- Heckington Windmill
Heckington Windmill is the only 8-sailed tower Dutch type
windmillstill standing in the UK and probably the world's only of this type. Heckingtonis located about midway between Sleafordand Boston in Lincolnshire. The mill stands very close to Heckington Railway Station, hence its previous name of the "Station Mill" in the 19th century.
It was built in
1830to plans by millwright Edward Ingeldew (who also built, among others, Wragbytower mill in 1831, Waltham Windmillin 1837, and the former Pickworth tower mill) for her first owner and founder Michael Hare of red brick, the outer walls being tarred (provided with a black bitumen paint in order to successfully keep moisture out), as a five-sailed windmill (very similar to Alford Windmill) with Sutton's single patent sails (15 feet tip-width and 12 feet heel-width) providing longitudinal shutters on both sides of the backs (36 feet in length). The mill has six storeys called "floors": ground floor, meal floor, stone (stage) floor, lower bin floor, upper bin floor (hoist floor), dust or cap floor.
At that time the five-armed sail-cross drove three pairs of stones and milled grain for a 60 years period of time. But Mr Hare already died in 1834, and the mill handed over to Mr Sleighton Nash and then to Mr Joseph Nash who became its last miller before its defunction in 1890. A horrible tail-wind made the sails run backwards after the destruction of the fantail by lightning leaving the cap rotating uncontrolled, blew off the entire cap with the curb smashing it with parts of the upper gear and all the five sails to pieces, and destroyed the tower rim. Mr Nash had to abandoned the wrecked mill.
In 1891 a Mr John Pocklington of Wyberton mill had bought the eight-sailed mill cap with gear of the 78 years old defunct Tuxford's mill (built in 1813 at
Skirbeckby the Tuxford millwright family as an example of their fine work) for just £72 at auction in Boston without any plans (N.B. the cost of a towerwindmill were ~£2.000 in 1830). As a condition of the deal, he had to remove all the machinery from the mill site. So he was in an urgent need for a suitable mill stump to mount the cap on, as he had no place to put his new acquisition. Luckily he came across the wrecked Heckington mill, bought it subsequently, and, from 1891 until early 1892, he fitted the white onion-shaped and fantail-driven Tuxford's Mill cap to the Heckington Mill and set it working for the following 54 years. Later on he installed a large circular saw-mill in a shed on one side, also driven by wind-power using line-shafts. It was used to make elm boards for coffins. John Pocklington was very successful in milling, baking, building, sawing, and farming. In that time and even up today the mill was also called the Pocklington's Mill.
After John Pocklington's death in 1941 the mill stopped working in 1946 for the next 40 years. The shutters ("shades" in Lincs) were removed from the sails. In 1953 the mill came into the hands of
Kesteven County Councilwho made the first restorations preventing the fine old mill from being dismantled and restoring it as a rare landmark. Only four of the eight sails could be installed (from the Old Bolingbrokeand Wainfleet St Marymills, ~ 22/25 miles north east of Heckington). When the mill changed hands to Lincolnshire County Councilin 1986 the mill was finally restored to working order (the repairs included the construction of 192 new shades and four new sails sustained by the "Friends of Heckington Mill", with the new sails cross weighing five tons. The cap's overhang assures the fact it is from a mill with a much wider tower top. As a rare feature with post and smock mills (Dutch type mills) and common with "sail windmills" (with pole-shaped sailstocks and triangular sails) such as around the Mediterranean Sea) the sail-tips are linked together by steel rods or cables to prevent sagging in the sails, a probably unnecessary work with this kind of mill sails. Parts of the bigger timber wheels have iron teeth instead of wooden ones. Among the six floors the third one being the lower of the two bin floors provides two grain cleaners (a modern one driven by an electric motor and the other an old wind-driven separator. On the second floor, the stone and stage floor, there are the original three pairs of stones (two pairs of grey and one pair of French quartzite stones) and a drive down to the first floor with a fourth pair of stones. On the ground floor a fifth pair of stones was installed which could also be driven by wind if desired or rather by engine. The mill houses a mixer on the first floor and in addition an elevator from the ground floor. Due to its large sail area supplied by its eight sails and its well-winded site the mill is able to drive four pairs of millstones - now 2 pairs of French (quartzite) stones and 2 pairs of so called Peak stones ( Derbyshire sandstone) and is able to work in very light breezes, when other local mills don't. An additional dresser is used to make white flour from time to time.
Now the distinctive eight-sails windmill is run by the Friends of Heckington Mill and was reopened in
1986. In 2004 the mill underwent its last larger restoration.
The mill is open to visitors:
* Open Easter to 16th July from Thursday to Sunday, 12 pm - 5 pm.
* Open 17th July to 10th September daily, 12 pm - 5 pm.
* Through winter open Sundays, 1 pm - 4 pm.
Eight Sailed Windmills
Heckington Windmill is the last one of around 12 eight-sailed windmills in all England and four in Lincolnshire including
*"Skirbeck Mill (Tuxford's Mill)",
*"Preston Place Mill",
Angmering, Sussex(a small multipurpose mill for farming use)
Old Buckenhamtower windmill", Norfolk, still standing as a four-sailed mill after her damage in 1879
DissVictoria Road tower mill", in 1880 converted into a four-sailed mill (in 1972 into a residence)
* "Leach's tower mill" in
Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, the eight-storeyed now defunct tallest eight-sailer ever built.
These mills were partly converted into four-sailed mills, into residences, were dismantled, or still exist as ruins.
Mediterraneanwindmills ("sail-windmills") seem to have more sails, but their sails are in fact up to six long poles ('polestocks') forming a wheel-shaped sail-cross of 12 round sailstocks each holding one triangular sail. They don't have shutter-type or lattice-type sails (with canvas sails attached to the lattice blades) as they come with Dutch-type windmills the Heckington Windmill belongs to. Beside this there are a few post mills in Northern and Eastern Europe with six short (~ 15 ft) paddle-shaped sails, and in Finlandthere are some eight-sailed hollow-post windmills with a similar type of short sails [ [http://www.der-nordfahrer.de/images/BilderSkandinavientour2000/Windmuehle.jpgFinnish eight-sailed hollow-post windmill] ] .
Working Windmills In Lincolnshire
Today there are eight working windmills in all of Lincolnshire.
*Ellis Mill in Lincoln
Mount Pleasant Millin Kirton in Lindsey
*Dobson's Mill (a museum windmill) in
Maud Foster Windmillin Skirbeck, Boston, Lincolnshire(tallest working windmill in all England)
Waltham Windmill(a museum windmill)
*Heckington Windmill, the world's only eight-sailed Dutch type tower windmill
Alford, Mount Pleasant, and Maud Foster Windmills are commercially working mills.
* [http://www.leytransport.i12.com/boxo.htm Photo]
* [http://www.urban75.org/photos/england/heckington.html descriptive site]
* VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klOalvIQSf0
* VIDEO: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HxzKf_4jGkQ
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