- Languages of France
country = France [http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf]
image size= 200px
caption = Regional languages
official = French
regional = Alsatian; Basque; Breton; Catalan; Corsican; Flemish; Franco-Provençal;
Lorraine Franconian, Occitan; Oïl languages(except French)
Maghrebi Arabic; Portuguese; Italian; Spanish
foreign = English (36%)
French Sign Language
There are a number of languages of France. The
French languageis by far the most widely spoken and the only official languageof France, but several regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees. Other languages are spoken by a substantial percentage of the population due to immigration.
The official language of the French Republic is French (art. 2 of the French Constitution), and the French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. The government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising should be available in French (though it can also use other languages); "see
Toubon Law". The French government, however, does not mandate the usage of French in non-commercial publications by private individuals or corporations or in any other media.
A revision of the French constitution creating official recognition of
regional languageswas implemented by the Parliament in Congress at Versailles in July 2008. [Article 75-1: (a new article): "Les langues régionales appartiennent au patrimoine de la France" ("Regional languages belong to the patrimony of France"). See Loi constitutionnelle du 23 juillet 2008.]
The 1999 [http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/dglf/ _re. Constitutional Council] ] as contradicting the Fifth Republic's constitutional provision enshrining French as the language of the Republic, the government continues to recognise regional and minority languages to a limited extent (i.e. without granting them official status) and the "Délégation générale à la langue française" has acquired the additional function of observing and studying the languages of France and has had "et aux langues de France" added to its title. The category of "languages of France" (in French: "langues de France") is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go as far as providing any official status.
Some of the languages of France are sometimes called "
patois", but this term (roughly meaning "dialect") is often considered derogatory. "Patois" is used to refer to supposedly purely oral, syntactically loose and inferior languages but this Francocentric perception does not, for instance, take into account that Occitan was already written when French was not and its literature has been thriving throughout the last thousand years, with even a Nobel Prize for Frédéric Mistralin 1904.
In April 2001, the Minister of Education, Jack Lang [http://prouvenco.presso.free.fr/archi.educ.html#lang] , admitted formally that for more than two centuries, the political powers of the French government had repressed regional languages, and announced that bilingual education would, for the first time, be recognised, and bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools.
The topic of the teaching of regional languages in public primary and secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the measure state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages and to show respect to the local culture. Opponents contend that local languages are often non-standardised (thus making curricula difficult), of dubious practical usefulness (since most are spoken by a small number of people, without any sizable corpus of publications) and that the curriculum and funding of public schools are already too strained. The topic also leads to wider controversial questions of autonomy of the "
régions". Regarding other languages, English and Spanish are the most commonly studied foreign languages in French schools.
Some of the languages of France are also cross-border languages (for example, Basque, Catalan, Picard, Norman, Franco-Provençal, Dutch, Occitan and others), some of which enjoy a recognised or official status in the respective neighbouring state or territory (including the
French languageitself in some bordering regions of neighbour countries, such as in "Val-d'Aoste" in Italy).
List of languages
The languages of
** Alsatian (Elsässerdeutsch)
West Flemishdialect of Dutch
** Corsican (Corsu)
Occitan language(also "Lenga d'òc, Langue d'oc"):
*** Nissart (Niçois or Nissart)
** Oïl language family:
There are migrant languages spoken by large minority groups (North Africans) and/or smaller communities, including groups from former French colonies.
* Arabic (dialectal, mainly "
* Armenian (Western Armenian mostly, due to immigration from former French
mandatesin the Middle East, Lebanon and Syria; but there is an increasing minority of Eastern Armenian speakers due to recent immigrants arriving from Armenia, Azerbaijanand Iran).
* English, with significant British communities in
Aquitaine(historic), Britanny, and in Nord-Pas-de-Calais(commuters working in UK but living in France), and from many countries dispersed in Paris and on Côte d’Azur(French Riviera); also the most widely taught foreign language in French schools, colleges and universities (before Spanish and High German), but not widely used and understood after that, except in specific job positions (technical and tourism).
Geg Albanianby refugees from Albania, Kosovoin former Yugoslavia and Republic of Macedonia.
* Portuguese from Portugal and Brazil.
* Serbo-Croatian - Brought over by workers and refugees from former
Yugoslavia, the area made up of republics of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbiaand Montenegro.
* Spanish; the second foreign language taught in French schools.
* Wolof, a West African language of the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, and Western Sahara.
There are also several languages spoken in France's overseas areas (see
Administrative divisions of Francefor details)
Amerindianlanguages in French Guiana
Creole languagesin French West Indiesand Réunion
* English in
Melanesianlanguages in New Caledonia
Polynesian languages- in New Caledonia, Wallis & Futunaand French Polynesia(e.g., Tahitian)
shiMaoreand shiBushiin Mayotte French Sign Languageis also recognised as a language of France.
At the 1999 census,
INSEEsampled 380,000 adult people all across Metropolitan France, and asked them questions about their family situation. One of the questions was about the languages that their parents spoke with them before the age of 5. This is the first time serious statistics were computed about the proportion of mother tongues in France. The results were published in "Enquête familiale, Insee, 1999".
Here is a list of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France based on "Enquête familiale".
If we add up people with mother tongue and people with some exposure to the language before the age of 5 (see note #3 below), then the five most important languages in metropolitan France are (note that the percentages add up to more than 100, because many people are now counted twice):
* French: 42,100,000 (92%)
* Occitan: 1,670,000 (3.65%)
* German and German dialects: 1,440,000 (3.15%)
* Oïl languages (excl. French): 1,420,000 (3.10%)
* Arabic: 1,170,000 (2.55%)
Notes on the table
1- The data in the table are about
mother tongues, and not about actual language practice. It states that 14% of the adult people living in France in 1999 were born and raised up to the age of 5 in families that spoke only (or predominantly) some other languages than French. It does not mean that 14% of adult people in France spoke some other languages than French in 1999.
2- Only adults (i.e. 18 years and older) were surveyed. This means that French people born between 1981 and 1999 are not included in the survey. The mother tongue of the younger generations is more predominantly French than is the case with the older generations, because as the "Enquête familiale" survey explains, regional and immigrant language transmission decreases dramatically with each new generation, as French replaces the regional and immigrant languages. In the "Enquête familiale" survey, only 35% of parents whose mother tongue was a regional or immigrant language reported they spoke that language to their children. Thus, the 86% figure of people with French as their mother tongue is an underestimate because the younger generations whose predominant mother tongue is French are not counted.
3- The concept of "mother tongue" may not give a complete idea of the phenomenon of minority languages in France. This is because there are many people who were born and raised in families in which parents spoke to them only (or predominantly) French, but in which some regional or immigration languages were also occasionally used. One example: while the data tell us that 610,000 adults in 1999 had one of the "langues d'Oc" (Occitan) as their mother tongue, the survey also found out that another 1,060,000 adults were born and raised in families in which one of the "langues d'Oc" was occasionally spoken. Some of these 1,060,000 people may speak Occitan as fluently as the 610,000 people who have it as a mother tongue, while some other (the majority, probably) have only a limited knowledge of Occitan. We cannot infer from this that 1,670,000 adults are speakers of Occitan, but it may be the case that the total number of people with some form of exposure to Occitan is higher than the 610,000 figure, though some of this number may have abandoned the language since then.
Culture of France
Demographics of France
Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
List of states where language is a political issue
Languages of the European Union
* [http://www.lexilogos.com/france_carte_dialectes.htm map of languages of France] (clickable map)
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=France Ethnologue report for France]
* [http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/dglf/ Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France]
* [http://www.languesdefrance.com/ Langues de France]
* [http://www.ikastola.net/ Ikastola Elkartea] association of bilingual Basque-French schools
* [http://www.diwanbreizh.org/ Diwan Breizh] association for promotion of Breton
* [http://c-oc.org/calandreta/ Calandreta] association of bilingual Occitan-French schools
* [http://www.bressola.cat/ La Bressola] Catalan schools
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