Transposition (chess)


Transposition (chess)

A transposition in chess is a sequence of moves that results in a position which may also be reached by another, more common sequence of moves. Transpositions are particularly common in opening, where a given position may be reached by different sequences of moves. Players sometimes use transpositions deliberately in order to avoid variations they dislike, lure opponents into unfamiliar or uncomfortable territory or simply to worry opponents. cite web | url=http://chess.about.com/od/improveyouropenings/ss/aa03c15_9.htm | title=Chess Opening Tutorial : Introduction to 1.d4 | author=Mark Weeks | publisher=about.com ] cite book | title=Transpo Tricks in Chess | author=Soltis, A. | publisher=Batsford | date=2007 | isbn=0713490519 See review at cite web | url=http://www.chessville.com/reviews/TranspoTricks.htm | title=Transpo Tricks in Chess - review | publisher=chessville.com ]

In chess the verb "transpose" means shifting the game on to a different opening track from that on which it started.

Transposition tables are an essential part of a computer chess program.

Examples

Positions reached by different routes

Chess diagram|=
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| | | |pd|nd| | |=
| | |pd| | | | |=
| |pl|pl| | | | |=
| |nl| | | | | |=
pl|pl| | |pl|pl|pl|pl|=
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Position can arise from Queen's Gambit or English Opening.

For instance, the first position can be obtained from the Queen's Gambit:

* 1. d4 d5
* 2. c4 e6
* 3. Nc3 Nf6

But this position can also be reached from the English opening:

* 1. c4 Nf6
* 2. Nc3 e6
* 3. d4 d5so the English opening has transposed into the Queen's Gambit.
Chess diagram|=
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pd|pd|pd| | |pd|pd|pd|=
| | | | |nd| | |=
| | |pd| | | | |=
| | |pl| | | | |=
| | | | |nl| | |=
pl|pl|pl| | |pl|pl|pl|=
rl|nl|bl|ql|kl|bl| |rl|=
Position can arise from French Defense or Petrov Defense.
The second position shows another example. The position can arise from the French Defence:
* 1. e4 e6
* 2. d4 d5
* 3. exd5 exd5
* 4. Nf3 Nf6can also be obtained in the Petrov Defense:

* 1. e4 e5
* 2. Nf3 Nf6
* 3. Nxe5 d6
* 4. Nf3 Nxe4
* 5. d3 Nf6
* 6. d4 d5 cite book | last=Hooper | first=David | authorlink=David Vincent Hooper | last2=Whyld | first2=Kenneth | authorlink2=Kenneth Whyld | title=The Oxford Companion to Chess | year=1992 | publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=0-19-866164-9 ]

Transposition possibilities of some openings

Some openings are noted for their wide range of possible transpositions, for example the Catalan Opening and Sicilian Defence. cite book | author=Fine, R. | title=Ideas Behind the Chess Openings | 1990, first edition 1943 | publisher=Random House | isbn=0812917561 ]

For a simple example, the opening moves 1. d4 e6 can transpose very quickly into a wide range of openings, including:Chess diagram|=
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| | | |pd| | | |=
| | |pd| | | | |=
| |pl|pl| | | | |=
| | | | | | | |=
pl|pl| | |pl|pl|pl|pl|=
rl|nl|bl|ql|kl|bl|nl|rl|=
Queen's Gambit Declined, after 2 c4 e6. The QGD itself offers a wide range of transposition possibilities
Chess diagram|=
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=
rd|nd|bd|qd|kd|bd| |rd|=
pd|pd|pd|pd| |pd|pd|pd|=
| | | |pd|nd| | |=
| | | | | | | |=
| |pl|pl| | | | |=
| | | | | | | |=
pl|pl| | |pl|pl|pl|pl|=
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After 2 c4 Nf6. This could develop in many ways, including: Queen's Gambit Declined, Nimzo-Indian Defense, Queen's Indian Defense or Modern Benoni Defense.

Chess diagram|=
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=
rd|nd|bd|qd|kd|bd|nd|rd|=
pd|pd|pd|pd| | |pd|pd|=
| | | |pd| | | |=
| | | | |pd| | |=
| |pl|pl| | | | |=
| | | | | | | |=
pl|pl| | |pl|pl|pl|pl|=
rl|nl|bl|ql|kl|bl|nl|rl|=
Dutch Defense, after 2 c4 f5.
Chess diagram|=
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=
rd|nd|bd|qd|kd|bd|nd|rd|=
pd|pd|pd| | |pd|pd|pd|=
| | | |pd| | | |=
| | |pd| | | | |=
| | |pl|pl| | | |=
| | | | | | | |=
pl|pl|pl| | |pl|pl|pl|=
rl|nl|bl|ql|kl|bl|nl|rl|=
French Defence, after 2 e4 d5.

ee also

* Chess terminology

References


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