5th millennium BC

5th millennium BC

The 5th millennium BC saw the spread of agriculture from the Near East throughout southern and central Europe.

Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourish, developing the wheel. Copper ornaments become more common, marking the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandry spreads throughout Eurasia, reaching China. World population grows slightly throughout the millennium, maybe from 5 to 7 million people.


*Vinča culture (6th to 3rd millennia)
*Linear Ceramic culture (6th to 5th millennia)
*Comb Ceramic culture (6th to 3rd millennia)
* Cucuteni culture in Central Europe.
*Ertebølle culture (5th to 3rd millennia)
*Cortaillod Culture
*Hembury culture
*The chalcolithic Sredny Stog, Samara and early Maykop cultures, candidates for the early Proto-Indo-Europeans
*Neolithic Europe
**Varna culture
**Cucuteni culture
**Megalithic culture
*4800 BC–4000 BCDimini culture replaces the Sesklo culture in Thessaly.
*Ubaid culture
*Predynastic Egypt
*c. 4570–4250 BCMerimde culture on the Nile.
*5000 BC–4500 BCGħar Dalam phase of Neolithic farmers on Malta, possibly immigrant farmers from the Agrigento region of Sicily.
*c. 4500 BC — the ending of Neolithic IA (the Aceramic) in Cyprus
*c. 4500 BC — Settlement of Chirokitia begins to date from this period.
*c. 4400–4000 BC — Badari culture on the Nile.
*c. 5000 BC — culture speaking a Proto-Austronesian language is based on the south coast of China. They combine extensive maritime technology, fishing with hooks and nets and gardening.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

*c. 5000 BCRice is cultivated in Southeast Asia. Later it is introduced in Ganges Valley.
*c. 5000 BCFarming reaches Atlantic coast of Europe from Ancient Near East.
*c. 5000 BC — Around this time Maize began to be cultivated in Mexico.Roberts, J: "History of the World." Penguin, 1994.]
* from ca. 5000 BC — development of proto-writing systems, possibly ideographic: Vinca script, Tartaria tablets.
* ca. 4500 BC — Introduction of the plough in Europe
* ca. 4000 BC — The earliest known metal artifacts are beaten copper pins found in Egypt that date from this time.
* Domestication of the Water Buffalo in China
* Development of beer brewing
* Development of the wheel in Mesopotamia and India
*4900 BC–4600 BC — arrangements of circular ditches are built in Central Europe.
*c. 4250 BC–3750 BCMenhir alignments at Menec, Carnac, France, are made.
*4200 BC — Date of Mesolithic examples of Naalebinding found in Denmark, marking spread of technology to Northern Europe. (Bender 1990)
*4100 BC–3500 BC — New wave of immigration to Malta from Sicily leads to the Żebbuġ and Mġarr phases, and to the Ġgantija phase of temple builders.

Environmental changes

*5000-4900 BC — The Older Peron transgression, a warm period that would dominate the 5th millennium, begins in this period.

Calendars and chronology

*4713 BC — The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero.
*4121 BCEduard Meyer's date for the creation of the Egyptian calendar, based on his calculations of the Sothic cycle.
*4004 BC — According to the chronology of Archbishop James Ussher of Armagh, this is when the universe is created at nightfall preceding October 23 .
*4300 BCTheta Boötis became the nearest visible star to the celestial north pole. It remained the closest until 3942 BC when it was replaced by Thuban.


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