Timeline of Indian history


Timeline of Indian history

This is a timeline of Indian history. It includes the history of South Asia (Indian subcontinent), especially the history of the regions now known India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

tone age

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (9000-7000 BC)

The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau. Within massive sandstone outcrops, above comparatively dense forest, are five clusters of natural rock shelters, displaying paintings that appear to date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period. The site is a U.N world heritage site. [ [http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=925 Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka] ]

Mehrgarh Culture (7000-3300 BC)

*7000 BC: Mehrgarh Culture (Period I) begins, which was one of the world's earliest Neolithic cultures
*5500 BC: Period II of Mehrgarh begins
*4800 BC: Period III of Mehrgarh begins
*3500 BC: Period IV of Mehrgarh begins
*3300 BC: Period IV of Mehrgarh ends

Bronze age

Indus Valley Civilization (3300-1900 BC)

*3300 BC: Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan civilization or sometimes as "Sindu-Sarasvati Civilization") began in Harappa (starting with the Ravi phase), and was one of the world's three earliest urban civilizations, contemporary to Sumer (in Mesopotamia/Iraq) and ancient Egypt.
*2800 BC: Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.The civilization at this time used an early form of the Indus script ("Harappan script").
*2600 BC: Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of what is now Pakistan, much of northwestern and western India, and parts of Afghanistan and Iran; It covered a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined; it also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus script.
*1900 BC: Late Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins.
*1700 BC: Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture and other cultures.

Vedic Era (1500-500 BC)

*1500-1000 BC: early Vedic period *Rigveda, in the northwestern subcontinent and Afghanistan.
*1300 BC: Cemetery H culture comes to an end

Iron age

*1000 BC: Iron Age India
*600 BC: Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge. A number of these Maha Janapadas are semi-democratic "republics", rather oligarchies.
*599 BC: Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born
*563 BC: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), founder of Buddhism is born as a prince of the Shakya tribe, which ruled parts of what is now N. Bihar and S. Nepal.
*538 BC: Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquers parts of the northwestern subcontinent.
*c. 350 BC: Panini describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit
*Vedic Civilization comes to an end after the Historical Vedic religion evolves into early classical Hinduism

Ancient India (500 BC - 550 AD)

*333 BC: Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire
*326 BC: Ambhi ("Omphis"/"Taxiles" in Greek), king of Taxila ("Takshashila" in Sanskrit) surrenders to Alexander ("Sikander" in Hindustani)
** Paurava "Porus" (in Greek) who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River
*321 BC: Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya ("Sandrokottos" in Greek) after he defeats the Magadhan Empire and Macedonian Seleucid Empire
*305 BC: Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire
*304 BC: Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent and in Afghanistan/Baluchistan to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
*273 BC: Ashoka the Great (regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor), grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
*266 BC: Ashoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with parts of Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
*265 BC: Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
**After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he had done, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire
*260s: Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-violence and republicanism
**Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
*232 BC: Ashoka dies and is succeeded by Dasaratha.
*230 BC:Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.
*200-100 BC: Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE)
*184 BC: The Mauryan Empire, which shrunk considerably, collapsed after its emperor Brihadrata was assassinated by his Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga who then established the Sunga dynasty.
*180 BC: Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom.
*80 BC: Establishment of the Indo-Scythian kingdom.
*65 BC: The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to Greek and Roman lands.
*10: Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.
*68: Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.
*78: Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Vikramaditya.
*240: Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire
*320: Chandragupta I ascends to the Gupta throne.
*335: Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
*380: Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
*450; Begin of invasions of the Hephtalite Huns (Huna).

Medieval India (550-1526 AD)

*606: Harshavardhana crowned king.
*637: Badami Chalukya power at its peak. Pulakesi II pushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhana of Kanauj.
*761: First Muslim, Md. Bin Qasim defeats King Dahir
*800: Shankaracharya
*814: Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta king. Kannada literature flourishes.
*1000: Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni
*1030: Alberuni arrivies in India; blah of Ghazni
*1120: Kalyani Chalukya power at its peak. Vikramaditya VI ushers in "Vikrama Chalukya era".
*1134-1196: Life of Basaveshwara, Philosopher and social reformer
*1191: First battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III and Ghauri is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
*1192: Second battle of Tarain fought between Ghauri and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III but Prithivi Raj Chauhan III defeated and captured near swarswati river and his son became king of Ranthambhore.
*1194: Battle of Chandawar fought between Ghauri and Jayachandra and Ghauri defeated Jayachandra and killed him.

Post-Medieval Era (1526-1818)

*1526: Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the Battle of Panipat.
*1527 Babur makes secret pact with Mewar general Silhadi that he will give Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar King Rana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
*1530 Babur completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries. Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
*1556 Humayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.
*1572 Akbar annexes Gujarat.
*1574 Akbar annexes Bengal.
*1586 Akbar annexes Kashmir.
*1600 East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.
*1605 Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jehangir.
*1628 Jehangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor. Jehangir dies, and is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan.
*1630 Birth of Shivaji.
*1644 Shivaji takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.
*1658 Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
*1659 Shivaji's ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat mighty Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh in a major upset in Indian history. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan in a thrilling fashion.
*1674 Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire.
*1680 Shivaji dies of fever at Raigad.
*1681 Aurangzeb invades the Deccan
*1707 Aurangzeb dies, and is succeeded by son Bahadur Shah I.
*1707 Civil war breaks in Maharashtra between Maharani Tarabai and Shahu, Maratha Empire breaks into two divisions.
*1717 Pamheiba decrees Vaishnavism as the state religion of Manipur
*1719 Bajirao I is appointed the Peshwa by Maratha Emperor Shahu.
*1734 Pamheiba invades Tripura
*1735 Annexation of Rajputana by Peshwa Bajirao
*1737 Bajirao I conquers Delhi, Mughal Emperor is spared and kept as titular head.
*1740 Bajirao I annexes Bengal and Orissa.
*1740 Bajirao I dies, with the distinction of winning every battle he fought. He is succeeded by Balaji Bajirao
*1757 The British East India Company's private army under Robert Clive annexes Bengal for the company in the Battle of Plassey. Edmund Burke has Robert Clive arrested for the act.
*1760 Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam, Maratha Empire reaches its zenith.
*1761 The Marathas are defeated in the Third battle of Panipat bringing an end to their expansion.
*1766 First Anglo-Mysore War begins.
*1768 Ching-Thang Khomba and Suramphaa invade Manipur.
*1769 First Anglo-Mysore War ends.
*1772 Young Madhavrao Peshwa dies of tuberculosis.
*1773 Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao.
*1774 Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew.
*1777 First Anglo-Maratha War begins.
*1779 Maratha "sardar" Mahadji Shinde routs the British army at the Battle of Wadgaon.
*1782 First Anglo-Maratha War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
*1780 Second Anglo-Mysore War begins.
*1784 Second Anglo-Mysore War ends with the Treaty of Mangalore.
*1789 Third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
*1790 The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne comprehensively defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and their Mughal allies at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence
*1792 Third Anglo-Mysore War ends.
*1796 Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur's capital to Kangla
*1798 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins.
*1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan and the restoration of the Wodeyar dynasty.
*1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War begins
*1805 Second Anglo-Maratha War ends
*1817 Third Anglo-Maratha War begins
*1818 Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire leaving the British with control of almost the whole of India

Colonial Era (1818-1947)

*1818 - 1822
*1853
*1857 First Indian Rebellion, also known as the Indian Mutiny to the British, and the First War of Indian Independence to Indians.
*1861 - 1869 - 1870 - 1874 - 1875 - 1877 - 1885 - 1887 - 1889 - 1905 - 1906 - 1907 - 1911 - 1919
*1921 Rajaji appointed Congress Party president
*1922 - 1923 - 1924 - 1925 - 1925 - 1927 - 1928 - 1930 - 1931 - 1932 - 1934 - 1935 - 1936 - 1937 - 1938 - 1939 - 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 - 1946

Post-Partition (1947 - Present)

Republic of India

=Pakistan=
* 1948: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the first governor general of Pakistan, dies
* 1951: Prime minister Khan Liaqat Ali Khan assassinated
* 1956: The Constituent Assembly promulgates first indigenous constitution
* 1958: After a military coup Ayub Khan takes over
* 1960: Ayub Khan becomes first elected president
* 1965: Second war between Pakistan and India over Kashmir
* 1969: Ayub Khan resigns; Yahya Khan declares martial law and assumes presidency
* 1971: East Pakistan attempts to secede, leading to civil war; India intervenes in support of East Pakistan; Pakistan fights another war with India; East Pakistan breaks away to become Bangladesh; Yahya Khan resigns.
* 1973: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister
* 1977: General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq overthrows prime minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and declares martial law
* 1978: General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq becomes Pakistan's sixth president
* 1979: Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto hanged
* 1979: The military ruler Zia Ul-Haq enacts the controversial Hudood Ordinances
* 1985: General elections held; Muhammad Khan Junejo becomes prime minister
* 1988: Zia dismisses Junejo's government; Zia dies in a plan crash; New elections held; Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister
* 1988: Prominent Pashtun leadar Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan dies in Peshawar
* 1990: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismisses Benazir Bhutto government; Mian Nawaz Sharif becomes the next prime minister
* 1991: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif begins economic liberalisation programme. Islamic Shariah law formally incorporated into legal code.
* 1993: President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif both resign under pressure from military. Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister for the second time
* 1996: President Farooq Leghari dismisses Bhutto government
* 1997: General elections held; Nawaz Sharif becomes prime minister for the second time
* 1998: Pakistan conducts nuclear tests
* 1999: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif overthrown in military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf
* 2001: General Pervez Musharraf dismissed the president and named himself to the post.
* 2002: General Pervez Musharraf wins a referendum thus ensures 5 more years in office
* 2002: First general elections since the 1999 military coup held; Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali becomes the next prime minister
* 2004: Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali resigns from office
* 2004: Shaukat Aziz is sworn in as prime minister
* 2005: A 7.5 magnitude earthquake kills an estimated 80,000 people in northern Pakistan. (see:2005 Pakistan earthquake)
* 2006: Pakistan army kills the prominent Baloch leader Nawab Akbar khan Bugti
* 2007: Chief Justice of Pakistan removed from office and reinstated. 2007 Karachi Riots. Lal Masjid Operation
* 2007: President Pervez Musharraf declares a 2007 Pakistani state of emergency and later removes it after domestic and international pressure
* 2008: Pakistani former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto assassinated

References

Further reading

*Sengupta, P.C. "Ancient Indian Chronology". Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press. 1947.

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1155813.stm BBC India Timeline]


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