Concordat


Concordat

A concordat is an agreement between the Holy See of the Catholic Church and a sovereign state on religious matters. Legally, they are international treaties. They often includes both recognition and privileges for the Catholic Church in a particular country. Privileges might include exemptions from certain legal matters and processes, and issues such as taxation as well as the right of a state to influence the selection of bishops within its territory.

The Council of Constance proclaimed the Concordat to be the regular form of governing relations between the Papacy and foreign kingdoms.

Although for a time after the Second Vatican Council, which ended in 1965, the term 'concordat' was dropped, it reappeared with the Polish Concordat of 1993 and the Portuguese Concordat of 2004. A different model of relations between the Vatican and various states is still evolving (see e.g. Petkoff 2007) in the wake of the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Liberty, Dignitatis Humanae.

Contents

Criticism

Broadly, concordats have been criticized on three grounds: for the allegedly undemocratic way some concordats are brought about, for the financial burdens they may impose and for the alleged incompatibility of some concordat clauses with the norms of human rights.

List

Further information: Treaties of the Holy See, Multilateral Treaties signed by the Holy See and Concordats with individual states of Germany

The following is a sortable list of the concordats and other bilateral agreements concluded by the Holy See.

Treaty Contracting party Date of conclusion Date of entering into force
1107 Concordat of London with Henry I of England 1 Aug 1107
1122 Concordat of Worms between Pope Calixtus II and Henry V of the Holy Roman Empire 23 Sep 1122
1277 Concordat of Tonsberg between Jon Raude, Archbishop of Nidaros and Magnus VI of Norway 1277
1426 Concordat between Pope Martin V and King Charles VII of France
Fürsten Konkordat between Pope Eugenius IV and the Princes Electors of the Holy Roman Empire Jan 1447
Concordat of Vienna between the Holy See and Frederick III of the Holy Roman Empire 17 Feb 1448
1516 Concordat of Bologna between Pope Leo X and King Francis I of France Sep 1516
1753 Concordat between the Holy See and Spain 1753
1801 Concordat between Pope Pius VII and Napoléon of France 1801
1813 Concordat of Fontainebleau between Pope Pius VII and Napoléon of France 1813
1817 Concordat between the Holy See and Bavaria 5 Jun 1817
1817 Concordat between the Holy See and France 11 Jun 1817
1827 Concordat between the Holy See and the Netherlands 16 Sep 1827
1847 Concordat between the Holy See and Russia 3 Aug 1847
1851 Concordat[1] between the Holy See and Spain 16 Mar 1851 11 May 1851
1855 Concordat between the Holy See (Pope Pius IX) and Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria 1855
1882 Concordat between the Holy See and Russia 23 Dec 1882
1886 Concordat between the Holy See and Portugal 23 Jun 1886
1886 Concordat[2] between the Holy See and Montenegro 18 Aug 1886
1887 Concordat between the Holy See and Colombia 1887
1914 Concordat between the Holy See and Serbia 24 June 1914
1922 Concordat between the Holy See and Latvia 30 May 1992 3 Nov 1922
1925 Concordat between the Holy See and Poland 10 Feb 1925 2 Jul 1925
1927 Concordat[3] between the Holy See and Romania 10 May 1927
1927 Concordat between the Holy See and Lithuania 27 Sep 1927 10 Dec 1927
1928 Concordat between the Holy See and Colombia 5 May 1928
1929 Lateran Treaty[4] between the Holy See and Italy 11 Feb 1929 7 Jun 1929
1932 Agreement between the Holy See and Romania 30 May 1932 30 May 1932
1933 Concordat between the Holy See and Austria 5 June 1933)
1933 Reichskonkordat between the Holy See and Germany 20 Jul 1933
1940 Concordat between the Holy See and Portugal 7 May 1940
1941 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 7 Jun 1941 7 Jun 1941
1946 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 16 Jul 1946 16 Jul 1946
1946 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 8 Dec 1946 8 Dec 1946
1950 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 5 Aug 1950 13 Nov 1950
1953 Concordat[5] between the Holy See and Spain 27 Aug 1953 27 Oct 1953
1954 Concordat between the Holy See and the Dominican Republic 16 Jul 1954
1955 Exchange of notes constituting an agreement between the Holy See and Italy 16 Dec 1955 16 Dec 1955
1972 Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency 26 Jun 1972 1 Aug 1972
1973 Concordat between the Holy See and Colombia 1973
1976 Agreement between the Holy See, the Holy See and Spain 28 Jul 1976 20 Aug 1976
1979 1st Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 3 Jan 1979 4 Dec 1979
1979 2nd Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 3 Jan 1979 4 Dec 1979
1979 3rd Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 3 Jan 1979 4 Dec 1979
1979 4th Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 3 Jan 1979 4 Dec 1979
1982 Exchange of notes constituting an agreement on the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Sweden 12 Jul 1982 – 26 Jul 1982 2 Aug 1982
1984 Concordat between the Holy See and Italy 18 Feb 1984 3 Jun 1985
1990 Concordat between the Holy See and Hungary 1990
1993 Fundamental Agreement between the Holy See and Israel 30 Dec 1993 10 Mar 1994
1993 Concordat between the Holy See and Poland 28 Jul 1993
1994 Agreement between the Holy See and Spain 21 Dec 1994 4 Jul 1995
1995 Exchange of letters between the Holy See and Israel 10 Apr 1995 – 5 Jul 1995 5 Oct 1995
1996 Agreements between the Holy See and Croatia 19 Dec 1996
1997 Legal Personality Agreement[6] between the Holy See the State of Israel 10 Nov 1977
1998 Protocol additional to the Agreement between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency 24 Set 1998 24 Set 1998
1998 Agreement on financial questions between the Holy See and Croatia 9 Oct 1998
1998 Agreement between the Holy See and the Republic of Estonia 23 Dec 1998 12 Mar 1999
2000 Agreement between the Holy See and the Republic of Latvia 8 Nov 2000 25 Oct 2002
2000 Monetary Agreement between the Vatican City State and, on its behalf, the Holy See, and Italy, on behalf of the European Community 29 Dec 2000 not yet into force
2004 Treaty between the Holy See and Slovakia 13 May 2004 9 Jul 2004[7]
2004 Concordat between the Holy See and Portugal 18 May 2004
2006 Exchange of letters constituting an agreement amending the protocol to the Agreement of 26 June 1972 between the Holy See and the International Atomic Energy Agency 5–9 Sep 2006 11 Sep 2006
2006 Basic Agreement between the Holy See and Bosnia and Herzegovina 19 Apr 2006 25 Oct 2007
2008 Agreement between the Holy See and France 18 Dec 2008 1 Mar 2009
2008 Concordat between the Holy See and Brazil 13 Nov 2008
2009 Concordat between the Holy See and Schleswig-Holstein 12 Jan 2009

References

Bibliography

  • Baker, Michael (2010). "Security and the sacred: examining Canada's legal response to the clash of public safety and religious freedom." Touro Law Center: International Law Review, Vol. 13 (1). Available online.
  • DiMarco, Erica (2009). "The tides of Vatican influence in Italian reproductive matters: from abortion to assisted reproduction." Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 10 (2) Spring. Available online.
  • Hosack, Kristen A. (2010). "Napoleon Bonaparte’s Concordat and the French Revolution." Constructing the past, Vol. 11 (1), article 5. Available online
  • Hughes, John Jay (1974). "The Reich Concordat 1933: Capitulation or Compromise?" Australian Journal of Politics & History, 20 (2), pp. 164-175.
  • Petkoff, Peter (2007). "Legal perspectives and religious perspectives of religious rights under international law in the Vatican Concordats (1963-2004)." Law and Justice: the Christian law review, 158, p. 30- online (payment may be required).
  • Plichtová, Jana and Petrjánošová, Magda (2008). "Freedom of religion, institution of conscientious objection and political practice in post-communist Slovakia." Human Affairs, 18 (1), June, pp. 37-51. Available online here.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Concordat — • In general, a concordat means an agreement, or union of wills, on some matter Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Concordat     Concordat      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • CONCORDAT — Un concordat est un tratié de droit international par lequel le Saint Siège, d’une part, et un État souverain, d’autre part, règlent l’ensemble des questions concernant les institutions et les activités de l’Église catholique sur un territoire… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • concordat — CONCORDÁT, concordate, s.n. 1. Tratat încheiat de papă cu diferite state, pentru stabilirea statutului şi privilegiilor bisericii catolice în respectivele state. 2. Contract încheiat sub controlul justiţiei, între un comerciant insolvabil şi… …   Dicționar Român

  • concordat — CONCORDAT. s. m. Transaction, accord, convention. Il se dit principalement en matières Ecclésiastiques. Faire un concordat. Passer un concordat. Un concordat entre l Abbé et les Religieux. Un concordat homologué enParlement. f♛/b] On dit… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • concordat — Concordat. s. m. Transaction, accord, convention, principalement en matiéres Ecclésiastiques. Faire un concordat. passer un concordat. le concordat d entre le Pape Leon X. & le Roy François I. le concordat Germanique. concordat entre l Abbé & les …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Concordat — Con*cor dat, n. [F. concordat, L. concordato, prop. p. p. of concordare. See {Concord}.] 1. A compact, covenant, or agreement concerning anything. [1913 Webster] 2. An agreement made between the pope and a sovereign or government for the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • concordat — agreement between church and state on a mutual matter, 1610s, from Fr. concordat (16c.), from M.L. concordatum, noun use of L. concordatum, neut. pp. of concordare to agree, from concors (gen. concordis) of one mind (see CONCORD (Cf. concord)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Concordat — Concordat, 1) in der Schweiz die Vereinbarung einzelner Cantone über diesen od. jenen Zweig der Gesetzgebung, über welchen der Bundesverfassung keine Bestimmung zusteht, od. welchen diese abgelehnt hat; 2) im französischen Rechte die Vereinigung… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Concordāt — (v. lat.), 1) Vertrag zwischen dem Papste, als Oberhaupt der Katholischen Kirche, u. der Regierung eines Staates, zur Feststellung der katholisch kirchlichen Verhältnisse desselben. C e im eigentlichen Sinne schließt der Papst blos mit… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Concordat — D ie schriftliche Urkunde über einen Vergleich zwischen Kirche und Staat, oder zwischen dem Papste und einem weltlichen Fürsten. Nur die Vergleiche, welche der Papst als Oberhaupt der römischen Kirche, nicht aber die Verträge, welche er als… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Concordat — Concordat, Vereinbarung über Gegenstände von gemeinsamem Interesse, z.B. Münz und Zollconcordat der Schweiz, C. zwischen Klöstern u. ihrem Bischof; besonders Verträge des röm. Stuhles mit Regenten, um die kirchlichen Verhältnisse eines Landes zu… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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