- List of film formats
This list of
film formatscatalogues formats developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures, ranging from the Chronophotographe format from 1888, to mid-20th century formats such as the 1953 CinemaScopeformat, to more recent formats such as the 1992 IMAX HD format. The formats listed all should have been used in the field or for test shooting, and they must all use photochemicalimages that are formed or projected on a film base, a transparent substrate which supports the photosensitive emulsion.
As well, the formats must have been used to make more than just a few test frames. The camera must be fast enough (in frames per second) to create an illusion of motion consistent with the
persistence of visionphenomenon. The format must be significantly unique from other listed formats in regard to its image capture or image projection. The format characteristics should be clearly definable in several listed parameters (e. g., film gauge, aspect ratio, etc.).
*Format is the name of the process; some formats may have multiple names in common usage.
*Creator is the individual or company most directly attributable as the developer of the system.
*Year Created usually refers to the earliest date that the system was used to completion (i.e. projection), but may refer to when it was developed if no known film was made.
*First known film is the first film (not including tests) made with the format and intended for release.
* Negative gauge is the
film gauge(width) used for the original camera negative.
*Negative aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the gate dimensions multiplied by the
anamorphicpower of the camera lenses (1x in the case of spherical lenses). Strictly speaking, aspect ratios for film are always expressed as the ratio of 1 and are formatted as x:y, e.g. 1.85:1. However, in the interest of formatting, the aspect ratios listed will assume the ratio of 1 and omit the :1 suffix.]
*Gate dimensions are the width and height of the camera gate aperture, and by extension the film negative frame.
*Negative pulldown describes the
film perforationsper frame, the direction of film transport, and standard frame speed. Film transport is assumed to be vertical unless otherwise noted, and standard frame speed is assumed to be 24 frames per second unless the film is otherwise noted or has no standard. Silent film has no standard speed; many amateur formats have several common speeds, but no standard.
*Negative lenses indicates whether spherical (normal) or
anamorphiclenses are used on the original camera negative, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used.
*Projection gauge is the
film gauge(width) used for the release print.
*Projection aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the projection dimensions multiplied by the
anamorphicpower of the projection lenses (1x in the case of spherical lenses). This is also known as the intended theatrical aspect ratio.
*Projection dimensions are the width and height of the projector aperture plate, and by extension the film frame area which is projected. The aperture plate always very slightly crops the frame.
*Projection lenses indicates whether spherical (normal) or
anamorphiclenses are used on the projector, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used.
Formats are listed in chronological order and by release date in the case of multiple formats within one year, if this can be determined. Undated formats are listed at the bottom in alphabetical order.
:"Note that this table does not cover 3D systems or color film systems, nor is it well-suited to emphasize the differences between those systems."
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* Hayes, John. [http://widescreenmovies.org/WSM01/history.htm But First, a Brief History of Widescreen...] "Wide Screen Movies Magazine", Vol. 1, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
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* unknown author. [http://member.melbpc.org.au/~cksm/formats.html Formats 8 mm] , 2004-2005. Retrieved on 2008-06-23.
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List of anamorphic format trade names
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