Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster


Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster

Infobox British Royalty|royal
name =Henry Plantagenet
title =Earl of Lancaster and Leicester



imgw= 140px
spouse =Maud Chaworth
issue =Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
Blanche of Lancaster
Maud of Lancaster
Joan of Lancaster
Isabel of Lancaster
Eleanor of Lancaster
titles =The Earl of Lancaster
The Earl of Leicester
royal house =House of Plantagenet
father =Edmund, Earl of Lancaster
mother =Blanche of Artois
date of birth = abt 1281
date of death = 25 March 1345 (aged 64)
place of death = |

Henry Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1281 – March 25, 1345) was an English nobleman, one of the principals behind the deposition of Edward II.

Lineage

He was the younger son of Blanche of Artois and Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, Earl of Leicester, who was a son of Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence.

Henry's elder brother Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster succeeded their father in 1296, but Henry was summoned to Parliament on February 6, 1298/99 by writ directed "Henrico de Lancastre nepoti Regis", by which he is held to have become Lord Lancaster. He took part in the siege of Carlaverock in July 1300.

Petition for succession and inheritance

Thomas was convicted of treason, executed and his lands and titles forfeited in 1322. But Henry, who had not participated in his brother's rebellion, petitioned for his brother's lands and titles, and on March 29, 1324 he was invested as Earl of Leicester, and a few years later the earldom of Lancaster was also restored to him.

Revenge

On the Queen’s return to England with Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March in September 1326, Henry joined her party against King Edward II, which led to a general desertion of the King’s cause and overturned the power of Hugh le Despenser, 1st Earl of Winchester and his namesake son Hugh the younger Despenser.

He was sent in pursuit and captured the king at Neath in South Wales. He was appointed to take charge of the King, and was responsible for his custody at Kenilworth Castle.

Full restoration and reward

After Edward II's death Henry was appointed guardian of the new king Edward III of England, and was also appointed captain-general of all the King's forces in the Scottish Marches.

Loss of sight

In about the year 1330, he became blind.

Succession

He was succeeded as Earl of Lancaster and Leicester by his eldest son, Henry of Grosmont, who subsequently became Duke of Lancaster.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Arms

Prior to his restoration to his earldoms, Henry bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a "bend azure". Upon his restoration, his difference changed, to a "label France of three points (that is to say azure three fleur-de-lys or, each)". [ [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/cadency.htm Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family] ]

Family

He married Maud Chaworth, before 2 March 1296/1297.

Henry and Maud had seven children:

* Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, (about 1300-1360/61)
* Blanche of Lancaster, (about 1305 - 1380) married Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell
* Maud of Lancaster, (about 1310-1377); married William de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster
* Joan of Lancaster, (about 1312-1345); married John de Mowbray, 3rd Baron Mowbray
* Isabel of Lancaster, Abbess of Ambresbury, (about 1317-after 1347)
* Eleanor of Lancaster, (about 1318-1371/72) married (1) John De Beaumont and (2) 5 Feb. 1344/5, Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl of Arundel;

* Mary of Lancaster, (about 1320-1362), who married Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and was the mother of Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland.

References



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