Passalidae


Passalidae

Taxobox



image_width = 250px
image_caption = Adult "Odontotaenius disjunctus"


image2_width = 250px
image2_caption = Larva of "Odontotaenius disjunctus"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
classis = Insecta
ordo = Coleoptera
superfamilia = Scarabaeoidea
familia = Passalidae
familia_authority = Leach, 1815
diversity_link = Passalidae
diversity = > 500 species
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "Mastochilus"
"Odontotaenius"
"Passalus"
"Pharochilus"
"Ptichopus":"many more"

Passalidae is a family of beetles known variously as "bessbugs"cite web |url=ttp://eny3005.ifas.ufl.edu/lab1/Coleoptera/Passalid.htm |title=Family Identification. Coleoptera: Passalidae |author=John L. Foltz |publisher=University of Florida |date=2001-07-08] , "bess beetles", "betsy beetles" or "horned passalus beetles" [cite journal |quotes=no |title=Beetle-mania: a guide to conspicuous Coleoptera | journal=Y.E.S. Quarterly |volume=11 |issue=2 |year=1994 |author=Gary A. Dunn & Daniel K. Young |url=http://members.aol.com/yesclub2/btlmania.html] . Nearly all of the 500-odd species are tropical; species found in North America are notable for their size, ranging from 20-43 mm, for having a single "horn" on the head, and for a form of social behavior unusual among beetles.

Bodies elongate-cylindrical and black overall; ventral surfaces may be covered with yellow setae. The head is narrower than the thorax, with antennae consisting of 10 antennomeres with a three-segment club. The elytra are elongate with parallel sides, and heavily striated.

They are subsocial (brood caring) beetles living in groups in rotting logs. They care for their young by preparing food for them and helping the larvae construct the pupal case. Both adults and larvae must consume adult feces which have been further digested by microflora for a time; an arrangement that might be described as a sort of external rumen.

In addition, they are also able to produce fourteen acoustical signals, more than many vertebrates. Adults produce the sounds by rubbing the upper surface of the abdomen against the hind wings. The larvae produce the sounds by rubbing the third leg against a striated area on the coxa of the second leg.

While the taxonomy of Nearctic species is well-known (four species in the US, and 90 in Mexico), bess beetles in other parts of the world need further study.

Of North American species, "Odontotaenius disjunctus" ("synonym: Popilius disjunctus") is the familiar bessbug found throughout the eastern US and Canada, while "O. floridanus" has only been found in Florida on sand hills that used to be islands when Florida was flooded thousands of years ago. "Ptichopus angulatus" was recently discovered near the border of Mexico in Arizona. Its habitat is south of Colombia and it is commonly associated with the detritus chambers of leafcutter ant nests ("Atta" spp.). Two other species were reported from Arizona at the beginning of the 20th century, but have not been seen there since that time; they may have been brought from Mexico by a train hauling firewood.

elected Species

*Genus "Aceraius":"Aceraius grandis"
*Genus "Ceracupes":"Ceracupes arrowi"
*Genus "Chondrocephalus":"Chondrocephalus debilis":"Chondrocephalus granulifrons"
*Genus "Cylindrocaulus":"Cylindrocaulus patalis"
*Genus "Heliscus":"Heliscus tropicus"
*Genus "Leptaulax":"Leptaulax bicolor"
*Genus "Odontotaenius":"Odontotaenius disjunctus" (patent-leather beetle):"Odontotaenius floridanus":"Odontotaenius striatopunctatus"
*Genus "Ogyges":"Ogyges laevior"
*Genus "Oileus":"Oileus rimator"
*Genus "Passalus":"Passalus affinis":"Passalus caelatus":"Passalus elfriedae":"Passalus inops":"Passalus interruptus":"Passalus interstitialis":"Passalus jansoni":"Passalus latifrons":"Passalus pugionifer":"Passalus punctatostriatus":"Passalus punctiger":"Passalus spiniger":"Passalus unicornis"
*Genus "Paxillus":"Paxillus leachi":"Paxillus pentataphylloides"
*Genus "Pentalobus":"Pentalobus barbatus"
*Genus "Petrejoides":"Petrejoides orizabae"
*Genus "Popilius":"Popilius eclipticus"
*Genus "Proculus":"Proculus burmeisteri":"Proculus mniszechi"
*Genus "Ptichopus":"Ptichopus angulatus"
*Genus "Publius":"Publius agassizi"
*Genus "Spasalus":"Spasalus crenatus"
*Genus "Spurius":"Spurius bicornis"
*Genus "Verres":"Verres corticicola":"Verres hageni"
*Genus "Veturius":"Veturius transversus"

Footnotes

References

* Jack C. Schuster, "Passalidae", in Ross H. Arnett, Jr. and Michael C. Thomas, "American Beetles" (CRC Press, 2002), vol. 2
* BugGuide [http://bugguide.net/node/view/127 Passalidae]

External links


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