List of hieroglyphs/german-Gardiner-list-translated


List of hieroglyphs/german-Gardiner-list-translated

Gardiner's Sign List is a list of common Egyptian hieroglyphs compiled by Sir Alan Gardiner. It is considered a standard reference in the study of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Gardiner lists only the most common forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs, but he includes extensive subcategories, and also both vertical and horizontal forms for many hieroglyphs. He includes size-variation forms to aid with the reading of hieroglyphs in running blocks of text. (The Budge Reference has about 1000 hieroglyphs listed in 50 pages, but with no size varieties.)

Unfortunately he does not cross index signs, once put on the list, other significant uses may be overlooked. One example of this is G16, nbtỉ, the ideogram for "The Two Ladies", goddesses Wadjet as cobra and Nekhbet as the white vulture. These are the protecting and patron goddesses of the separate Egyptian kingdoms that joined into Ancient Egypt, who were both then displayed on the uraeus of Wadjet when the unification occurred and afterward considered jointly to be the protectors of Egypt and the pharaohs. This ideogram is listed only on the bird list as G16, and overlooked on the deity list and the reptile list.

Other subcategories included by Gardiner are abbreviations and personalized forms, and also a complete subset, used on papyrus, specifically for the Book of the Dead.

Hieroglyphs

A - Men and Their Occupations

Group A consists of 63 hieroglyphics and can be subdivided into 30 sitting persons, 20 standing persons as well as lying, standing and falling male figures.

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B - Women and Their Activities

Group B is composed of only 7 hieroglyphs, all of them sitting women. Even birth (or the birth) is portrayed in a kneeling position. It is inferred that this was the birthing position in old Egypt.C. Rushing Translation, 2008]

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C - Deities in Human Form

Group C includes all sitting divinity profiles with their attributes and consists of 20 hieroglyphics.

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E - The Mammal

Group E contains 34 hieroglyphics, including hieroglyphics for the cow, the horse, the hippopotamus, the ape, the giraffe, the rabbit, the jackal, the elephant, etc.

*E1 Determinative and Ideogram for bull (kA), cow (jach), cattle, large cattle, herd (mnmnt)
*E2 Determinative and Ideogram for strong bull (kA) in (kA)
*E3 Determinative for calf (stream), short horn cow
*E4 Determinative and Ideogram for (holy) Hesat-Kuh (achsAt)
*E5 Determinative for only in "interest do not show for" (Ams)
*E6 Determinative and Ideogram for horse (ssmt), stallion (jbr)
*E7 Determinative for donkey (aA)
*E8 (jb), (small cattle) herd (mnmnt) *E8a sound sign for jb (also phonetic Determinative) Determinative for Kitz (jb), (small cattle) herd (mnmnt) *E9 sound sign for jw
*E10 Determinative for Widder (bA), sheep, God Chnum (achnmw)
*E11 Determinative for ram (bA), sheep, God Chnum (achnmw)
*E12 Determinative for pig (rrj)
*E13 Determinative for cat (mjw)
*E14 Determinative for dog (jw), Slughi-Hund For Anubis (jnpw), privy councillor (achrj-sschtA) (rarely)
*E17 Determinative and Ideogram for Schakal (sAb), Würdenträger
*E18 Determinative and Ideogram for God Wepwaut (wpj-wAwt)
*E19 Determinative and Ideogram for God Wepwaut (wpj-wAwt)
*E20 Determinative and Ideogram for God Seth (pricked) (stsch) (swtj), disorder (achnnw), chaos
*E21 Determinative for storm (nschnj), chaos
*E22 Determinative and Ideogram for lion (mAj)
*E23 sound sign for. Ideogram for Löwe (rw)
*E24 Determinative and Ideogram for Panther (mAj), leopard
*E25 Determinative for Nilpferd (Db)
*E26 Determinative for Elefant (Abw)
*E27 Determinative for Giraffe (mnj), predict (sr) would become (saach) *E28 Determinative for Säbelantilope (mA alas-dj)
*E29 Determinative for Dorkasgazelle (gachs)
*E30 Determinative for stone ram (njAw)
*E31 Determinative and Ideogram for
*E32 Determinative for Pavian for wn (rabbit)


F - Parts of the Mammal

to this group 53 hieroglyphics count. In many cases, the cow was requisitioned because it was trusted and because its ears were to be represented for example better than that of the person. In this group are hieroglyphics for the cows head, cow heir, cows tube, cow skin, horn, animal tongue, heart with windpipe, lion head, front part of a lion, rear of a lion etc. are found.

*F1 abbreviation for cow (jach)
*F2 Determinative for fury (djnd)
*F3 sound sign for At
*F4 sound sign for achAt. Ideogram for front (achAt), tip
*F5 sound sign for schsA, sschA *F6 sound sign for schsA, sschA *F7 Determinative for would become (schfyt) would become (schfyt)
*F8 Determinative for
*F9 sound sign for * At
*F10 Determinative for throat (ichich), swallow (at that), neck
*F11 Determinative for throat (ichich), swallow (at that), neck
*F12 sound sign for wsr. Ideogram for nape (wsrt)
*F13 sound sign for wp, jp (only with "messenger" (jpwtj) and "mission" (jpt). Ideogram for ears (wpt), top of the head
*F14 abbreviation for new year (wpt-rnpt)
*F15 abbreviation for new year (wpt-rnpt)
*F16 sound sign for from ( = phon. Det.) Determinative and Ideogram for horn (dp) (from)
*F17 Determinative and Ideogram for cleaning (abw)
*F18 sound sign for stream Determinative and Ideogram for tooth (jbach) (nachdjt), actions with the teeth: bite (psach)
*F19 Determinative for jaw (type)
*F20 sound sign for achw, bjA, bj in "character" (bjt) sound sign for ns Determinative and Ideogram for tongue (ns), director (jmj-rA) (mr), actions with the tongue: taste (dp)
*F21 for Hear (sdjm) Ideogram for ear (msdjr), leaf of a tree (djrdj), actions with the ears:
*F22 sound sign for kfA sound sign for pach Determinative and Ideogram for end (pachwj), rear, ground of a container (kfA)
*F23 Determinative and Ideogram for front thigh (ichpsch), constellation large bear (msichtjw), thigh
*F24 Determinative and Ideogram for front thigh (ichpsch), constellation large bear (msichtjw), thigh
*F25 sound sign for wachm. Ideogram for hoof (wachmt)
*F26 sound sign for achn. Ideogram for animal fur (achnt)
*F27 Determinative for leather (dachr), skin, mouse (pnw), mammal
*F28 sound sign for off. Ideogram for spotted (sAb), colorfully
*F29 sound sign for st (stj) Determinative and Ideogram for through ski meal (stj)
*F30 sound sign for schd
*F31 sound sign for ms. Ideogram for Schurz out of fur (mst) F32
*F32 sound sign for alas. Ideogram for body (eight), belly. This sign stands in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC for the sound “ch”
*F33 Determinative for tail (sd)
*F34 Determinative and Ideogram for heart (jb) (achAtj)
*F35 sound sign for nfr. Ideogra for beautifully (its) (nfr)
*F36 sound sign for smA. Ideogram for lung (smA)
*F37 sound sign for sm Determinative and Ideogram for back (wEEDED) (psdj)
*F38 Determinative for back (psdj)
*F39 sound sign for jmAich Determinative and Ideogram for back mark (jmAich), venerable, approach, back (psdj) (rarely)
*F40 sound sign for Aw
*F41 Determinative for back (psdj), Gemetzel (schat)
*F42 sound sign for spr. Ideogram for rib (spr)
*F43 Determinative for rib meat piece (spacht)
*F44 sound sign for jsw Determinative for leg bone with meat, thigh (jwa)
*F45 Ideogram for Vulva (jdt), cow
*F46 sound sign for qAb, wdjb, wdb sound sign for pachr, dbn. Ideogram for entrails (qAb)
*F47 sound sign for qAb, wdjb, wdb sound sign for, pachr, dbn. Ideogram for entrails (qAb)
*F48 sound sign for qAb, wdjb, wdb sound sign for, pachr, dbn. Ideogram for entrails (qAb)
*F49 sound sign for qAb, wdjb, wdb sound sign for, pachr, dbn. Ideogram for entrails (qAb)
*F50 abbreviation for copy (spachr)
*F51 sound sign for *ace, (ace) in "Isis", (ws) in Wsjr Determinative for meat (haw), body limb (at), neck (nachbt)
*F52 Determinative for excrement (e) (alas it)


G - Birds

chick, and a others.

G1
*G1 Egyptian vulture. Uniliteral phonogram for "aleph" (transliterated "a", "ȝ" or "3"): a glottal stop (and possibly a alveolar lateral approximant in Old Egyptian).
*G2 Two Egyptian vultures. Phonogram for ȝȝ
*G3 Egyptian Vulture + sickle (U1) Phonogram for mȝ
*G4 Hawk. Phonogram for tw, tỉw
*G5 Ideogram for Horus (ḥr.w)
*G6 Determinative for falcon (bỉk)
*G7 Determinative and Ideogram for (royal) I (ỉ), me (wỉ), God Horus (alas), God Amun (ỉmn), king (nsw)
*G7a Ideogram for Nemti (nmtỉ)
*G7b Ideogram for Nemti (nmtỉ)
*G8 Ideogram for Goldhorus (hr-nbw)
*G9 Ideogram for God re-Harachte (ra-achr-Aichtỉ)
*G10 Henu-Barke of the Sokar (achnw)
*G11 Determinative for Achom (aachn) (aschm) (aichm), Gods picture, breast (schnbt)
*G12 Determinative for Achom (aachn) (aschm) (aichm), Gods picture, breast (schnbt)
*G13 Determinative for Horus of Hierakonpolis (alas) (nichny), God Sopdu (spdw)
*G14 sound sign for mt. Ideogram for geese vulture (nrt)
*G15 Ideogram for God courage (mwt)
*G16 Ideogram for the two ladies, goddesses Wadjet and Nekhbet, (nbtỉ)
*G17 owl. This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the consonant “mG17
*G18 Phonogram for mm
*G19 sound sign for mỉ, m
*G20 sound sign for mỉ, m
*G21 sound sign for after. Ideogram for helmet perl chicken (after)
*G22 Phonogram for dỉb
*G23 Phonogram for subjects (richyt)
*G24 Phonogram for subjects (richyt)
*G25 Phonogram for Aich. Ideogram for alas-spirit (Aich)
*G26 Determinative for Ibis (hb), (ibisartiger) God Thot (dỉachwtỉ)
*G26a Determinative for Ibis (hb), (ibisartiger) God Thot (dỉachwtỉ)
*G27 Phonogram for dschr Determinative for Flamingo (dschr)
*G28 Phonogram for gm
*G29 Phonogram for bA. Ideogram for Ba-soul in bird shape (bA)
*G30 Ideogram for power (bAw)
*G31 Determinative for the Egyptian "Phoenix" [ Benu (bnw), Reihervögel
*G32 Determinative and Ideogram for inundated be (baachỉ)
*G33 Phonogram for sdA. Ideogram for Seda-bird (sdA)
*G34 Determinative for bouquet (nỉw)
*G35 Phonogram for aq
*G36 Phonogram for wr Determinative for swallow (mnt). Zweikonsonantenzeichen „wr“
*G37 Determinative for small (ndỉs), badly (bỉn)
*G38 Phonogram for gb (only in Gods name) Determinative for bird (Apd), insect, Bläßgans (tỉrp), goose
*G39 Phonogramn for Determinative sOWED and Ideogram for son (sOWED) (only Ideogram), spear duck (sAt)
*G40 Phonogram for pA Determinative and Ideogram for that (pA) (only Ideogram), fly (pA) (more rarely)
*G41 Phonogram for ichn, amyt, sachw Determinative and Ideogram for mäßten (wschA), food (dỉfA) G43
*G43 quail chick. This on consonant sign becomes in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC the reproduction of the sound “w” and/or "u" used.
*G44 Phonogram for ww, oo, uu
*G45 Phonogram for wa
*G46 Phonogram for wAw
*G47 Phonogram for tỉA. Ideogram for chick (tỉa)
*G48 Determinative for nest (ssch)
*G49 Determinative for nest (ssch)
*G50 Idogramm:, washer (richtỉ)
*G51 Determinative for fish catch (achAm) turn around (wschn)
*G52 Determinative for feeding (snm)
*G53 Ideogram for Ba-soul (bA)
*G54 Phonogram for sndỉ (also phonetic Determinative) Determinative for (the bird) the neck


H - Parts of Birds

8 hieroglyphics belong to this group, listed are the signs for wing, egg, claw, feather, wing and birds heads.


M - Trees and Other Plants

Included in the 44 hieroglyphics of this comprehensive group are the Binse, the grass, the Papyrus, the Dattel, the Lotosblüte and the reed. Beispiele

*M1 sound sign for jAm (jmA - rarely) (jm - rarely) Determinative for tree, Sykomore (nht), Christ thorn (nbs)
*M2 sound sign for js, j (with "I") sound sign for achn Determinative for flower (achrrt), plant
*M3 sound sign for Determinative and Ideogram gauged for wood (gauged)
*M4 sound sign for rnp. Ideogram for year (rnpt)
*M5 sound sign for tr, tj, rj. Ideogram for (determined) time (tr)
*M6 sound sign for tr, tj, rj. Ideogram for (determined) time (tr)
*M7 sound sign for rnp into "young its" rnpj. Ideogram for young its (rnpj)
*M8 sound sign for schA. Ideogram for Achet-season (Aicht)
*M9 sound sign for nfr (rarely) Determinative and Ideogramm for Lotus (sschschn)
*M10 Determinative for Lotusknospe (nachbt)
*M11 Determinative and Ideogram for sacrifice (wdn)
*M12 sound sign for ichA abbreviation for 1,000 (ichA). Lotus
*M13 sound sign for wAdj, wdj. Ideogram for Papyrus (wAdj)
*M14 sound sign for wAdj, wdj
*M15 Determinative and Ideogram for lower Egypt (ta-mnachw), papyrus swamp (djyt), papyrus zone and water zone
*M16 sound sign for achA Determinative and Ideogram for lower Egypt (ta-mnachw) M17
*M17 sound sign for j, i. Ideogram for blooming reed tube (j), I (j). This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the sound “i”. In doubling of this sign, one receives the sound "j" (English: "Y").
*M18 Ideogram for come (jj)
*M19 Determinative and Ideogram for victim (aAbt)
*M20 sound sign for sm. Ideogram for country (visibility), hall
*M21 sound sign for sm Determinative and Ideogram for herb (sm), plant
*M22 sound sign for nichb, also in "God Nechbat " (nichb) M23
*M23 sound sign for sw Ideogram for Sut-Binse (swt), in (nsw) king graphic preceded
*M24 sound sign for rs (w) only in words with primary meaning "south"
*M25 sound sign for rs (w) only in words with primary meaning "south"
*M26 sound sign for schma
*M27 sound sign for schma. Ideogram for waiter Egypt (schma)
*M28 abbreviation: Zehner of waiter Egypt (mdj-w schma) in the title (wr-mdj-w schma)
*M29 sound sign for ndjm. Pointing sign for Johannisbrot
*M30 Determinative and Ideogram for sweetly (bnr). Ideogram for Dattel.
*M31 Determinative for grow (rd) grow (rd)
*M32 Determinative for
*M33 Determinative and Ideogram for barley (jt), grain, grains
*M34 Determinative and Ideogram for Emmer (bdt) (btj)
*M35 Determinative for pile (aachaw)
*M36 sound sign for djr
*M37 sound sign for djr
*M38 Determinative for Flachs (macha), together bandage (dmA)
*M39 Determinative for plant victim (rnpt)
*M40 sound sign for js (jz). Ideogram for tube (jsw)
*M41 Determinative for juniper (wan), foreign wood
*M42 sound sign for wn abbreviation for eat (wnm)
*M43 Determinative for wine (jrp), fig (dAd), fruit
*M44 Determinative for thorn (srt), tip (spd), sharply


N - Sky, Earth and Water

The 42 hieroglyphics that make up this group which does not stand unconditionally in the same context, include: Sun, star, moon, sky, earth, mountains, street, canal, slope, etc.

*N1 sound sign for alas (j), hrw (rarely) (both also phon. Det.) Determinative and Ideogram for sky (pt) (achrt), God groove (nwt)
*N2 Determinative and Ideogram for night (grach), darkness (kkw)
*N3 Determinative and Ideogram for night (grach), darkness (kkw)
*N4 Determinative and Ideogram for cable (jAdt), rain storm (schnyt), rain
*N5 Determinative and Ideogram for sun (ra), actions of the sun: rise (wbn), day (hrw), hour (wnwt), time
*N6 Determinative and Ideogram for sun (ra)
*N7 For sunshine (Aichw), seem (psdj) abbreviation for suns people (achnmmmt)
*N9 sound sign for psdj. Ideogram for new moon festival (psdjntjw) abbreviation for psdj in Gods novelty (psdjt)
*N10 sound sign for psdj. Ideogram for new moon festival (psdjntjw) abbreviation for psdj in Gods novelty (psdjt)
*N11 sound sign for aach in earth coat (waach). Ideogram: Moon (jaach) abbreviation / Determinative for month (Abd), hand width (schsp)
*N12 Determinative for moon (jaach)
*N13 Ideogram for half month firm (15. day) (*smdt)
*N14 sound sign for sbA, dwA Determinative and Ideogram for star (dbA), Sothis (spdt), Sernbild, Sirius abbreviation: - Hour (wnwt), priest shaft
*N15 Ideogram for underworld (dwAt) (dAt)
*N16 sound sign for tA Determinative and Ideogram for country (tA), earth, in "eternity" (djt)
*N17 sound sign for tA Determinative and Ideogram for country (tA), earth, eternity (djt)
*N18 Determinative and Ideogram for island (jw), horizon (Aicht), deserts country
*N19 abbreviation for Harachte (alas-Aichtj)
*N20 sound sign for wdjb Determinative for sand bank (wdjb)
*N21 Determinative (wdjb), country, field (visibility)
*N23 Determinative for country (tA), irrigated country
*N24 Determinative and Ideogram for Gau (spAt), Thinis-Gau (tA-wr), garden (achsp) N25
*N25 Determinative and Ideogram for strange country (I branch), deserts country, desert (smyt), country Retjenu (rtjnw)
*N26 sound sign for djw. Ideogram for mountain (djw)
*N27 Ideogram for horizon (Aicht)
*N28 sound sign for icha. Ideogram for hill of the sunrise (icha), crown N29
*N29 sound sign for q Determinative and Ideogram for hill (qAA). This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the emphatic “k” (circumscribed with "q").
*N30 Determinative and Ideogram for mound (wEEDED)
*N31 Determinative and Ideogram for way (wADE) (mtjn), phon. Det. : alas, wA, ascend (jar), travel, army (mscha), here (aA), position abbreviation: God Horus
*N32 sound sign for sjn (in "runner" sjnw)
*N33 Determinative for sand (schaj), mineral, Metalkorn, gold (nbw), black eye make-up (msdmt), medicine (pachrt) pellet (tjA), Weihrauchk., enemy (ichftj), dangerous
*N33a Determinative for plural (in place of the plural strokes)
*N34 Determinative and Ideogram for *copper (*achmtj), brass, object out of copper or bronze, mirror out of Metal (anich)
*N35 sound sign for n. water line. This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the consonant “n”. N35
*N35a sound sign for mW Determinative and Ideogram for water (mW), wave (wAw), "river" and "lake" with "N-36, Handl. Drink (swr) water:, wash (jaj)
*N36 sound sign for mr sound sign for mr, mJ Determinative and Ideogram for canal (mr), dear (mr), river, lake, Nile (achapj)
*N37 sound sign for sch. Ideogram for pond (sch), lake, basin.
*N38 sound sign for sch. Ideogram for pond (sch) N39
*N39 sound sign for sch. Ideogram for pond (sch), water basin, garden basin. This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the sound “sch” (like in the German word "beautifully").
*N40 abbreviation for go (schm)
*N41 sound sign for achm, phon. Det. : bjA Determinative for well (achnmt), pond, march, Vagina, cow (jdt)
*N42 sound sign for achm, phon. Det. : bjA Determinative for well (achnmt), pond, march, Vagina, cow (jdt)


O - Buildings and Parts of Buildings

Group O is quite extensive having 51 hieroglyphics. This group includes signs of buildings and construction of buildings including: Houses, bars,walls, stairways, etc.

*O1 sound sign for pr Determinative and Ideogram for house (pr), building, place, place (st), Sanktuar (jwnn), horizon (Aicht). Since the mediator empire also replacement for "p"
*O2 abbreviation for treasure house (pr-achdj)
*O3 abbreviation for dead victim (prt-ichw) O4
*O4 sound sign for h. Ideogram for farmyard (h), was subordinate. The Ideogram for house shows reaches a primitive protection cottage out of reed tube from above, that one over a L-förmigen gear. This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the consonant “h”.
*O5 sound sign for mr, nm Determinative for street (mrrt)
*O6 Ideogram for (large) building (achwt) abbreviation for eight in "quarry" (respects)
*O7 Ideogram for (large) building (achwt) abbreviation for eight in "quarry" (respects)
*O8 abbreviation for large building (achwt-aAt)
*O9 abbreviation for God Nephthys (nbt-achwt)
*O10 abbreviation for God Hathor (achwt-alas)
*O11 Ideogram for palace (aach)
*O12 Ideogram for palace (aach)
*O13 Determinative for gate way
*O15 Ideogram for wide hall (wsicht)
*O16 Determinative and Ideogram for curtain (tAyt)
*O17 Determinative and Ideogram for curtain (tAyt)
*O18 Determinative and Ideogram for chapel (kAr)
*O19 Determinative for waiter Egyptian national sanctuary (pr-wr), chapels row (jtrt)
*O20 Determinative for unterägyptisches national sanctuary (pr-nr), chapels row (jtrt), Sanktuar
*O21 Determinative and Ideogramm for special in special-ntjr
*O22 sound sign for achAb sound sign for achAb Determinative and Ideogramm for (Achb-sd), Sed festival
*O24 Determinative for pyramid (mr), Memphis (mn-nfr)
*O25 Determinative and Ideogram for obelisk (tichn)
*O26 Determinative and Ideogram for Stele (wdj) (aachaw)
*O27 sound sign for ichA Determinative for office (ichA), pillar hall
*O28 sound sign for jwn. Ideogram for pillar (jwn)
*O29 sound sign for aA. Ideogram for column (aA), largely
*O30 Determinative and Ideogram for support (sichnt)
*O31 sound sign for aA Determinative and Ideogram for door (aA), open (wn)
*O32 Determinative for gate way, door, gate (sbA) abbreviation for gate (sbA)
*O33 Determinative for Serech (srich) (in the Horusnamen) O34
*O34 sound sign for s. Ideogram for door bar (s). This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the stimmhaften “s” (like in the German name "Susi"). Demolish (whn) (sachnn)
*O35 sound sign for s (in words the movement imply) abbreviation for self-service
*O36 Determinative and Ideogram for wall (jnb), envelopment wall (sbtj)
*O37 Determinative for, throw down, sloping its (gsA)
*O38 Determinativefor corner (qnbt), gate way (erred) abbreviation for tm in "title" achrj n tm
*O39 Determinative for stone (jnr)
*O40 Determinative for stairway (rwd)
*O41 Determinative for stairway (rwd), ascend (jar)
*O42 for schsp, sschp
*O44 Determinative and Ideogram for occupation (wEEDED)
*O45 Determinative and Ideogram for harem (jpAt)
*O46 Determinative and Ideogram for harem (jpAt)
*O47 Ideogram for city Hierakonpolis (nichn)
*O48 Ideogram for city Hierakonpolis (nichn)
*O49 Determinative and Ideogram for city (njwt), village, Theben (wAst), inhabited region, Egypt (kmt)
*O50 sound sign for sp (zp) Determinative for tennis (spt)
*O51 Determinative and Ideogram for shed (schnwt)


P - Ships and Parts of Ships

Group P has 11 hieroglyphics which consists of the fisherman's boat, sail, mast and oars.


Y - Letters, Games, and Music

Group Y has 8 hieroglyphics.


Images


Men and Their Occupations
Women and Their Activities
Deities in Human Form

Footnotes

* Ancient Egyptian word

ee also

*Alan Gardiner
*Egyptian hieroglyphs
*Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian
*Egyptian numerals
*Egyptian biliteral signs
*Egyptian triliteral signs
*List of cuneiform signs

References

*Budge, Sir E.A.Wallis. "An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, in Two Volumes," Sir E.A.Wallis Budge, (Dover Publications, Inc. New York), c 1920, Dover Edition, c 1978. (Large categorized listings of Hieroglyphs, Vol 1, pp. xcvii-cxlvii (97-147) (25 categories, 1000+ hieroglyphs), 50 pgs.)
*Wilkinson, Richard. "Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture," Richard H. Wilkinson, with 450 Illustrations, (Thames & Hudson Ltd, London), c 1992.

External links

*http://www.yare.org/egypt/gardiner%20fonts.htm hieroglyphic-Fonts of the Gardiner-list] * – hieroglyphic support in Wikimedia
*http://www.khemet.de/altaegypten/schrift/gardiner.html khemet. de Gardiner]


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