Mardavij


Mardavij

Mardāvīj (Persian: مرداویج, also spelled as Mardaviz, Mardavich, Mardavige, and Mardavaz; died 935), was the founder of the Ziyarids dynasty, who successfully defeated the Abbasid's army firstly in Hamadan (in the midwest of Iran), and finally in Kashan and Isfahan (the central cities of the country). On December 2, 931, Mardāvīj arrived in Isfahan, declared himself Amir of Iran[citation needed] and made Isfahan the capital of his kingdom.

Contents

Life

Although the exact birth-date of Mardāvīj is unknown, it is speculated that he was born around 890 when Amr-i Laith Saffari and Nasr I of Samanid ruled in Seistan and Khorasan respectively. Some reports say that his birthplace was in Daylaman (in northwestern Iran) or somewhere in Mazandaran (also known as Tabaristan at the time).

There is some evidence that indicates the Ziyarids belonged to the Arghich Clan (the "ivy" clan), who resided originally in Gilan. Mardavij was the son of Ziyar, and the grandson of Vardanshah Gili, a chief of the Arghich clan. Members of that clan were mostly known to be considered as warriors (in Persian: Dellavar) and the name of Mardavij which means 'A Man Who Fights Bravely' should have been popular. The religion of Ziyar and his family is not exactly known. Zoroastrianism, including heterodox branches such as the Mazdakite, the Zurvanite and Gayomardian, was still popular at his time. However, Mardavij was known to harbour Zoroastrian sympathies and may have practiced that religion. He expressed his wishes to see a return to the Empire of the Persians and Zoroastrianism, after ousting the Arabs and Islam.

Battles

Around 913 AD, Mardavij joined the army of Asfar Shiruyeh (ASF). Asfar, a native of Larijan and a devout Zoroastrian, claimed descent from Shiruyeh (also called as Kavadh II), the patricidal son and successor of Khosrau II or from Shahrbaraz, a Sassanian general and the usurper of the Sassanid throne for a short time who was succeeded by Queen"Pourandokht". http://www.iranian.ws/iran_news/publish/printer_9451.shtml. , the daughter of Khosrau II of Persia. His name, Asfar, was possibly derived from the Persian term of Asp-var, ("horseman" or "horse rider"). Asfar was a general in the service of Alavides who ruled Tabaristan at the time. During the Abbasid Caliphate, Alavides lived in the mountainous areas of Daylam and tried to resist the Abbasid Caliphs influence in Iran.[citation needed]

Later, Asfar took advantage of a rebellion in the Samanid army and seized power in Gurgan (presently called Golestan) in northern Iran. Asfar also took Amol, Ghazvin, Zanjan, and the city of Rey and appointed Mardavij as the governor of Zanjan. In 927, due to Asfar's increasingly erratic behavior, a powerful opposition emerged against him and the next year Mardavij joined this opposition, defeated Asfar, and took over Asfar's possessions. At this time, Mardavij officially founded the Ziyarid dynasty. Shortly after, Mardavij raised an army to encounter the Abbasid Caliph first in Hamadan and Kashan, and finally in Isfahan.

Agenda

On December 2, 931, Mardāvīj arrived in Isfahan, named himself the Amir of Iran and made Isfahan his capital. From the advent of Islam until Mardāvīj's arrival, Isfahan had been under the jurisdiction of the Arabs, and was favored by Mansur, one of the Abbassid Caliphs during his rule.

Once in Isfahan, Mardāvīj declared his ruling agenda and asked Iranians to help him to revive the Persian Empire and its Zoroastrian traditions.

The reliable evidence indicate that in February 932, after about three centuries, Mardāvīj and his court celebrated Sadeh in Isfahan and many Iranians observed Sadeh again.

Death

In 935, only four years after entering Isfahan, and shortly before Nowruz festivities, Mardavij was assassinated by his Turkish slaves, Tuzun and Bajkam who fled to Baghdad. After his assassination, the Buwayhid, a family of commanders in service of Mardavij, took over his possessions in central and southern Iran, while Mardvij's brother Vushmgir succeeded him in northern Iran.

Mardavij dome

Mardaviz Dome (Persian: Gonbad-e-Mardaviz), where the remains of his tomb is supposed to be, is located in the north east of Amin Abbad Borough in the city of Rey, south of Tehran.

Mardavij Avenue

Mardavij Avenue and Mardavij District (Persian: Mahalleh-e-Mardavij) can be also found in the south of Farabi Street in Isfahan.

Original Reference

External links

"Mardavij". http://www.yataahoo.com/Religion/History/mardavij.html. : An Article in Persian.

  • "The Warriors" (Persian: Daliraan-e-Jaanbaaz), edited by Dr. Zabihollah Safa.
Preceded by
None
Ziyarid amir
931935
Succeeded by
Vushmgir

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