- Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps
The Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps (BVRC) was created in 1894 as a reserve for the Regular Army infantry component of the
BermudaGarrison. Re-named the "Bermuda Rifles" in 1948, it was amalgamated into the Bermuda Regimentin 1965.
Formation of the BVRC
The reason for the military garrison in Bermuda was ultimately the protection of the Royal Naval dockyard on Ireland Island. At the time, the primary defence was seen to be by the
coastal artillery, mounted in various batteries and fortifications and manned by the Royal Garrison Artillery (RGA). A voluntary reserve was created for the RGA at the same time, titled the Bermuda Militia Artillery. If, despite the best efforts of the artillery, enemy vessels succeeded in landing military forces on Bermuda (which was most likely to be achieved using small boats to cross over the reefs to reach beaches on the South Shore), the infantry was expected to tackle them, in the worst scenario, making a fighting withdrawal into the forts and the dockyard itself.
The BVRC was formed under an act of the Colonial Parliament, passed in 1892. Captain E.S.B. Evans-Lombe, of the Prince of Wales Leinster Regiment, arrived in November, 1894, to oversee the raising of the Corps, and became the first Adjutant. The BVRC was originally divided into three companies (A, B, and C), one each located in the West End, the centre, and the East End of Bermuda. Headquarters was located centrally, where a fourth Company, D, was added. Twelve officers were appointed, including the Commanding Officer, Major Sir Josiah Rees, three for each of the original three companies, a Surgeon-Lieutenant and a Chaplain. To these were added four Permanent Staff, attached from the Regular Army, including Captain Evans-Lombe, a Regimental Sergeant Major (RSM), and two Non-Commissioned Officers (NCO). The mandated strength of the Corps was 300, all ranks. The lowest rank in the BVRC, as with other rifle regiments, was Rifleman, which was equivalent to a private in a normal infantry regiment (the first rifle regiments had been distinguished from infantry units by their weapons, their tactics, and their green (camouflage) uniforms. When the Enfield rifle replaced the musket as the standard weapon of the British Army, there ceased to be any distinction between the equipment and tactics of the infantry and those of the rifle and light infantry regiments).
Recruitment into the BVRC was restricted to white males, aged 17 to 50, although the barrier to non-whites was achieved by requiring volunteers to be members of a rifle club. All of the private rifle clubs, at the time, restricted their membership to whites. The terms of service for the Bermudian volunteers were similar to those of Volunteers in Britain. Enlistment was voluntary, and a member could leave the Corps by giving fourteen days notice, except while embodied for active service, or training on a military camp-when he also became subject to Military Law. Whereas Volunteers in Britain were originally expected to pay for their uniforms and equipment (including their rifles), Bermudian volunteers were issued these. The uniform was rifle green with black buttons, in conformity with other rifle regiments throughout the Empire, but khaki uniforms were issued from 1898. A minimum attendance at drills, and completion of annual inspection and musketry tests, was required for a volunteer to be returned as 'efficient'. The Corps could be called out in times of War, or in response to an invasion, but volunteers could not be sent overseas without their consent.
The Great War
The BVRC continued to train and develop over the next two decades. When war was declared in 1914, it was embodied to fulfill its role within the Garrison. As the economy would have suffered from taking so many young men from their jobs, members continued to perform their civil jobs, before taking their turns standing sentry at the many places around Bermuda that the BVRC was tasked with guarding. The primary task the BVRC was given was guarding the coastline, but it filled other roles as well. Bermuda, as a whole, filled a number of roles, during the War, the most important of which was as a staging point for trans-Atlantic convoys, overseen from the Royal Navy's dockyard on Ireland Island.
Despite operating under this constraint, the BVRC quickly formed a detachment in December, 1914, to send overseas to the Western Front. This contingent was composed of volunteers who were already serving, as well as those who enlisted specifically for the Front. The Contingent trained at Warwick Camp through the winter and Spring. It consisted of Captain Richard Tucker and eighty-eight other ranks. As there was a shortage of officers, the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Lieut.-General Sir. George Bullock, filled the role of Adjutant. The Contingent left Bermuda for England in June, travelling to Canada, then crossing the Atlantic in company with a much larger Canadian draft. It had been hoped that the Contingent could be attached to the Second Battalion of The Lincolnshire Regiment (2 Lincolns), which had been on Garrison in Bermuda when the War began. When the Contingent arrived at the Lincolns depot in Grimsby, the 2nd Battalion was already in France and it was attached to 1 Lincolns, instead. Although commanders at the Regimental Depot had wanted to break the Contingent apart, re-enlist its members as Lincolns, and distribute them as replacements, a letter from the War Office ensured that they remained together as a unit, under their own badge. The contingent arrived in France in July, the first colonial volunteer unit to reach the Front, as an extra company attached to 1 Lincolns, and remained as such til the following summer, by when its strength had been too reduced by casualties to compose a full company, having lost 50% of its remaining strength at
Gueudecourton 25 September, 1916.
The survivors of the First Contingent were merged with a Second Contingent, of one officer and thirty-six other ranks, who had trained in Bermuda as Vickers machine gunners, which had recently arrived from Bermuda. The Second Contingent was stripped of its Vickers machine guns (which had been collected, in the Army, under a new regiment, the
Machine Gun Corps). The merged contingents were retrained as Lewis light machinegunners, and provided twelve gun teams to 1 Lincolns headquarters. By the War's end, the two contingents had lost over 75% of their combined strength. Forty had died on active service, one received the O.B.E, and six the Military Medal. Sixteen members of the two contingents were commissioned, including the Sergeant Major of the First Contingent, Colour-Sergeant R.C. Earl, who would become Commanding Officer of the BVRC after the War. Some of those commissioned moved to other units in the process, including to the Royal Flying Corps. In 1918, 1 Lincolns was withdrawn from France and sent to Ireland to combat the army of the Irish Republic, declared in 1916.
Between The Wars
In Britain, the Volunteer Army had been re-organised in 1908, absorbing the remaining Militia and Yeomanry units, to form the
Territorial Army(TA). The BVRC was re-organised along TA lines after the Great War. It's association with the Lincolnshire Regiment was made official, with the Lincolns taking on the paternal role it played with its own Territorial battalions. In 1931, a third local Territorial, the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers, was formed in 1931, incorporating the signals section of the BVRC.The Regular Army artillery and infantry detachments to the Garrison were reduced, again, after the War, and the local volunteers took on more of their role. There would no longer be a full infantry battalion in Bermuda. Instead, a detachment would be provided from the battalion sent to Jamaica.
The Second World War
The BVRC began mobilisation on
3 September, 1939, even before news was received of the declaration of war, when Britain issued Germany with an ultimatum to withdraw from Poland. As in the previous war, it took up positions guarding the coastlines, but its duties soon grew more numerous. Members of the Territorials were called-up for the duration, and conscription was introduced to increase their strengths in October, 1940. Another infantry unit, the Bermuda Militia Infantry, had been raised in 1939, recruiting blacks, and linked administratively with the BMA. The infantry duties of the Garrison were split between these two Territorials, and the detachment from the 2nd Battalion, King's Shropshire Light Infantry(KSLI) at Prospect Camp.Also as in the previous war, a Contingent was soon detached, composed of volunteers for service at sharper ends of the War. A few members of the BVE and the BMA travelled with this contingent to England, where the BVRC members were re-enlisted into the Lincolnshire Regiment. This Contingent included two officers, Robert Brownlow-Tucker and Anthony 'Toby' Smith, who became Company Commanders in the Lincolns before the War's end. They were among four Bermudians who would reach the rank of Major with the Lincolns (although one, Glyn Gilbert, never served in the BVRC).Due to fears of stripping the Garrison, a moratoriumwas placed on further drafts being sent overseas from Bermudian units. This moratorium was not lifted until 1943, when both the BVRC and the Bermuda Militia (the BMI and BMA together) deteached contingents to send overseas. The two contingents trained together at Prospect Camp, before going their separate ways. The BVRC left Bermuda in May, 1944, to join the Lincolns in England. The contingent members were rebadged as Lincolns, and most joined 2 Lincolns in Belgium, as the Allies advanced into North-West Europe. They had travelled as part of a Company of reinforcements under the command of Bermudian Major 'Toby' Smith, who was killed-in-action shortly after, along with three other Bermudians. While in England, eleven of second contingent had volunteered to join the Airborne Division, training as parachutists.
Post-Second World War
After the War, the BVRC men, who had travelled to Europe as units, returned individually, as each waited for his 'number' to come up. The BVRC and the BMA sent contingents to the Victory Parade in London. In 1946, however, both units were demobilised and reduced to skeleton command structures. The other two Territorials were both disbanded, but the BVRC and BMA were brought back up to strength in 1948.At that time, the BVRC was retitled the "Bermuda Rifles". The loss of the word 'volunteer' was probably prudent, as conscription was re-introduced to both units. In 1953, it was announced that the HM Dockyard would be closed. This meant that the military garrison, which had existed primarily to guard the naval base, would be closed, also. The last Regular Army unit (a detchment of the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry) was withdrawn by 1955, and the Dockyard closed in 1958.1953 was also the last year of the Imperial Defence Plan, under which the Bermudian units had been tasked, and the year in which the last of the coastal artillery was taken out of use. The BMA, while still wearing Royal Artillery uniform and cap badge, converted to the infantry role. With no tasking under the War Office, and its successor, the Ministry of Defence, or under NATO, both units might have been disbanded, but the Bermuda Government, for reasons of its own, chose to maintain them entirely at its own expense.
A new role began to appear as Bermuda moved into the 1960s, when increasing tension resulting from the racial division and inequity of Bermudian society occasionally spilled over into violence. By then, it was rapidly becoming politically, as well as economically, inexpedient to maintain two, racially-divided infantry units. As a result, the Bermuda Rifles and the Bermuda Militia Artillery were amalgamated in September, 1965, to form the
The Bermuda Regiment badge is a combination of the
Maltese Crossof the BVRC badge, and the field gun of the Royal Artillery badge. The unit maintains the history and traditions of both of its predecessors, and it possesses the battle honours that were awarded to the BVRC, although they are not displayed on its colours.
Regular Army in Bermuda, 1701-1955
Bermuda Militias 1612-1815
*"Defence, Not Defiance: A History Of The Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps", Jennifer M. Ingham (now Jennifer M. Hind), ISBN 0-9696517-1-6. Printed by The Island Press Ltd., Pembroke, Bermuda.
*"Bermuda Forts 1612–1957", Dr. Edward C. Harris, The Bermuda Maritime Museum Press, The Bermuda Maritime Museum, P.O. Box MA 133, Mangrove Bay, Bermuda MA BX.
*"Bulwark Of Empire: Bermuda's Fortified Naval Base 1860-1920", Lt.-Col. Roger Willock, USMC, The Bermuda Maritime Museum Press, The Bermuda Maritime Museum, P.O. Box MA 133, Mangrove Bay, Bermuda MA BX.
*"Flying Boats Of Bermuda", Sqn.-Ldr. Colin A. Pomeroy, ISBN 0-9698332-4-5, Printlink, PO Box 937, Hamilton, Bermuda HM DX.
*"Bermuda From Sail To Steam: The History Of The Island From 1784 to 1901", Dr. Henry Wilkinson, Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, UK OX2 6DP.
* [http://www.geocities.com/gpvillain/arma Bermuda Military History]
* [http://www.bermuda-online.org/warveterans.htm Bermuda Online: Bermuda's War Veterans]
* [http://www.researchpress.co.uk/volunteers/index.htm Research Press: Volunteer Infantry]
* [http://www.thelincolnshireregiment.org/index.shtml Lincoln Branch, The Royal Lincolnshire & Royal Anglian Regimental Association.]
Bermuda Military of Bermuda Bermuda Volunteer/Territorial Army Units 1895-1965
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