1645


1645

Year 1645 (MDCXLV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar).

Events of 1645

January - June


* January 10 - Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud is executed for treason on Tower Hill, London.
* January 14 - English Civil War: Fairfax is appointed Commander-in-Chief.
* January 29 - English Civil War: Armistice talks open at Uxbridge.
* February 2 - Battle of Inverlochy: The Covenanters are defeated by Montrose.
* February 15 - English Civil War: The New Model Army is officially founded.
* February 29 - English Civil War: Uxbridge armistice talks fail.
* March 4 - English Civil War: Prince Rupert leaves Oxford for Bristol.
* March 31 - Fearing the spread of the Black Death (plague), Edinburgh Town Council bans all gatherings except weddings and funerals.
* April 3 - The House of Lords passes the Self-Denying Ordinance.
* April 10 - Because of the plague, the Edinburgh town council orders that the college graduation ceremony should be brought forward so that students can leave the city (in November 19, teaching continues in Linlithgow).
* April 23 - English Civil War: One hundred fifty Irish soldiers bound for service with King Charles are captured at sea by Parliamentarians, who celebrate St George's Day by joyfully killing them all at Pembroke.
* May 9 - Battle of Auldearn: The Covenanters are defeated by Montrose.
* June 1 - English Civil War: Prince Rupert's army sacks Leicester.
* June 10 - English Civil War: Oliver Cromwell is confirmed as the Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry.
* June 14 - English Civil War - Battle of Naseby: 12,000 Royalist forces are beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers.
* June 28 - English Civil War: The Royalists lose Carlisle.

July - December


* July 2: Fight at Alford, Aberdeenshire.
* July 10 - English Civil War - Battle of Langport: Cromwell wins at Somerset.
* July 23 - Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich of Russia comes to the throne.
* August 13 - The Treaty of Brömsebro is signed between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, ceding Jemtland, Herjedalen, Gotland and Ösel (Saaremaa) to Sweden, and holding the province of Halland for a period of 30 years as a guarantee.
* September 10 - English Civil War: Prince Rupert surrenders Bristol.
* September 13 - Battle of Philiphaugh: Covenanters defeat Montrose at Selkirk.
* September 24 - English Civil War - Battle of Rowton Heath: Parliamentarians defeat the Royalist cavalry.
* October 8 - English Civil War: The final crushing of Basing House begins.
* October 8: Jeanne Mance founds the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, the first hospital in North America.
* October 11 - English Civil War: The re-fortification of Bourne, Lincolnshire Castle begins against a threatened Royalist attack.

Undated

* The Siege of Raglan Castle occurs during the English Civil War.
* The Long Parliament outlaws the 1559 version of the Book of Common Prayer.
* Beginning of the Maunder Minimum, a time period when sunspots became exceedingly rare.
* The Stolberg-Wernigerode branch of the family of counts of Stolberg and Wernigerode is founded in Germany.
* Wallpaper begins to replace tapestries as a wall decoration.
* Bamana forces from Segou invade the Mali heartland, destroying the Mali Empire after its 400 years as a unified state.
* In the Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan builds the Pearl Mosque at Lahore Fort.

Ongoing events

* English Civil War (1642-1649).
* Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
* Eighty Years' War (1566-1648).
* Maunder Minimum (1645-1715).

Births


* August 10 - Eusebio Kino, Italian Catholic missionary (d. 1711)
* August 16 - Jean de La Bruyère, French writer (d. 1696)
* September 21 - Louis Joliet, Canadian explorer (d. 1700)
*"unknown date" - Gian Antonio Fumiani, Italian painter of the Baroque period (d. 1710)
*"probable" - Captain William Kidd, Scottish pirate (d. 1701)

: "See also ."

Deaths


* January 10 - William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1573)
* June 13 - Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese swordsman (b. c.1584)
* July 13 - Tsar Michael I of Russia (b. 1596)
* July 17 - Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, Scottish politician (b. c.1590)
* July 22 - Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, Count-Duke of Olivares, Spanish statesman (b. 1587)
* August 6 - Lionel Cranfield, 1st Earl of Middlesex, English merchant (b. 1575)
* August 16 - Tobias Hume, English composer (b. c.1559)
* August 18 - Eudoxia Streshneva, tsaritsa, wife of Mikhail I of Russia (b. 1608)
* August 28 - Hugo Grotius, Dutch philosopher and writer (b. 1583)
* September 8 - Francisco de Quevedo, Spanish writer (b. 1580)
* December 12 - Giovanni Bernardino Azzolini or Mazzolini or Asoleni, Italian painter (b. c.1572)

: "See also ."


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