- 5th millennium BC
The 5th millennium BC saw the spread of
agriculturefrom the Near East throughout southern and central Europe.
Urban cultures in
Mesopotamiaand Anatoliaflourish, developing the wheel. Copperornaments become more common, marking the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandryspreads throughout Eurasia, reaching China. World populationgrows slightly throughout the millennium, maybe from 5 to 7 million people.
Vinča culture(6th to 3rd millennia)
*Linear Ceramic culture (6th to 5th millennia)
Comb Ceramic culture(6th to 3rd millennia)
Cucuteni culturein Central Europe.
Ertebølle culture(5th to 3rd millennia)
chalcolithicSredny Stog, Samara and early Maykop cultures, candidates for the early Proto-Indo-Europeans
*4800 BC–4000 BC —
Diminiculture replaces the Seskloculture in Thessaly.
*c. 4570–4250 BC —
Merimdeculture on the Nile.
*5000 BC–4500 BC —
Għar Dalamphase of Neolithic farmers on Malta, possibly immigrant farmers from the Agrigentoregion of Sicily.
*c. 4500 BC — the ending of Neolithic IA (the Aceramic) in Cyprus
*c. 4500 BC — Settlement of
Chirokitiabegins to date from this period.
*c. 4400–4000 BC — Badari culture on the Nile.
*c. 5000 BC — culture speaking a
Proto-Austronesian languageis based on the south coast of China. They combine extensive maritime technology, fishing with hooks and nets and gardening.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
*c. 5000 BC —
Riceis cultivated in Southeast Asia. Later it is introduced in GangesValley.
*c. 5000 BC —
Farmingreaches Atlanticcoast of Europefrom Ancient Near East.
*c. 5000 BC — Around this time
Maizebegan to be cultivated in Mexico.Roberts, J: "History of the World." Penguin, 1994.]
* from ca. 5000 BC — development of proto-
writing systems, possibly ideographic: Vinca script, Tartaria tablets.
* ca. 4500 BC — Introduction of the
* ca. 4000 BC — The earliest known metal artifacts are beaten copper pins found in Egypt that date from this time.
* Domestication of the Water Buffalo in
* Development of
* Development of the
wheelin Mesopotamiaand India
*4900 BC–4600 BC — arrangements of
circular ditchesare built in Central Europe.
*c. 4250 BC–3750 BC —
Menhiralignments at Menec, Carnac, France, are made.
*4200 BC — Date of
Mesolithicexamples of Naalebindingfound in Denmark, marking spread of technology to Northern Europe. (Bender 1990)
*4100 BC–3500 BC — New wave of immigration to
Maltafrom Sicilyleads to the Żebbuġ and Mġarr phases, and to the Ġgantijaphase of temple builders.
*5000-4900 BC — The Older Peron transgression, a warm period that would dominate the 5th millennium, begins in this period.
Calendars and chronology
*4713 BC — The epoch (origin) of the
Julian Perioddescribed by Joseph Justus Scaligeroccurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero.
*4121 BC —
Eduard Meyer's date for the creation of the Egyptian calendar, based on his calculations of the Sothic cycle.
*4004 BC — According to the chronology of
Archbishop James Ussherof Armagh, this is when the universeis created at nightfall preceding October 23.
*4300 BC —
Theta Boötisbecame the nearest visible star to the celestial north pole. It remained the closest until 3942 BC when it was replaced by Thuban.
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