Louis Guttman


Louis Guttman

infobox Person
name=Louis (Eliyahu) Guttman
birth_date=birth date|1916|2|10|mf=y
birth_place=New York, New York, United States
death_date=death date and age|1987|10|25|1916|2|10|mf=y
death_place=Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
occupation=Professor
religion=Jewish

Louis (Eliyahu) Guttman ( _he. לואיס (אליהו) גוטמן; 1916 – 1987) was founder and Scientific Director of the Israel Institute of Applied Social Research, later renamed the Guttman Institute, and Professor of Social and Psychological Assessment at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Born in the United States, Guttman later emigrated to Palestine with his wife Ruth in 1947.

Guttman was described as a brilliant innovator who "saw theory in method and method in theory", was "informed by high sophistication in mathematics, statistics, sociology and psychology", and one who "made a major contribution to democratic policy-making in the new state" and “was concerned with the 'well-being' of individuals, groups and society" (from a posthumous award ceremony by the World Association of Public Opinion Research, 1988). His work left a legacy of major developments in the theory and practice of scale and factor analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis and Facet Theory. His earlier work in scaling analysis produced what has been called the Guttman scale.

Early Life and Education

Guttman was born in New York City on February 10, 1916 and grew up in the Jewish community of Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Guttman received both his undergraduate (BA, 1936) and graduate training (MA, 1939) at the University of Minnesota, earning his doctorate in social and psychological measurement in 1942. From 1941 to 1947 Guttman was professor of sociology at Cornell University, while as part of the World War II effort, he also served as an Expert Consultant to the US Army’s Research Branch. His innovative methodological work on attitudes was published in the 4th volume of "The American Soldier".

Death

Guttman died on October 25, 1987, while on sabbatical in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the United States.

Publications

Guttman published in numerous journals and books, including over 300 pages in Psychometrika. Many of his papers are still quoted in the scientific literature as being relevant and important to current statistical and mathematical advances. Scale analysis, Facet theory and his mathematical and philosophical treatments of Factor analysis are among the important parts of his scientific legacy. Notably, Guttman first proved several fundamental theorems in matrix algebra, as discussed in papers by Hubert, Meulman and Heiser (2000) and Takane and Yanai (2005). Several of Guttman’s contributions have been incorporated into computer packages, among them Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) and Partial Order Scalogram Analysis (POSAC).

Honors and Awards

* Member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities
* Foreign Honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
* President, Psychometric Society
* 1955-1956 Stanford University: Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
* 1962 Rothschild Prize
* 1971 "Science": included Guttman in a list of the 62 most important contributors to scientific research in the social sciences since the beginning of the 20th century. * 1974 Regents of the University of Minnesota - Outstanding Achievement Award
* 1978 Israel Prize in the Social Sciences
* 1984 Educational Testing Service Measurement Award from Princeton University.


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  • Louis Guttman — Louis (Eliyahu) Guttman (en hébreu : לואי גוטמן), né le 10 février 1916 à New York et mort le 25 octobre 1987 à Minneapolis lors d un congé sabbatique, fut directeur scientifique de l Institut de recherche sociale appliquée d Israël (qui fut …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Louis Guttman — Louis (Eliyahu) Guttman (* 10. Februar 1916 in Brooklyn, New York City; † 25. Oktober 1987 in Minneapolis) war ein Sozialforscher jüdischer Herkunft, der in den USA geboren wurde und 1947 nach Palästina auswanderte. Er ist der Entwickler der nach …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • GUTTMAN, LOUIS — (Eliahu; 1916–1987), sociologist. Born in New York, he was educated at the University of Minnesota, where he taught from 1936 to 1940. From 1941 to 1950 he taught at Cornell University; during the years 1941–45 he also served as an expert… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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  • Guttman scale — In statistical surveys conducted by means of structured interviews or questionnaires, a subset of the survey items having binary (e.g., YES or NO) answers forms a Guttman scale (named after Louis Guttman) if they can be ranked in some order so… …   Wikipedia

  • Guttman-Modell — Die Guttman Skala (nach dem deutschstämmigen englischen Neurologen Ludwig Guttman bzw. Louis Guttman (1899 1980)) ist ein Skalierungsverfahren in der empirischen Sozialforschung, mit dem Einstellungen zu einer Sache (z. B. Personen,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Guttman-Skala — Die Guttman Skala (nach dem amerikanisch israelischen Sozialforscher Louis Guttman) ist ein Skalierungsverfahren in der empirischen Sozialforschung, mit dem Einstellungen zu einer Sache (z. B. Personen, Personengruppen, Verhaltensweisen) erfasst… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Guttman — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom.  Pour les articles homophones, voir Gutman, Gutmann et Guttmann. Patronyme Le nom de Guttman est celui de plusieurs personnalités (par ordre… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Kaiser-Guttman-Kriterium — Das Kaiser Guttman Kriterium, häufig auch nur Kaiser Kriterium genannt, ist ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der optimalen Faktorenzahl bei der Faktorenanalyse. Das Kriterium wurde in der 1950er Jahren von Louis Guttman sowie Kaiser und Dickman… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Гутман Луи / Guttman, Louis H. — (р. 1916). Признаваемые научным сообществом заслуги Гуттмана связаны с его главным увлечением психометрией, непараметрическим анализом и социальной психологией …   Психологическая энциклопедия


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