Applied mechanics


Applied mechanics

Applied mechanics is a branch of the physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics. Applied mechanics examines the "response of bodies (solids and fluids) or systems of bodies to external forces". Some examples of "mechanical systems" include the flow of a liquid under pressure, the fracture of a solid from an applied force, or the vibration of an ear in response to sound. A practitioner of the discipline is known as a mechanician.

Applied mechanics, as its name suggests, bridges the gap between physical theory and its application to technology. As such, applied mechanics is used in many fields of engineering, especially mechanical engineering. In this context, it is commonly referred to as engineering mechanics. Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be traced back to Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of modern engineering mechanics.

Within the theoretical sciences, applied mechanics is useful in formulating new ideas and theories, discovering and interpreting phenomena, and developing experimental and computational tools. In the application of the natural sciences, mechanics was said by the American Nobel Prize-winning chemist Gilbert N. Lewis and the American physical chemist Merle Randall to be complemented by thermodynamics, the study of heat and more generally energy, and electromechanics, the study of electricity and magnetism. ["Thermodynamics - and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances". Lewis, G. and M. Randall (1923)]

Mechanics in practice

As a scientific discipline, applied mechanics derives many of its principles and methods from the Physical sciences (in particular, Mechanics and Classical Mechanics), from Mathematics and, increasingly, from Computer Science. As such, Applied Mechanics shares similar methods, theories, and topics with Applied Physics, Applied Mathematics, and Computational Science.

As an enabling discipline, applied mechanics has received impetus from the study of natural phenomena such as orbits of planets, circulation of blood, locomotion of animals, crawling of cells, formation of mountains, and propagation of seismic waves. Such studies have resulted in disciplines such as celestial mechanics, biomechanics and geomechanics.

As a practical discipline, applied mechanics has also advanced by participating in major inventions throughout history, such as buildings, ships, automobiles, railways, petroleum refineries, engines, airplanes, nuclear reactors, composite materials, computers, and medical implants. In such connections, the discipline is also known as "Engineering Mechanics", often practiced within Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Construction Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Structural engineering and Bioengineering.

Applied mechanics in engineering

Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation (both elastic and plastic) of objects under known forces (also called loads) or stresses.

When treated as an area of study within a larger engineering curriculum, engineering mechanics can be subdivided into
*Statics, the study of non-moving bodies under known loads
*Dynamics (or kinetics), the study of how forces affect moving bodies
*Mechanics of materials or strength of materials, the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress
*Deformation mechanics, the study of deformations typically in the elastic range
*Fluid Mechanics, the study of how fluids react to forces. Note that fluid mechanics can be further split into fluid statics and fluid dynamics, and is itself a subdiscipline of continuum mechanics. The application of fluid mechanics in engineering is called hydraulics.
*Continuum mechanics is a method of applying mechanics that assumes that all objects are continuous. It is contrasted by mechanics and the finite element method.

Major topics of applied mechanics


* Acoustics
* Analytical mechanics
* Computational mechanics
* Contact mechanics
* Continuum mechanics
* Dynamics (mechanics)
* Elasticity (physics)
* Experimental mechanics
* Finite element method
* Fluid mechanics
* Fracture mechanics
* Mechanics of materials
* Mechanics of structures
* Plasticity
* Rotordynamics
* Solid mechanics
* Stress waves
* Viscoelasticity

Examples of applications

*Earthquake engineering

ee also


* Biomechanics
* Geomechanics
* Materials Science and Engineering
* Mechanical engineering
* Mechanicians
* Mechanics
* Physics
* Principle of moments
* Structural analysis
*Engineering
*Kinetics (physics)
*Kinematics
*Analytical mechanics
*Dynamics (physics)

Further reading

* S.P. Timoshenko, "History of Strength of Materials", Dover, New York, 1953.
* J.E. Gordon, "The New Science of Strong Materials", Princeton, 1984.
* H. Petroski, "To Engineer Is Human", St. Martins, 1985.
* T.A. McMahon and J.T. Bonner, "On Size and Life", Scientific American Library, W.H. Freeman, 1983.
* M.F. Ashby, "Materials Selection in Design", Pergamon, 1992.
* A.H. Cottrell, "Mechanical Properties of Matter", Wiley, New York, 1964.
* S.A. Wainwright, W.D. Biggs, J.D. Currey, J.M. Gosline, "Mechanical Design in Organisms", Edward Arnold, 1976.
* S. Vogel, "Comparative Biomechanics", Princeton, 2003.
* J. Howard, "Mechanics of Motor Proteins and the Cytoskeleton", Sinauer Associates, 2001.
* J.L. Meriam, L.G. Kraige. "Engineering Mechanics Volume 2: Dynamics", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1986.
* J.L. Meriam, L.G. Kraige. "Engineering Mechanics Volume 1: Statics", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1986.

External links

* [http://imechanica.org/ iMechanica] , the web of mechanics and mechanicians.
* [http://www.appliedmechanics.com/ Applied mechanics website]

Accredited academic programs

* [http://www.am.caltech.edu Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics at California Institute of Technology]
* [http://www.tam.cornell.edu/ Theoretical and Applied Mechanics at Cornell University]
* [http://www.tam.uiuc.edu/curriculum/BS/index.html Engineering Mechanics at University of Illinois]
* [http://apm.iitm.ac.in/ Applied Mechanics at Indian Institute of Technology Chennai]
* [http://www.aem.umn.edu Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics at University of Minnesota]
* [http://www.esm.psu.edu Engineering Mechanics at Pennsylvania State University]
* [http://www.ae.utexas.edu/ Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at University of Texas at Austin]
* [http://www.esm.vt.edu/ Engineering Mechanics at Virginia Tech]
* [http://www.engr.wisc.edu/ep/ema/ Engineering Mechanics and Astronautics at University of Wisconsin, Madison]
* [http://www.nmt.edu/~mecheng Mechanical Engineering at New Mexico Tech]
* [http://web.iitd.ac.in/~am/ Applied Mechanics at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India]

Professional organizations

* [http://coewww.rutgers.edu/aam/ American Academy of Mechanics]
* Applied Mechanics Division, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
* [http://www.engmechinstitute.org/index.html Engineering Mechanics Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (EMI)]
* [http://www.iutam.net/iutam/Organization/ International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics]
* [http://www7.nationalacademies.org/usnctam/index.html US National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics]

Professional publications

* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/704246/description#description Advances in Applied Mechanics]
* [http://scitation.aip.org/ASMEJournals/AMR/ Applied Mechanics Reviews]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/297/description?navopenmenu=-2 International Journal of Solids and Structures]
* [http://pubs.asce.org/journals/engineeringmechanics/ Journal of Engineering Mechanics]
* [http://jfm-www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/ Journal of Fluid Mechanics]
* [http://www.jomms.org Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures]
* [http://scitation.aip.org/ASMEJournals/AppliedMechanics/ Journal of Applied Mechanics]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/220/description#description Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505659/description#description Mechanics of Materials]
* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/374/description#description Mechanics Research Communications]
* [http://qjmam.oxfordjournals.org/ Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics]
* [http://www.springer.com/west/home?SGWID=4-102-70-35759614-0&changeHeader=true&SHORTCUT=www.springer.com/journal/11071 Nonlinear Dynamics]
* [http://www.sagepub.com/journalsProdEditBoards.nav?prodId=Journal201401 Journal of Vibration and Control]

References


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