Boids


Boids

Boids, developed by Craig Reynolds in 1986, is an artificial life program, simulating the flocking behaviour of birds. His paper on this topic was published in 1987 in the proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH conference.

As with most artificial life simulations, Boids is an example of emergent behavior; that is, the complexity of Boids arises from the interaction of individual agents (the boids, in this case) adhering to a set of simple rules. The rules applied in the simplest Boids world are as follows:

* separation: steer to avoid crowding local flockmates
* alignment: steer towards the average heading of local flockmates
* cohesion: steer to move toward the average position of local flockmates

More complex rules can be added, such as obstacle avoidance and goal seeking.

The movement of Boids can be characterized as either chaotic (splitting groups and wild behaviour) or orderly. Unexpected behaviours, such as splitting flocks and reuniting after avoiding obstacles, can be considered emergent.

The boids framework is often used in computer graphics, providing realistic-looking representations of flocks of birds and other creatures, such as schools of fish or herds of animals.

Boids work in a manner similar to cellular automata, since each boid "acts" autonomously and references a neighbourhood, as do cellular automata.

ee also

*Swarm Intelligence

References

*Citation
last1=Reynolds
first1=Craig
author1-link=Craig Reynolds (computer_graphics)
title=Flocks, herds and schools: A distributed behavioral model.
year=1987
month=
volume=
number=
journal=SIGGRAPH '87: Proceedings of the 14th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques
publisher=Association_for_Computing_Machinery
pages=25--34
isbn=0-89791-227-6
doi=10.1145/37401.37406

External links

* [http://www.red3d.com/cwr/boids/ Craig Reynolds' Boids page]
* [http://opensteer.sourceforge.net/ OpenSteer] an open source C++ implementation of steering behaviors including flocking boids.
* [http://cmol.nbi.dk/models/boids/boids.html Boids in Chamonix] with interactive information horizon.
* [http://www.vergenet.net/~conrad/boids/pseudocode.html Boids Pseudocode]
* [http://www.navgen.com/3d_boids/ 3D Boids Simulation using OpenGL]
* [http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/~paul/publications/boids/index.html 3D Java Boids (Paul Richmond) demonstrating bird flocking]
* [http://www.xjtek.com/anylogic/demo_models/other_models/#model_523 Battle boids] 2D color boids that fight each other (AnyLogic applet, initial implementation by Joshua Lifton, MIT Media Labs)


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