List of introduced species


List of introduced species

A complete List of introduced species for even quite small areas of the world would be dauntingly long. Humans have introduced more different species to new environments than any single document can hope to record. The following list of introduced species, in other words, is hopelessly incomplete.

Australia

Australia has a huge range of introduced species, so sub-classifications are necessary:

* "Invasive" - species has a tendency to spread their range into new areas
* "Ferals" - defined as animals for domestic purposes (ie. pets or Beasts of Burden) which have gone wild.
* "Pests" - animals which have a direct effect on human standard of living or the environment/ecosystems in areas where they are present, have a high rate of reproduction and are difficult to control

;Vertebrates

* Brown hare
* Common starling
* Mallard
* Feral Pigeon
* Nutmeg mannikin
* Brown trout
* Mosquitofish
* Western honeybee
* Allamanda - "Allamanda cathartica" from South America
* Dromedary
* Red imported fire ant from South America via North America
* Patterson's Curse
* Deer from Europe
* Domestic Asian Water buffalo
* House Cat
* Horse
* Dog
* Dingo can also be considered native
* Black rat
* Brown rat
* Polynesian rat
* European Goldfinch

;other introduced species

British Isles

"See also Invasive species in the British Isles"

Mammals

* Brown Rat
* Black Rat
* House Mouse
* Grey squirrel from North America
* Edible dormouse from Europe
* Coypu from South America (subsequently eradicated)
* European Rabbit from continental Europe
* American mink
* Red-necked wallaby from Australia
* Feral goat
* Reeves's Muntjac deer from China
* Fallow deer from continental Europe
* Sika deer from Asia
* Chinese water deer from China

Birds

"See "
* Ruddy Duck from America
* Mandarin Duck from Asia
* Little Owl from mainland Europe
* Rose-ringed Parakeet from Asia
* Red-legged Partridge
* Golden Pheasant from Asia
* Lady Amherst's Pheasant
* Common Pheasant
* Canada Goose

Fish

* Zander
* Wels catfish
* Rainbow trout
* cocopolo
* Bitterling
* packerina

Amphibians

* Alpine Newt
* Midwife Toad
* Yellow-bellied Toad
* Marsh Frog
* Edible Frog
* American bullfrog (not established)

Reptiles

* European pond terrapin
* Wall lizard

Crustaceans

* Signal crayfish
* Chinese mitten crab
* Darwin's barnacle

Insects

Butterflies and moths

* Large Chequered Skipper butterfly from continental Europe to Channel Islands (subsequently lost)
* Large Copper butterfly "Lycaena dispar rutilus" from Continental Europe (subsequently lost)
* Large Copper butterfly "Lycaena dispar batavus" from The Netherlands (subsequently lost)
* Large Blue butterfly from Sweden
* Geranium Bronze butterfly from South Africa via Southern Europe on geranium (not established)
* Map butterfly (subsequently eradicated)
* "Psychoides filicivora" moth from the Far East
* Azalea Leaf Miner moth from East Asia
* "Argyresthia cupressella" moth from United States
* Brown House Moth from Asia
* "Tachystola acroxantha" moth from Australia
* "Coleotechnites piceaella" moth from United States
* Cotoneaster Webworm moth from United States
* "Blastobasis lignea" moth
* "Blastobasis lacticlella" moth
* "Adoxophyles oporana" moth
* Carnation Tortrix
* Light Brown Apple Moth "Epiphyas postvittana" from Australia
* Codling Moth

Ants

* Pharaoh ant from United States
* List of non-endemic ant species introduced to Great Britain

Plants

* Japanese knotweed
* Oxford ragwort
* Hottentot fig
* Fox and cubs
* Jewelweed
* Giant Hogweed
* American Willow herb
* Evening primrose
* Water fern
* Autumnal crocus
* Pigmy weed
* Least duckweed
* Canadian Pond Weed
* Bermuda buttercup
* Guernsey fleabane
* Rhododendron
* floating pennywort
* Purple dewplant
* Himalayan Balsam
* Common Field speedwell
* Purple pitcher

Hawaiian Islands

"See also Canoe Plants"

Birds

* see List of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands

New Zealand

"See also: Invasive species in New Zealand"

Mammals

* Common Brushtail Possum from Australia
* Cat from Europe
* Deer:
** Elk (Wapiti) from USA
** Red Deer from Europe
** Sika deer from Asia
* Dog from Pacific islands and Europe
* Donkeys: the Ponui donkey from Europe
* Cattle from Europe

* Ferret from Europe
* Goat from Europe
* Hare from Europe
* Horse from Europe
* Hedgehog from Europe
* Himalayan tahr from Himalaya
* Human from Europe and Polynesia
* Moose from Canada
* Pig
* Rabbit from Europe
* Rats:
** Brown rat and Black rat from Europe
** Pacific rat (kiore) from Pacific islands
* Sheep from Europe
* Stoat from Europe
* Wallabies: Brush-tailed Rock Wallaby and others from Australia
* Weasel from Europe

Birds

* Blackbird from Europe
* Dunnock (Hedge sparrow or hedge accentor) from Europe
* Magpie from Australia
* Mallard
* Common myna from India
* Starling from Europe
* Common pheasant from Asia
* Quail

Fish

* Brown trout
* Salmon
* Catfish
* Grass carp

Insects

* Monarch butterfly from USA
* Common housefly from Europe
* Honey bee from Europe

Plants

Up to 26,000 plants have been introduced into New Zealand. This list is a few of the more common and more invasive species.

* Gorse from Scotland
* (Common) Broom ("Cytisus scoparius")
* Blackberry
* Lupin
* Ragwort
* Scotch thistle
* Californian thistle ("Cirsium arvense")
* Mistflower
* Kahili ginger ("Zingiber officinale")
* Japanese honeysuckle
* Old man's beard

North America

Mammals

* Donkey from Africa
* Cattle from Europe
* Sheep from Asia
* Cat from Africa/Europe
* Norway Rat from Europe
* Swine from Europe
* Goat from Africa
* Horse from Europe
* Nutria or coypu from South America
* Nilgai from India
* Sika deer from Asia
* Barbary Sheep from Africa

Birds

*Chukar from Europe
*Eurasian Collared-Dove from Europe
*Eurasian Tree Sparrow from Europe
*European Starling from Europe
*Gray Partridge from Europe
*Himalayan Snowcock from Asia
*House Sparrow from Europe
*Monk Parakeet from South America
*Muscovy Duck
*Mute Swan from Europe
*Ring-necked Pheasant from Asia and Europe
*Rock Dove from Europe

Reptiles & Amphibians

*Brown Anole
*Wall lizard from Italy in the 1950s
*Madagascan Giant Day Gecko
*Spectacled Caiman
*Green and Black Poison Dart Frog
*African Clawed Frog
*African Redhead Agama
*Giant Ameiva
*Hispaniolan Green Anole
*Puerto Rican Crested Anole
*Largehead Anole
*Bark Anole
*Knight Anole
*Barbados Anole
*Marie Gallant Sail-tailed Anole
*Cuban Green Anole
*Jamaican Giant Anole
*Brown Basilisk
*Green Basilisk
*Indochinese Tree Agama
*Oriental Garden Lizard
*Veiled Chameleon
*Rainbow Lizard
*Giant Whiptail
*Asian Flattail House Gecko
*Mexican Spinytail Iguana
*Black Spinytail Iguana
*Tokay Gecko
*Yellowhead Gecko
*Tropical house gecko
*House Gecko
*Mediterranean Gecko
*Indo-Pacific Gecko
*Green Iguana
*Northern Curlytail Lizard
*Green-legged Curlytail Lizard
*Red-sided Curlytail Lizard
*Butterfly Lizard
*Many-lined Grass Skink
*Bibron's gecko
*Ocellated Gecko
*Ashy Gecko
*White-spotted Wall Gecko
*Moorish Wall Gecko
*Nile Monitor
*Javan Filesnake
*Boa Constrictor
*Burmese Python
*Brahminy Blind Snake
*Brown tree snake

Fish

* Round goby from Eurasia
* Eurasian ruffe from Eurasia
* Common carp from Europe
* Cherry barb from Sri Lanka
* Bighead carp from China
* Silver carp from Asia
* Sea lamprey, introduced into the Great Lakes through the Welland canal c.1921
* Snakehead from China
* Tubenose goby from Europe

Crustaceans

* European green crab from Atlantic coasts of Europe and Northern Africa
* Chinese mitten crab from the coastal rivers and estuaries of the Yellow Sea
* Japanese shore crab from Japan
* Spiny waterflea from northern Europe and western Russia
* Fishhook waterflea from the Ponto-Caspian region
* Mud shrimp from Europe

Mollusks

Marine
* Common periwinkle from Europe
* Veined rapa whelk from the Sea of JapanFreshwater
* Chinese mystery snail from Asia
* Zebra mussel from the Caspian and Black SeasTerrestrial
* Grove snail from Europe
* White-lipped snail from Europe
* Helix aspera from Europe
* Theba pisana from Europe

Insects

* Asian gypsy moth from Siberia
* Asian long-horned beetle
* Asian Tiger Mosquito
* Balsam woolly adelgid
* Beech scale
* Birch leafminer
* Brown spruce longhorn beetle from Europe
* Cabbage White (=Small White) butterfly from Europe
* Emerald Ash Borer from Asia
* European elm bark beetle
* European pine sawfly
* European pine shoot moth
* European Skipper (=Essex Skipper) butterfly from Europe
* European spruce sawfly
* Formosan subterranean termite
* Gypsy moth from Europe
* Hemlock woolly adelgid from Japan
* Larch casebearer
* Larch sawfly
* Pear thrip from Europe
* Phroid Fly from South America
* Red imported fire ant from South America
* Varroa mite from Asia
* Western honeybee from Europe
* Winter moth

Plants

* Acer platanoides--Norway Maple from Europe
* "Taraxacum officinale" -- Dandelion from Europe
* Eurasian watermilfoil from Europe, Asia and northern Africa
* Ice plant from South Africa
* Eucalypts from Australia
* "Hesperis matronalis" -- Dame's rocket from Eurasia
* "Vicia cracca" -- Cow vetch from Eurasia
* "Vicia villosa" -- Hairy vetch from Eurasia
* "Lonicera japonica" -- Japanese honeysuckle
* "Lonicera maackii" -- Amur honeysuckle
* "Rosa multiflora" -- Multiflora rose
* "Lythrum salicaria" -- Purple loosestrife
* "Pueraria montana" -- Kudzu ("aka Pueraria lobata")
* "Celastrus orbiculatus" -- Oriental bittersweet
* "Elaeagnus umbellata" -- Autumn olive
* "Alliaria petiolata" -- Garlic mustard
* "Hydrilla verticillata" -- Hydrilla from India and Sri Lanka
* "Trapa natans" -- Water caltrop from Eurasia
* "Eichhornia crassipes" -- Water hyacinth from South America
* "Pistia stratiotes" -- Water lettuce from South America
* "Ipomoea aquatica" -- Water spinach from India and southeast Asia
* "Arundo donax" -- Giant reed from the Mediterranean
* "Conium maculatum" -- Poison hemlock from Europe
* "Salvinia molesta" -- Giant salvinia from Brazil
* "Hedera helix" -- English ivy from Europe
* "Fucus serratus" -- Rockweed from Europe
* "Codium fragile" subsp. "tomentosoides" -- Green sea fingers
* "Centaurea diffusa" -- Diffuse knapweed
* "Cytisus scoparius" -- Scotch broom from Europe
* "Sorghum halepense" -- Johnson Grass from Europe

outh America

Mammals

* Beaver from North America to Tierra del Fuego

Fish

* Cherry barb from Sri Lanka

Continental Europe

Mammals

* Barbary Macaque - Gibraltar (from North Africa)
* Raccoon Dog - throughout Central and Eastern Europe into E Scandinavia
* Raccoon - spreading from Germany and W Russia (adjacent to Baltic states, north of Black Sea and west of Caspian Sea to Azerbaijan) (from North America)
* American Mink - Spain, N France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Scandinavia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and NW Russia (from North America)
* Egyptian Mongoose - Portugal, southern Spain, island of Mljet (from North Africa)
* Indian Grey Mongoose - Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Adriatic islands
* Sika Deer - France, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Austria (from Asia)
* Fallow Deer - throughout (from Mediterranean)
* Axis Deer - Italy, Slovenia, Poland, Ukraine, Georgia, Russia east of Black Sea (from South Asia)
* White-tailed Deer - S Finland (from North America)
* European Bison - Poland (from captivity after extinction)
* Musk Ox - Norway, Sweden (from Greenland)
* Grey Squirrel - Italy (from North America)
* Siberian Chipmunk - France, Germany, Austria, The Netherlands, Finland (from North America)
* Canadian Beaver - Finland, Russia, Poland (from North America)
* Muskrat - E Scandinavia, W France, north to Denmark, east to Ukraine, south to N Greece
* Common Rat - throughout (from Asia)
* Ship Rat - throughout, except Scandinavia (from South-East Asia or China, via India and Middle East)
* House Mouse - throughout (from N Iran border)
* Crested Porcupine - Italy (from North Africa)
* Coypu - pockets in France, Germany, Poland, Denmark, Italy, Bulgaria, Georgia (from South America)
* Cottontail Rabbit - Spain, France, Italy (from North America)

Birds

* Sacred Ibis - France (from Africa)
* Black Swan - Poland, The Netherlands (from Australia)
* Canada Goose - N Europe (France to Scandinavia) (from North America)
* Swan Goose
* Bar-headed Goose - UK, the Netherlands
* Egyptian Goose - UK, the Netherlands (from Africa)
* Ruddy Duck - spreading from UK (from North America)
* Common Pheasant - throughout (from Asia)
* California Quail - Denmark, Germany, Italy (from North America)
* Northern Bobwhite - C France (from North America)
* Daurian Partridge - Italy, Russia, Ukraine (from S Siberia & C Asia)
* Reeves's Pheasant - France, Czech Republic (from China)
* Wild Turkey - Germany (from North America)
* Feral Pigeon - ubiquitous
* Rose-ringed Parakeet - Spain, The Netherlands, Belgium, W Germany
* Monk Parakeet - Italy, Slovakia (from South America)
* Common Mynah - Russia (from India)
* Common Waxbill - Portugal (from Africa)
* Red Avadavat - Spain, Po Delta (from India)

References

* Macdonald, D. and P. Barrett (1993) "Collins Field Guide: Mammals of Britain & Europe". HarperCollins, London.
* Svensson, L., P.J. Grant, K. Mullarney and D. Zetterström (1999) "Collins Bird Guide". HarperCollins, London. (ISBN 0 00 219728 6)
*http://myfwc.com/nonnatives/exotics/resultsClass.asp?taxclass=R


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