Catocala


Catocala
Underwing moths
Blue Underwing, Catocala fraxini
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Noctuidae
Subfamily: Catocalinae
Tribe: Catocalini
Subtribe: Catocalina
Genus: Catocala
Schrank, 1802
Synonyms
  • Ephesia Hübner, 1818
  • Mormonia Hübner, 1823
  • Hemigeometra Haworth, 1809
  • Lamprosia Hübner, 1821
  • Blepharidia Hübner, 1822
  • Astiotes Hübner, 1823
  • Corisce Hübner, 1823
  • Eucora Hübner, 1823
  • Eunetis Hübner, 1823
  • Blepharonia Hübner, 1825
  • Andrewsia Grote, 1882
  • Catabapta Hulst, 1884
  • Andreusia Hampson, 1913

Catocala is a genus of noctuid moths commonly known as Underwings. (A few closely related genera are sometimes called Underwings as well, but usually the term is synonymous with this genus.) Most species have brightly coloured underwings, orange, red, or white. The genus name is a combination of two Greek words, kato behind, and kalos beautiful. The bright hindwings are not visible at rest, being hidden by the dull forewings, but they help the moth avoid predators such as birds if they are disturbed during the day (Stevens 2005). The genus occurs in Eurasia and North America. Due to their variety of colors and species diversity, Underwings are popular with collectors of lepidoptera. Larvae (caterpillars) of most species feed on the foliage of trees and shrubs.

Contents

Species

  • Catocala abacta Staudinger, 1900
    • Catocala abacta irana Brandt, 1938
  • Catocala abamita Bremer & Grey, 1853
  • Catocala abbreviatella Grote, 1872
  • Catocala actaea Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874
    • Catocala actaea nigricans Mell, 1939
  • Catocala adultera Ménétriés, 1856
  • Catocala aenigma Sheljuzhko, 1943
  • Catocala aestimabilis Staudinger, 1892
  • Catocala afghana Swinhoe, 1885
  • Catocala agitatrix Graeser, 1888
  • Catocala agrippina Strecker, 1874 – Agrippina Underwing
  • Catocala aholibah Strecker, 1874Aholibah Underwing
  • Catocala alabamae Grote, 1875 – Alabama Underwing or Tital Underwing
  • Catocala allusa Hulst, 1884
  • Catocala amabilis Bang-Haas, 1907
  • Catocala amatrix Hübner, [1813] – Sweetheart Underwing
  • Catocala amestris Strecker, 1874 – Three-staff Underwing
  • Catocala amica Hübner, 1818 – Girlfriend Underwing
  • Catocala amnonfreidbergi Kravchenko et al., 2008
  • Catocala andromache H. Edwards, 1885
  • Catocala andromedae Guenée, 1852 – Gloomy Underwing
  • Catocala angusi Grote, 1876 – Angus' Underwing
  • Catocala antinympha Hübner, [1823] – Sweetfern Underwing
  • Catocala ariana Vartian, 1964
  • Catocala armandi Poujade, 1988
    • Catocala armandi shirozui Sugi, 1982
  • Catocala artobolevskiji Sheljuzhko, 1943
  • Catocala atocala Brou, 1985 – Brou's Underwing
  • Catocala badia Grote & Robinson, 1866 – Bay Underwing
  • Catocala bella Butler, 1877
  • Catocala benjamini Brower, 1937 – Benjamin's Underwing
  • Catocala blandula Hulst, 1884 – Charming Underwing
  • Catocala bokhaica Kononenko, 1979
  • Catocala brandti Hacker & Kaut, 1999
  • Catocala briseis Edwards, 1864 – Ribbed Underwing
  • Catocala butleri Leech, 1900
  • Catocala caesia Hawks, 2010
  • Catocala californica Edwards, 1864
  • Catocala californiensis Brower, 1976
  • Catocala cara Guenée, 1852 – Darling Underwing
  • Catocala carissima Hulst, 1880
  • Catocala catei Weisert, 1998
  • Catocala cerogama Guenée, 1852 – Yellow-banded Underwing
  • Catocala charlottae Brou, 1988
  • Catocala chelidonia Grote, 1881
  • Catocala cleopatra Strecker, 1874
  • Catocala clintoni Grote, 1864 – Clinton's Underwing
  • Catocala coccinata Grote, 1872 – Scarlet Underwing
  • Catocala columbina Leech, 1900
    • Catocala columbina columbina Leech, 1900
    • Catocala columbina yoshihikoi Ishizuka, 2002
  • Catocala concumbens Walker, [1858] – Pink Underwing
  • Catocala conjuncta Esper, 1787 – Minsmere Crimson Underwing
  • Catocala connexa Butler, 1881
  • Catocala connubialis Guenée, 1852 – Connubial Underwing
  • Catocala consors Smith, 1797 – Consort Underwing
    • Catocala consors sorsconi Barnes & Benjamin, 1924
  • Catocala contemnenda Staudinger, 1891
  • Catocala contorta Warren
  • Catocala conversa Esper, 1787
  • Catocala crataegi Saunders, 1876 – Hawthorn Underwing or Chokeberry Underwing
  • Catocala danilovi Bang-Haas, 1927
  • Catocala deducta Eversmann, 1843
  • Catocala dejeani Mell, 1936
  • Catocala dejecta Strecker, 1880 – Dejected Underwing
  • Catocala delilah Strecker, 1874 – Delilah Underwing
  • Catocala desdemona H. Edwards, 1882 – Desdemona Underwing
  • Catocala desiderata Staudinger, 1888
  • Catocala detrita Warren, 1913
  • Catocala deuteronympha Staudinger, 1861
    • Catocala deuteronympha omphale Butler, 1881
    • Catocala deuteronympha tschiliensis Bang-Haas, 1927
  • Catocala dilecta Hübner, [1808]
  • Catocala disjuncta Geyer, [1828]
  • Catocala dissimilis Bremer, 1861
    • Syn. Catocala nigricans
  • Catocala distorta Butler, 1889
  • Catocala diversa Geyer, [1826]
  • Catocala doerriesi Staudinger, 1888
  • Catocala dotatoides Poole, 1989
  • Catocala dula Bremer, 1861
    • Catocala dula carminea Mell, 1939
  • Catocala dulciola Grote, 1881 – Quiet Underwing or Sweet Underwing
  • Catocala duplicata Butler, 1885
  • Catocala editarevayae Kravchenko et al., 2008
  • Catocala electa Vieweg, 1790 – Rosy Underwing
    • Catocala electa zalmunna Butler, 1877
    • Catocala electa tschiliensis Bang-Haas, 1927
  • Catocala electilis Walker, [1858]
  • Catocala ella Butler, 1877
  • Catocala elocata Esper, 1787 – French Red Underwing
    • Catocala elocata locata Staudinger, [1892]
  • Catocala eminens Staudinger, 1892
  • Catocala epione Drury, [1773] – Epione Underwing
  • Catocala eutychea Treitschke, 1835
  • Catocala faustina Strecker, 1873
  • Catocala flavescens Hampson, 1894
  • Catocala flebilis Grote, 1872 – Mournful Underwing
  • Catocala florianii Saldaitis & Ivinskis, 2008
  • Catocala formosana Okano, 1958
  • Catocala francisca H. Edwards, 1880
  • Catocala fraxini Linnaeus, 1758 – Blue Underwing or Clifden Nonpareil
    • Catocala fraxini jezoensis Matsumura, 1931
    • Catocala fraxini legionensis Gómez Bustillo & Vega Escandon, 1975
    • Catocala fraxini yuennanensis Mell, 1936
  • Catocala frederici Grote, 1872
  • Catocala fredi Bytinsky-Salz & Brandt, 1937
  • Catocala fugitiva Warren, 1914
  • Catocala fulminea Scopoli, 1763
    • Catocala fulminea chekiangensis Mell, 1933
    • Catocala fulminea fulminea Scopoli, 1763
    • Catocala fulminea xarippe Butler, 1877
  • Catocala fuscinupta Hampson, 1913
  • Catocala glauditta Schawerda, 1934
  • Catocala gracilis Edwards, 1864 – Graceful Underwing
  • Catocala grisatra Brower, 1936 – Grisatra Underwing
  • Catocala grotiana Bailey, 1879 – Grote's Underwing
  • Catocala grynea Cramer, [1780] – Woody Underwing
  • Catocala habilis Grote, 1872 – Habilis Underwing
  • Catocala haitzi Bang-Haas, 1936
  • Catocala hariti Ishizuka & Ohshima, 2002
  • Catocala helena Eversmann, 1856
    • Catocala helena beicki Mell, 1936
    • Catocala helena kurenzovi Moltrecht, 1927
  • Catocala hermia H. Edwards, 1880 – Hermia Underwing
  • Catocala herodias Strecker, 1876 – Herodias' Underwing or Gerhard's Underwing
  • Catocala hippolyta Strecker, 1874
  • Catocala hoenei Mell, 1936
  • Catocala hymenaea [Schiffermüller], 1775
  • Catocala hymenoides Draeseke, 1927
  • Catocala hyperconnexa Sugi, 1965
  • Catocala ilia Cramer, [1776] – Beloved Underwing, Ilia Underwing, or Wife Underwing
  • Catocala illecta Walker, [1858] – Magdalen Underwing
  • Catocala inconstans Butler, 1889
  • Catocala infasciata Mell, 1936
  • Catocala innubens Guenée, 1852 – Betrothed Underwing
  • Catocala insolabilis Guenée, 1852 – Inconsolable Underwing
  • Catocala intacta Leech, 1889
    • Catocala intacta taiwana Sugi, 1965
  • Catocala invasa Leech, 1900
  • Catocala irene Behr, 1870 – Irene's Underwing
  • Catocala jair Strecker, 1897 – Jair Underwing or Barrens Underwing
  • Catocala jansseni Prout, 1924
  • Catocala jessica H. Edwards, 1877 – Jessica Underwing
  • Catocala johnsoniana Brower, 1976 – Johnson's Underwing
  • Catocala jonasii Butler, 1877
  • Catocala judithStrecker, 1874 – Judith's Underwing
  • Catocala juncta Staudinger, 1889
  • Catocala junctura Walker, [1858] – Joined Underwing or Stretch's Underwing
  • Catocala kasenko Ishizuka, 2007
  • Catocala koreana Staudinger, 1892
  • Catocala kotschubeyi Sheljuzhko, 1927
  • Catocala kuangtungensis Mell, 1931
  • Catocala kusnezovi Püngeler, 1914
  • Catocala lacrymosa Guenée, 1852 – Tearful Underwing
  • Catocala lara Bremer, 1861
    • Catocala lara pallidamajor Mell, 1939
  • Catocala laura Speidel, Ivinskis & Saldaitis, 2008
  • Catocala largeteaui Oberthür, 1881
    • Catocala largeteaui yunnana Mell, 1936
  • Catocala leechi Hampson, 1913
  • Catocala lehmanni Speidel, Ivinskis & Saldaitis, 2008
  • Catocala lesbia Christoph, 1887
    • Catocala lesbia fittkaui Kravchenko et al., 2008
    • Catocala lesbia lesbia Christoph, 1887
  • Catocala lincolnana Brower, 1976 – Lincoln Underwing
  • Catocala lineella Grote, 1872 – Lineella Underwing, Little Lined Underwing, or Steely Underwing
  • Catocala longipalpis Mell, 1936
  • Catocala louiseae Bauer, 1965 – Louise's Underwing
    • Syn. Catocala protonympha
  • Catocala luciana Strecker, 1874 – Shining Underwing
  • Catocala luctuosa Hulst, 1884 – Yellow-fringed Underwing
  • Catocala lupina Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]
    • Catocala lupina kastshenkoi Sheljuzhko, 1943
  • Catocala luscinia Brandt, 1938
  • Catocala macula Hampson, 1891
  • Catocala maculata Vincent, 1919
  • Catocala maestosa Hulst, 1884 – Sad Underwing
  • Catocala manitoba Beutenmüller, 1908 – Manitoba Underwing
  • Catocala mariana Rambur, 1858
  • Catocala marmorata Edwards, 1864 – Marbled Underwing
  • Catocala martyrum Oberthür, 1881
  • Catocala mcdunnoughi Brower, 1937 – McDunnough's Underwing
  • Catocala meskei Grote, 1873 – Meske’s Underwing
  • Catocala mesopotamica Kusnezov, 1903
  • Catocala messalina Guenée, 1852 – Messalina Underwing
  • Catocala micronympha Guenée, 1852 – Little Nymph Underwing or Little Bride Underwing
  • Catocala minuta Edwards, 1864 – Little Underwing
  • Catocala mira Grote, 1876 – Wonderful Underwing
  • Catocala miranda H. Edwards, 1881 – Miranda Underwing
  • Catocala mirifica Butler, 1877
  • Catocala moltrechti Bang-Haas, 1927
  • Catocala muliercula Guenée, 1852 – Little Wife Underwing
  • Catocala musmi Hampson, 1913
  • Catocala naganoi Sugi, 1982
  • Catocala nagioides Wileman, 1924
  • Catocala naumanni Sviridov, 1996
  • Catocala nebulosa Edwards, 1864 – Clouded Underwing
  • Catocala neglecta Staudinger, 1888
  • Catocala neogama Smith, 1797 – Oldwife Underwing
  • Catocala neonympha Esper, 1805
    • Catocala neonympha osthelderensis Hacker, 1990
    • Catocala neonympha variegata Warren, 1913
  • Catocala nivea Butler, 1877
    • Catocala nivea asahinaorum Owada, 1986
    • Catocala nivea krosawai Owada, 1986
  • Catocala nubila Butler, 1881
  • Catocala nupta Linnaeus, 1767 – Red Underwing
    • Catocala nupta alticola Mell, 1942
    • Catocala nupta centralasiae Kusnezov, 1903
    • Catocala nupta clara Osthelder, 1933
    • Catocala nupta concubia Walker, [1858]
    • Catocala nupta japonica Mell, 1936
    • Catocala nupta kansuensis O. Bang-Haas, 1927
    • Catocala nupta japonica Mell, 1936
    • Catocala nupta nozawae Matsumura, 1911
    • Catocala nupta nuptialis Staudinger, 1901
    • Catocala nupta obscurata Oberthür, 1880
  • Catocala nuptialis Walker, [1858] – Married Underwing
  • Catocala nymphaea Esper, 1787
  • Catocala nymphaeoides Herrich-Schäffer, 1852
  • Catocala nymphagoga Esper, 1787 – Oak Yellow Underwing
  • Catocala oberthueri Austaut, 1879
  • Catocala obscena Alphéraky, 1879
  • Catocala obscura Strecker, 1873 – Obscure Underwing
  • Catocala olgaorlovae Kravchenko et al., 2008
    • Catocala olgaorlovae duschara Lewandowski & Tober, 2008
    • Catocala olgaorlovae olgaorlovae Kravchenko et al., 2008
  • Catocala ophelia H. Edwards, 1880
  • Catocala optata Godart, 1824
    • Catocala optata atlantica Le Cerf, 1932
  • Catocala optima Staudinger, 1888 – Turanga Underwing
  • Catocala orba Kuznezov, 1903 – Orba Underwing
  • Catocala orientalis Staudinger, 1877
  • Catocala oshimai Ishizuka, 2001
  • Catocala pacta Linnaeus, 1758
    • Catocala pacta deserta Kozhantschikov, 1925
  • Catocala paki Kishida, 1981
  • Catocala palaeogama Guenée, 1852 – Old Wife Underwing
  • Catocala parta Guenée, 1852 – Mother Underwing
  • Catocala patala Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874
    • Catocala patala patala
    • Catocala patala volcanica
  • Catocala pataloides Mell, 1931
  • Catocala persimilis Warren, 1888
  • Catocala piatrix Grote, 1864 – Penitent Underwing
    • Catocala piatrix dionyza H. Edwards, 1884
  • Catocala pirata Herz, 1904
  • Catocala praeclara Grote & Robinson, 1866 – Praeclara Underwing
  • Catocala praegnax Walker, 1858
    • Catocala praegnax sakaii Kishida, 1981
  • Catocala pretiosa Lintner, 1876 – Precious Underwing
  • Catocala prolifica Walker, 1857
  • Catocala promissa [Schiffermüller], 1775 – Light Crimson Underwing
  • Catocala proxeneta Alphéraky, 1895
    • Catocala proxeneta sutschana Sheljuzhko, 1943
  • Catocala puella Leech, 1889
  • Catocala puerpera Giorna, 1791
  • Catocala puerperoides Kravchenko et al., 2008
  • Catocala rama Moore, [1885]
  • Catocala relicta Walker, [1858] – White Underwing or The Relict
  • Catocala remissa Staudinger, 1892
  • Catocala repudiata Staudinger, 1888
  • Catocala residua Grote, 1874 – Residua Underwing
  • Catocala retecta Grote, 1872 – Yellow-gray Underwing
    • Catocala retecta luctuosa Hulst, 1884
  • Catocala rhodosoma Röber, 1927
  • Catocala robinsoni Grote, 1872 – Robinson's Underwing
  • Catocala sappho Strecker, 1874 – Sappho Underwing
  • Catocala seiohbo Ishizuka, 2002
  • Catocala semirelicta Grote, 1874 – Semirelict Underwing
  • Catocala separans Leech, 1889
  • Catocala separata Freyer, 1846 – Similar Underwing
  • Catocala serena Edwards, 1864 – Serene Underwing
  • Catocala similis Edwards, 1864
  • Catocala solntsevi Sviridov, 1997
  • Catocala sordida Grote, 1877 – Sordid Underwing
  • Catocala sponsa Linnaeus, 1767 – Dark Crimson Underwing
  • Catocala sponsalis Walker, 1858
  • Catocala streckeri Staudinger, 1888
  • Catocala subnata Grote, 1864 – Youthful Underwing
  • Catocala sultana A. Bang-Haas, 1910
  • Catocala szechuena Hampson, 1913
  • Catocala tapestrina Moore, 1882
    • Catocala tapestrina forresti Mell, 1939
  • Catocala texanae French, 1902 – Texan Underwing
  • Catocala thomsoni Prout, 1924
  • Catocala timur Bang-Haas, 1907 – Timur Underwing
  • Catocala tokui Sugi, 1976
  • Catocala triphaenoides Oberthür, 1881
  • Catocala ulalume Strecker, 1878
  • Catocala uljanae Sinyaev, Saldaitis & Ivinskis, 2007
  • Catocala ultronia Hübner, 1823
  • Catocala umbrosa Brou, 2002
  • Catocala unijuga Walker, [1858] – Once-married Underwing
  • Catocala verrilliana Grote, 1875 – Verrill's Underwing
  • Catocala vestalis Boisduval, 1829
  • Catocala vidua Smith, 1797 – Widow Underwing
  • Catocala violenta H. Edwards, 1880
  • Catocala viviannae Hacker & Kautt, 1996
  •  ?Catocala weigerti Hacker, 1999
  • Catocala whitneyi Dodge, 1874 – Whitney’s Underwing
  • Catocala wushensis Okano, 1964
  • Catocala xizangensis Chen, 1991

Selected former species

The following species were recently placed as synonyms and are no longer valid.

  • Catocala babayaga Strecker, 1884
  • Catocala davidi Oberthür, 1881
  • Catocala nevadensis Beutenmüller, 1907
  • Catocala olivia H. Edwards, 1880
  • Catocala pura Hulst, 1880
  • Catocala stretchi Behr, 1870
  • Catocala titania Dodge, 1900

Gallery

Catocala comparison (European species)

False Catocala

References

  • Animal Behavior 62: 349-368.
  • Catocala at funet.fi
  • Ishizuka, K. (2002). "Notes on Catocala columbina Leech, 1900 (Lepidoptela, Noctuidae), with description of new taxa." Gekkan-Mushi (379): 12-13.
  • Ishizuka, K. (2007). "A new species of Catocala Schrank, 1802 from Western China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)." Gekkan-Mushi (439): 22-24.
  • Kravchenko, V.D. et al. (2008). "New underwing taxa of the section of Catocala lesbia Christoph, 1887 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Acta Zoologica Lituanica 18(1): 30-49.
  • Kravchenko, V.D., Speidel, W., et al. (2008). "A new species of Catocala from Israel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Acta Zoologica Lituanica 18(2): 127-129.
  • Leech, J.J. (1900). Trans. ent. Soc. London 1900: 511-663.
  • Lewandowski, S. & Tober, K. (2008). "Catocala olgaorlovae duschara subspec. nov. aus Jordanien (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)." Atalanta 39(1-4): 377-378.
  • Saldaitis, A. & Ivinskis, P. (2008). "Catocala florianii, a new species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China." Acta Zoologica Lituanica 18(2): 124-126.
  • Sinyaev, V., Saldaitis, A. & Ivinskis, P. (2007). Acta Zoologica Lituanica 17(4): 272-275.
  • Speidel, W., Ivinskis, P. & Saldaitis, A. (2008). "A new Catocala species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China." Acta Zoologica Lituanica 18(2): 122-123.
  • Stevens, M. (2005). "The role of eyespots as anti-predator mechanisms, principally demonstrated in the Lepidoptera." Biological Reviews 80(4): 573–588. doi:10.1017/S1464793105006810 (HTML abstract)
  • Underwing Moths of Oklahoma
  • Weisert, F. (1998). Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Österreichischen Entomologen 50: 125-126.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • catocala — pl.f. catocale …   Dizionario dei sinonimi e contrari

  • catocala — ca·toc·a·la …   English syllables

  • catocala — …   Useful english dictionary

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