable latency to other terrestrial broadband networks.
Problems with WISP services
* Most technologies operating in the 2.4 GHz spectrum and higher required radio line-of-sight.
* The range and maximum bandwidth of 700 and 900 MHz equipment is sharply reduced in non-line-of-sight applications.
* The range of unlicensed equipment is often limited severely by government mandated limits on broadcast power.
* Interference can be caused by everything from sun spots to other broadcasters, including home users on open bands and neighboring licensees of licensed spectrum, including other WISPs.
* WISPs often must mount their antennae outdoors, or even atop small
radio towers, leaving them prone to damage from lightning and extreme winds.
*Neighbourhood Internet Service Provider (NISP)
Satellite Internet access
* [http://dailywireless.org/ Daily Wireless] – Wireless ISP news
* [http://www.wispa.org/ WISPA] – WISPA, a trade association for WISP owner/operators
* [http://www.part-15.org PART-15] – a wireless organization for WISP's using unlicensed spectrum.
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