:"In Australia, "interurban" is a general term for
intercity rail."An Interurban, also called a radial railway in parts of Canada, was a type of passengerrailroad that enjoyed widespread popularity at the turn of the twentieth century in North America. Interurbans were often extensions of streetcar lines running between urban areas or from urban to rural areas. The lines were mainly electrified in an era when steam railroads had not yet adopted electricity to any large degree. Most could not survive following the widespread adoption of the automobile Those that remained survived as commuter railroads or as freightshort lines.
History of Interurban Rail in North America
The first interurbans were constructed in the 1880s, following the successful development of the electric traction motor and controller by
Frank Sprague. States with numerous interurban lines were Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. States with less interurban density were Iowa, Utah, California, Texas, and Oklahoma. By 1900, just over convert|2100|mi|km of track had been laid. Mileage peaked in 1916 with over 15,500 miles. [Statistics from Table 6, Hilton and Due, "The Electric Interurban Railways in America", pp. 186-187.] Always requiring extensive operating capital for rolling stock, rolling stock maintenance and shops, track and right-of-way infrastructure maintenance, many employees, often an interurbans would go bankrupt and into receivership even during a good year. One bridge washout, wreck, fire, strike, or dispute with a village or town over track issues and costs could cause bankruptcy. Beginning around the end of the First World War,the industry began a decline. This was accelerated in the 1920s by the growth in automobile ownership combined with state construction of durable concrete highways. Often these highways paralleled the interurban lines. The Great Depressionfinally drove most interurbans into bankruptcy in the early 1930s. A few survived into the 1950s and a very few survived to the 1960s. The ones that survived tended to be lines that had become commuter systems to large cities like Chicago's North Shore, South Shore, and Chicago Aurora and Elgin lines or had developed an unusually strong freight business. To minimize cost of construction, an interurban typically ran along public right-of-way, either next to a public highway in rural areas, or on city streets in urban areas. Usually when an interurban was first constructed, the adjacent highway was unpaved and became bottomless mud during wet periods and winter. Horses would struggle to move carts and wagons. The interurban was the only reliable means from farm to town both for people as well as some freight, such as farm produce and fresh milk. It was somewhat less common for interurbans to have lengthy stretches of private right-of-way. Occasionally interurbans were operated adjacent to mainline steam railroads. Fares were cheaper than steam railroads, and service was more frequent but typically slower. Due to the characteristics of the electric motor, interurbans could operate on steeper grades, going where steam engines could not.
With the demise of the interurban, many routes were taken over by intercity bus services. Most local intercity services have since been discontinued; buses now typically run express between cities. A few interurbans, built to rather high standards, have survived, as have several that still operate only freight service, but the vast majority are long abandoned. Probably the closest present day trolley line resembling a 1920's interurban with city to countryside to small town, side of road, hill and dale operation is the present day broad gauge Upper Darby to Media 100 year old former Red Arrow line of Philadelphia's SEPTA system. The last third of the Media line becomes single track private right-of-way with sidings. The cars move rapidly with a few "flag" stops into and out of wooded ravines, over bridges, and along creek beds to emerge into Media Borough where it runs down the center of Media's main commercial street, State Street. In the early 1900s, this was the Philadelphia and Westchester. It operated all wood arch window heavy interurban cars typical of equipment used nation wide at the time.
Definition Of "Interurban"
Real-world lines fit on a continuum between wholly urban
street railways and full-fledged railroads. George W. Hilton and John F. Due, in "The Electric Interurban Railways in America", define an interurban as a system which shares most or all of four characteristics:
* Electric power
* Passenger service as primary emphasis
* Heavier, faster equipment than urban streetcars
* Operated on street trackage in cities but on roadside tracks or private rights-of-way in rural areas
The definition of "interurban" is necessarily blurry. Some streetcar systems evolved partly into interurban systems with extensions or acquisitions, while other interurban lines became, effectively,
light railsystems with no street running whatsoever, or became primarily freight-hauling railroads with a progressive loss of passenger service.
Another distinction is made between "interurban" and "suburban". A suburban system is oriented toward a particular city center in a single urban area, serving primarily commuters who live in the suburbs of a city. An interurban is more like a regular railroad local train service, moving people from one city center to another with no single center. However, unlike a local train, the interurban serves a smaller region and has more frequent service, and is oriented to passenger rather than freight service, although some small-load freight service was common, especially in the days before trucks (lorries).
In general, interurbans operated with technology somewhere between that of a streetcar line and a full-scale railroad. The vast majority of interurbans were electrified, utilizing simply strung overhead wire, or, on heavily trafficked high speed lines, the more complicated wiring system known as catenary. In either case, power was transferred from the wire to the locomotive (in the case of an interurban freight line) or interurban passenger car by way of a
trolley poleor pantograph. Many interurbans transferred electricity to the trains by way of a third railrunning parallel to, and outside of, the rails when running on private right-of-way while overhead supply was used elsewhere, notably in built up areas (i.e. Sacramento Northern Railway, and Chicago, Aurora and Elgin Railroad). Power was transferred to the train using a "shoe" attached to the locomotive or car. Engineers working for Michigan United Railwaysdevised a shoe with steel cutters which could remove ice from the tracks. [Jackson (1914), 102.]
Most interurban railways in North America were electrified using low-voltage
direct currentsystems popular with street railways. [For information on electrification, see Hilton and Due, pp. 53-65.] This enabled interurbans to use urban street railway systems with ease. However, these systems had difficulty in maintaining voltage over long distances. Thus, interurbans developed the practice of generating power at higher voltages and stepping down power to the 600 volts needed to power the cars at substations spaced out along the line. By 1905, 600 volts had become the industry-wide standard.
The interurbans also had to develop their own powerhouses for electricity as there were few commercial power companies in existence at the time. Some of these steam driven power generation houses produced high-voltage AC power that would be stepped-down and converted to DC at the substations using what was called a "rotary converter." The rotary converter was an AC motor driving a DC generator. Because of owning a power house, many interurban railway companies became electric companies to their local regions.
Most power was distributed to the cars using overhead trolley wires or pantographs. Some companies preferred outside
third rail. Third rail was cheaper to maintain and improved conductivity, but it was more expensive to construct as it did not mitigate the construction of transmission lines and poles. Third rail was also more dangerous to trespassers and animals. Also, in the winter, third rails were difficult to keep clear of ice.
In 1904, a single-phase
alternating currentsystem became available and was distributed by Westinghouse and General Electric. But the system soon proved expensive to maintain and operate, and it increased wear and tear on equipment and track. It was a short-lived experiment and none were installed after 1910.
Another experiment in electrification came in 1907 with high-voltage DC (1200 volts). This system was allowed for easy conversion from other DC systems and was cheaper to maintain. But it was developed so late that few railways adopted it.
Most interurbans were built to
standard gauge, but there were a fair number of exceptions. Interurbans often used the tracks of existing street railways through city streets, and when those street railways were not built to standard gauge, the interurbans had to use non-standard gauges as well or face the expense of building their own trackage through urban areas. Many municipalities had ordained the use of non-standard gauges so that railroad freight cars could never be switched onto public streets.
* See 5 ft 4frac|1|2 in, 5 ft 2frac|1|2in and 5 ft 2frac|1|4in (1638 mm, 1588 mm & 1581 mm) In the Czech Republic, the Liberec-Jablonecinterurban runs on metre-gauge track.
Those interurbans carrying freight were typically the last to disappear. The Insull lines focus on freight allowed freight revenues to subsidize money losing passenger operations. Most of the smaller interurbans only carried LCL freight in box motors, while the bigger interurbans carried car load freight. The North Shore was an early adopter of TOFC trains, and the South Shore operated three 800-class "Little Joe" electric locomotives. Not only were these locomotives large for an interurban, they were some of the most powerful and large locomotives ever made for any railroad. Typical interurban freight operations, when not hauled in LCL fashion, were hauled behind box-cab or steeple-cab motors, with a footprint dimension similar to a GE 80-tonner diesel. Some interurbans had an auxiliary battery power system on their locomotives for operation on un-wired spurs.
In the late 1890s,
electrifiedsystems called streetcars, which had been developed by Frank Sprague, expanded rapidly. By 1900, just over convert|2100|mi|km of track had been laid, and by 1916, at their peak, over convert|15500|mi|km were in service. Most of the interurban track that had been laid was located in Ohioand Indiana; both states had convert|3000|mi|km of track. In Michiganand Illinoisthere was another convert|2000|mi|km of track which was interconnected. In Texasand in California, thousands of miles of additional track was also laid down by different companies. The first Interurban in Texas was the Denison and Sherman Railway, completed in 1901. In central Virginia, interurban lines connected City Point and Hopewell with Petersburg, and Petersburg with Richmond. Another connected Richmond with Ashland.
In the early 1900s, interurban transportation was very popular in both rural areas and cities. Although slower in speed than steam driven passenger trains, the interurban system made up for speed by increased frequency of service. After 1910, the popularity of the
Ford Model T automobilebegan to diminish the interurban passenger load, and during the 1920s, many interurban systems were declared bankrupt. Many were also bought out in the Great American Streetcar Scandaland deliberately destroyed. As a result of this shift in transportation methods, the small and unprofitable lines were discontinued. By the 1930s, most of the interurbans had disappear, although some of their rail lines were taken over for the use of freight drawn by steam engines. Most were replaced with buses. By the 1960s, very few lines remained; the Pacific Electric Railwayin Californiawas abandoned in 1961, and the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railroadnear Chicago in 1963.
Few historic interurban lines are still operated in their original form, although a number of more recently-constructed transit lines could be considered interurbans by Hilton and Due's standards above.
*The South Shore Electric Line running from
Millennium Stationin Chicagoto South Bend, Indianais the successor of the passenger operations of the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad, part of Samuel Insull's once-great interurban empire. The line now serves commuters to Chicago from the suburbs of Northwest Indiana. It still includes a street running section (i.e. track running directly on city street without separation) in Michigan City, Indiana, but has evolved into many characteristics of a commuter rail operation, including sharing the trackage of the Metra Electric Line(formerly the Illinois Central Railroad) into downtown Chicago.
Chicago Transit Authority's Yellow Line, otherwise known as the Skokie Swift, is the southernmost five miles (8 km) of the Chicago North Shore & Milwaukee's 1924 high speed Skokie Valley Route. The North Shore was also part of Samuel Insull's interurban empire.
Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority's SEPTA Route 100(also known as the "Norristown High Speed Line") operates over the old Philadelphia and Western Railroad's Norristown, Pennsylvanialine. The line has full grade separation, third rail electrification and high platforms, characteristic of rapid transitsystems but uses smaller cars with on-board fare collection, like light railsystems.
*In Los Angeles, the
LACMTA Blue Lineuses much trackage that was the Pacific Electric's route between Los Angeles and Long Beach. There is street trackage at both the Long Beach and Los Angeles ends of the line, and a short subway section at the Los Angeles terminus.
Other lines that have some characteristics of an interurban include:
SEPTA Routes 101 and 102Media and Sharon Hill lines, operating as light railservice mostly on dedicated rights of way but with some street trackage.
Green Line "D" Branchin Boston, a streetcar line on a grade-separated right-of-way formerly belonging to the Boston and Albany Railroad, a steam railroad
Ashmont-Mattapan High Speed Linein Boston, a streetcar line on a right-of-way formerly belonging to the Dorchester and Milton Branch Railroad, a steam railroad
IRT Dyre Avenue Linein New York City, a rapid transitline on a section of the former New York, Westchester and Boston Railway, an interurban.
Iowa Traction Railroad(former Mason City and Clear Lake Railway) still operates electric freight service.
*Several former interurbans, such as the
Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railwayand Central California Traction Companynow operate their trackage as diesellocomotive powered freight lines. The Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad also cotinues to operate freight service along the passenger South Shore Line.
Other portions of interurbans remain in service as parts of regular freight-hauling railroads; for instance, portions of the
Sacramento Northern Railwaywere operated by the Union Pacific Railroad. The longest surviving portion of the Sacramento Northern is now owned by the Sierra Northern Railroad. Most of the Tidewater Southern Railwayis still operated by the Union Pacific. Another California interurban company, the Central California Traction Company, still operates diesel freight service on its one-time electric line between Stockton and Lodi.
In 1887 the St. Catharines and Niagara Central Railway, the first interurban line in the world, started operations. It ran between St. Catharines and
Thorold, Ontario, Canada. Not only was this the first interurban line in the world, but it was also one of the first commercially successful implementations of electric streetcars in the world.
Ontario, intercity streetcar lines were called radial railways, because their routes generally radiated from a central city. The longest routes from Torontoincluded one running to Lake Simcoeand another to Guelph. A portion of one of these lines is preserved and plays host to a working museum of streetcars and other transit vehicles at the Halton County Radial Railwayin Milton. A notable feature of Toronto's radial railways was that because the city streetcar tracks of the Toronto Railway Company(later taken over by the Toronto Transportation Commission) were built to a wider gauge (which is still used to this day), radial cars from the outlying areas could not pass the city limits, requiring passengers to change trains.
Some of the closer sections of Toronto's radial railways were assimilated into the city's streetcar network, and with the city's expansion, some communities once linked by radial railway now have relatively central stations on the Toronto subway. On a regional level,
GO Transit's commuter railway network is designed on a similar radial principle, though it uses much heavier-capacity mainline trains.
There were also significant radial systems operating from Hamilton, St. Catharines, Windsor, and throughout the Grand River Valley, the last of which may see a revival should
Grand River Transitobtain funding to build a light railway between Waterloo, Kitchener, and eventually Cambridge, running partially on the tracks of the former Grand River Railway. Hamilton and the Niagara Region are also investigating the possibility of reviving former interurban railway routes as modern light rail.
British Columbia, five interurban lines were operated by the British Columbia Electric RailwayCompany. The private right-of-way of the Central Park line, between Commercial Drive in Vancouverand New Westminster, is now used by the SkyTrain's Expo Line. The Fraser ValleyLine became the British Columbia Hydro Railway when BC Electric was nationalized in the 1960s; it was later privatized and is now the Southern Railway of British Columbia, a local shortline freight railway. The BCER also operated interuban trains between Vancouverand Marpole, and between Marpole, Stevestonand New Westminsteron the Vancouver and Lulu Island Railway, which it leased from Canadian Pacific. This railway is also known as Arbutus Corridor route. Likewise, the Millennium Lineof the SkyTrain connects the same communities as the former Burnaby Lake Line; however, the new SkyTrain line does not follow the original right-of-way, which is now the route of Highway 1 through Burnaby. The fifth BCER interurban connected Victoria and Patricia Bayon the Saanich Peninsula. Its right-of-way is commemorated by Interurban Road in Saanich.
Quebec, the Montreal and Southern Counties Railwayoperated electric interurban lines from central Montrealacross the St. Lawrence Seawayto Longueuiland Granbyfrom 1909 to 1956.
Nova Scotia, the Cape Breton Electric RCompanyoperated interurban services between Sydney, Glace Bay and New Waterford from 1901 to 1947, and the Pictou County Electric Companyoperated interurban services between the five towns of Pictou County from 1904 to 1931.
In the first decade of the 20th century, Canadian investors purchased the
Mexico City tramoperator "Compañía de Tranvías de México", and attempted to create an interurban radial-railway system on the Canadian model, beginning work on lines that were intended to reach Tolucaand Puebla. Typical US style interurban electric cars built by the St. Louis Car Companywere imported for the service. Expenses due to Mexico's difficult terrain and political instability that culminated in the Mexican Revolutioncombined to end this project although lines were completed as far as La Venta and Tulyehualcoand a popular suburban line was built to San Angel and Coyoacán. [cite web| url=http://www.tramz.com/mx/mc/mc20.html| title=The Tramways of Mexico City; Part 2: Early Electrics| author=Morrison, Allen| work=The Tramways of Mexico| accessdate=2008-02-29| ] A portion of the ex-Puebla line operates today as the Xochimilco Light Railsystem. Another Mexican system that would have been considered of an interurban type was the Playa Miramar high-speed line in Tampico.
The Mexican state of
Yucatanhad approximately 1,500 kilometers of interurban tramway network, mostly narrow gauge and either animal powered (mule or horsecars) or gasoline powered. [cite web| url=http://www.tramz.com/mx/yu/yu30.html| title=The Tramways of Yucatán; Part 2: Intercity Lines| author=Morrison, Allen| work=The Tramways of Mexico| accessdate=2008-02-29| ]
The Hershey train is an electrified train from
Havanato Matanzasthat was built by the Hershey Companyin order to facilitate transport of workers and products after it had bought sugar plantations in 1916. It is a commuter service running in northern Havana and Matanzas provinces, some original equipment still exists.
In Europe, lines that fit the interurban definition were rare historically. A whole large interurban system in continuous service exists however since 1894 at
Upper Silesiain Germany connecting cities and towns of this densely populated region (See Silesian Interurbansfor more information). More common were either wholly urban, street-running tramsystems or light railsystems operating wholly on dedicated rights of way. See tram-trainfor information about modern European systems running on the streets in cities but on railway lines outside them.
The Netherlands used to have an extensive "tram-system" that came very close to the American-style interurban. The standard gauge NZH trams in the area between
The Hague, Leidenand Haarlemwere fairly big electric trams running on 1200 volt with in-street running in towns and quite a lot of private right-of-way outside towns. Especially the " Budapester" trams (see picture) resembled American interurban cars. A typical tram was made up by coupling a motorised unit (A400 or A500 series) with one or two trailors (B400/B500). In common with American practice the NZH also had local streetcar lines in The Hague, Leiden and Haarlem sharing some of the track with the interurban routes. Power supply was entirely by overhead wire. Although there was a connection between tram and train tracks in Leiden it was not possible to convey railway cars on NZH track due to differing track and wheel geometry, curve radius and loading gauge. The A/B600 series of twin-cars, built around 1930, resembles those of Oaklands Key System'Bridge Units' built slightly later.
Part of the NZH system was built to metre-gauge. In the nineteentwenties the same "Budapester" interurbans were bought for use here (with narrower wheel-sets of course). It was envisioned that some of this track would be converted to standard gauge at a later date but the axe fell before this could occur. Because the terminus of one of these lines was in the centre of Amsterdam (where the streetcars use standard gauge) some three-rail track (combined standard/narrow gauge) existed there. Long after the demise of the NZH-interurbans the tree-rail track was still present in some streets with interesting pointwork where streets crossed.
Nowadays few lines remain, one of which is Line 1 of HTM, running from
Scheveningento Delft. NZH turned into a bus company and in 1999 was taken over by Connexxion. However Connexxion also runs the light-rail line from Utrecht to Nieuwegein that was built around 1980 but has roots in the steam-tram era. In addition, until 2006 Nederlandse Spoorwegenran two regional lines between The Hague and Rotterdam Hofplein/Zoetemeer as a train (heavy-rail) service, and these were then changed into Randstadrail, a concept similar to the old interurbans. Interestingly this "Hofplein-line" started early 20th century as a separate company (ZHESM) modelled after the American style interurbans (running fully electric multiple-unit trains right from the start) but was included into the nationalised rail system later on.
Belgian Coast Tram, which has been in service since 1885, is a notable example of interurban tramway which survives to this day. With 70 stations along its 68-kilometre line, connecting the cities and towns along the entire Belgian ( West Flanders) coastline, it is the longest tram line in the world.
Two interurban lines exist, both connected to city street car systems, the Liberec-Jablonec line and the Most-Litvinov line. The Liberec-Jablonec line is notable for being metre-gauge.
In Germany, Interurbans that fit the whole definition were uncommon. However, in many instances the definition is almost met.
One of these cases are the many early sondary (connecting) railway lines that were built in the onset of the 20th century. Many of them were street-running in urban and suburban areas while using a dedicated right of way in less populated areas. Those lines were usually operated with mainline stock, however very few were electrified. Most of them have disappeared or were moved onto a fully dedicated right of way due to increasing street traffic and safety concerns. One of the few such railway lines still in service is the steam operated narrow-gauge
Mollitrain between Bad Doberanand KühlungsbornWest on the shore of the Baltic Seain the north-eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommernwhich is street-running inside Bad Doberan and has its own right of way on the rest of the line.
Another not uncommon case are interurban tramways. Germany has numerous areas where several larger cities are clustered together, and there were always places not served by mainline railway lines. Often urban tramways companies jumped at the opportunity and built over-land tramway lines, sometimes linking two existing tramway networks together. Those lines were run with standard tramway cars.
After World War II these Interurban tramways were modernised and now dubbed
Stadtbahn. All of them are street-running in city areas and use a dedicated right of way between cities, and all of them are electrified. Rolling stock used is either standard tramway cars or special heavier cars which still qualify for tramway use in street-running lines as regulated in BOStrab. Generally, the stadtbahn systems fit the definition of an interurban once their network leaves city boundaries.
One particularily large effort was the Stadtbahn Rhein-Ruhr which was meant to grow to a length of 300 km (180 miles), spanning over 10 cities of the
Ruhrgebietindustial area, building upon already existing interurban and urban tramway lines. Although those plans were later abandoned due to exploding costs, 17 Stadtbahn lines between Krefeldin the west and Dortmundin the east were finished and today one can travel from Krefeld to Bochumwithout using a single mainline train. The only link missing is between Bochum and Dortmund.
Isle Of Man
Manx Electric Railwaysurvives after over 100 years of service using mainly original equipment. It links Douglaswith Ramsey. The Snaefell Mountain Railwaylinks the M.E.R with the summit of Snaefellthe highest hill on the island.
Influence of US
In Japan, no clear distinction of the interurban from the ordinal heavy rail has been settled, but most of the major private railway companies, which now play important role in public transportation, had been influenced greatly by the systems of U.S. interurbans, such as motors and controllers of
General Electric, Westinghouse Electric, air brakes of Westinghouse Air Brake Company, trucks of J. G. Brill and Companyand Baldwin Locomotive Works, just to name some.
The first interurban in Japan was the
Hanshin Electric Railway's main line which opened in 1905 between Osakaand Kobe. In the Greater Tokyoarea in the same year, the present Keihin Electric Express Railway(Keikyū) extended its main line to the station of Kanagawa in Yokohama, to connect Tokyo. The followers of this earlier period were Keihan Electric Railway's main line between Kyotoand Osaka in 1910, Nagoya Electric Railway (present Nagoya Railroad) in Nagoya to surrounding towns such as Inuyama (present Inuyama Line) and Tsushima (Tsushima Line). The latter had operated throuh to the center of Nagoya via streetcar line, though the former had planned so in Osaka but the administrating authority refused.
The second boom of Japanese interurban were in 1920s to 1930s, unlike the counterparts in the US that declined in this period. The difference of the countries is the motorization, in Japan until 1960s private automobile was not common. The operators of this generations built their exclusive tracks with heavier rail (e.g. 100 lb. per yard), less curves and rarely laid tracks on roads.
In Kansai region mostly from Osaka
*Kobe Line of Hankyū Electric Railway (present
*: competing Hanshin's Main Line in the same region
*Kobe - Himeji Electric Railway
*:western half of the main line of present
Sanyo Electric Railwayconnecting Akashi and Himeji
*:concurrent to Keihan, later transferred to Hankyū
*Hanwa Electric Railway
*:later merged to the governmental network under wartime condition, presently
*Osaka Electric Tramway's main line (present
*Nara Electric Railway's line (presently Kintetsu)
*:Kyoto and Nara
*Sangū Kyūkō Electric Railway
*:Together with Osaka Electric Tramway line, from Osaka to Ise, exceeding 100km in distanceIn Tokyo
Tbu Railway' Nikk Line
*:preceding main line Isesaki Line applied sterm traction, but a long branch to
Nikkwas built electrified, more than 100km from terminus Asakusain Tokyo on the main line.
*Odawara Express Railway's main line (present
Keisei Electric Railway's main line
*:to NaritaIn other regions
*Aichi Electric Railway's main line (eastern half of present
Nagoya Railroad's Nagoya Main Line)
*:Nagoya to Toyohashi
*Kyūshū Railway (2nd) (present Tenjin-muta Line of
*Fukuoka to muta
Japanese post-war economic miracle(1955-1975), rapid urbanizations increased the traffic and required the capacity expansion. Descendants of interurbans also extend the length of trains. presently, especially in and around Tokyo, companies such as Keikyū, Tōbu, Odakyū operate trains of 200 m length.
See the ((List of Interurbans,)) some of which have their own WIKIPEDIA sites.
*cite book| title=Electric Car Maintenance: Selected from the Electric Railway Journal | last=Jackson | first=Walter | publisher= McGraw-Hill | year=1914 | url=http://books.google.com/books?id=kXg5AAAAMAAJ
* cite book| title=Time of the Trolley= Wm D Middleton, Kalmbach Publishing.
* cite book| title=Pennsylvania Trolleys in Color, Volumes 1,2,3,4= by Volkmer and King 2003.= Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains,NJ.
List of interurbans
Box motor- an interurban car for freight transport
Steeplecab- a style of electric locomotivepopular on interurbans for freight service
Boxcab- another style of electric locomotive
Tram- Trolleys, street cars, and others
Light rail- light railway transportation in general, as opposed to "heavy" fright and passenger trains
* [http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/railway/trolley.htm Interurbans: The technology of economical local transport in the United States]
* [http://crookedlakereview.com/articles/34_66/52july1992/52koch.html Interurban Electric Trolley Cars] by Robert G. Koch
* [http://22.214.171.124/index.html Dave's Electric Railroads] , a collection of electric railroad, interurban, and streetcar photography from many eras
* [http://members.tripod.com/~kinser_11/utc.html Principle (sic) Interurban Car builders of the U.S]
* [http://www.bera.org/pnaerc.html Roster of Preserved North American Electric Railway Cars]
* [http://web.presby.edu/~jtbell/transit/last-interurbans.html The Last Interurbans]
* [http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/EE/eqe12.html Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "Electric Interurban Railways" (accessed March 31, 2007)]
* [http://people.ku.edu/~dunville/ South Shore Line Photos] "The last interurban"
* [http://people.virginia.edu/~ggg9y/ Sacramento Northern Online] "History of the Sacramento Northern Railway (Very extensive Interurban in the San Francisco / Sacramento area)"
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
interurban — INTERURBÁN, Ă, interurbani, e, adj. Care are loc între două sau mai multe oraşe; care leagă două sau mai multe oraşe; care este situat între două sau mai multe oraşe; care serveşte mai multe localităţi. ♦ (Substantivat, n.) Telefon care… … Dicționar Român
interurban — ☆ interurban [in΄tərʉr′bən ] adj. [ INTER + URBAN] between cities or towns [an interurban train] n. an interurban railway, train, etc … English World dictionary
Interurban — In ter*ur ban ([i^]n t[ e]r*[^u]r ban), a. Going between, or connecting, cities or towns; as, interurban electric railways. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
interurban — 1883, from INTER (Cf. inter ) + URBAN (Cf. urban) … Etymology dictionary
interurban — interùrbān prid. <odr. ī> DEFINICIJA međugradski, međumjesni [interurbana veza] ETIMOLOGIJA inter 1 + lat. urbanus: gradski … Hrvatski jezični portal
Interurban — South Shore Zug in den Straßen von Michigan City, 2002. Interurban ist eine Bezeichnung aus dem englischsprachigen Raum für eine (Schienen)Verkehrsverbindung zwischen städtisch geprägten Gebieten. In Amerika versteht man darunter eine Mischform… … Deutsch Wikipedia
interurban — “+ adjective Etymology: inter + urban : going between or connecting cities or towns interurban electric railways interurban buses … Useful english dictionary
interurban — See interurban railroad … Ballentine's law dictionary
interurban — /in teuhr err beuhn/, adj. 1. of, located in, or operating between two or more cities or towns. n. 2. a train, bus, etc., or a transportation system operating between cities. [1880 85, Amer.; INTER + URBAN] * * * … Universalium
interurban — adjective Of, pertaining to, involving or joining two or more urban centres … Wiktionary