Agriculture in Canada


Agriculture in Canada

Canada is one of the largest agricultural producers and exporters in the world, particularly concerning wheat and other grains. [ [http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/modules/prb98-2-grain/grainmarket-e.htm The Relative Position of Canada in the World Grain Market] ] As with other developed nations, the proportion of the population and GDP devoted to agriculture fell dramatically over the 20th century but it remains an important element of the Canadian economy.A wide range of agriculture is practiced in Canada, from sprawling wheat fields of the prairies to wineries of the Okanagan valley. In the federal government, overview of Canadian agriculture is the responsibility of the department of Agriculture and Agri-Food. [cite web
title = Welcome to AAFC Online
work = Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
publisher = Government of Canada
date = 2008-01-24
url = http://www.agr.gc.ca/index_e.php
accessdate =
]

History

In the 17th century Samuel de Champlain and Gabriel Sagard recorded that the Iroquois and Huron cultivated the soil for maize or "Indian corn". [cite web
last = Bélanger
first = Claude
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Indian agriculture - Indians of Canada and Quebec
work = Marianopolis College
publisher =
date = 2004
url = http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/encyclopedia/agricultureindian.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate =
] Maize ("Zea mays"), potatoes ("Solanum tuberosum"), beans ("phaseolus"), squash ("Cucurbita") and the sunflower ("Helianthus annus") were grown throughout agricultural lands in North America by the 16th century. As early as 2300 BC evidence of squash was introduced to the northeastern woodlands region. Archaeological findings from 500 AD have shown corn cultivation in southern Ontario. [Citation
last = Dickason
first = Olive Patricia
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = Canada's First Nations A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times
place = Toronto
publisher = Oxford University Press
year = 1997
volume =
edition = second
url =
doi = page 20-22
id =
isbn = 0-19-541358-X

Eastern Canada was settled well before the West. Immigration and trading posts came later to Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories. The early immigrants combined European agricultural and domestication procedures with the indigenous knowledge of the land and animals of the area.

As early as 1605, the French Acadians built dikes in the Maritimes for wheat, flax, vegetables, pasturage and marshland farming. [cite web
last = Dick
first = Lyle
authorlink =
coauthors = Taylor, Jeff
title =Agriculture, History of
work = The Canadian Encyclopaedia
publisher = Historica Foundation of Canada
date = 2008
url = http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC895090
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] Dairy production is the main contribution of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, along with livestock and mixed farming ventures. A small percentage of land is put into use in fruit farming as well along Nova Scotia's northwest coastal areas. The American Revolution, 1775-1783, and its attendant food decline resulted in 3100 hectares cleared in Newfoundland. In the early 19th century Irish immigrants began arriving who cultivated the land in Newfoundland. [cite web
last = Dick
first = Lyle
authorlink =
coauthors = Taylor, Jeff
title =Agriculture, History of: Newfoundland
work = The Canadian Encyclopaedia
publisher = Historica Foundation of Canada
date = 2008
url = http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC895091
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] A very small percentage of the land is suitable in Newfoundland and Labrador for horticultural or crop production because there is a lot of forested and tundra geography. The province has some dairy production and farming concerns. Following World War II, farm training was available at the Government Demonstration Farm. Bonuses were paid for such things as the purchase of pure-bred sires, land clearing, and agriculture exhibition assistance to name a few. The industry of fish processing for food is the largest agricultural contribution from Newfoundland. Newfoundland fisheries, supply cod for the most part, followed closely by herring, haddock, lobster, rose fish, seals, and whales. The fishing industry depends very heavily upon exports and world conditions. [cite web
last =Cadigan
first =Sean
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Agriculture: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage
work =
publisher =
date =1998
url =http://www.heritage.nf.ca/society/agriculture.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-10
]

Agriculture in the West started with Peter Pond gardening plots at Lake Athabasca in 1778. Although large-scale agriculture was still many years off, Hudson's Bay Company traders, gold rush miners, and missionaries cultivated crops, gardens and raised livestock. [cite web
last = Dick
first = Lyle
authorlink =
coauthors = Taylor, Jeff
title =Agriculture, History of
work = The Canadian Encyclopaedia
publisher = Historica Foundation of Canada
date = 2008
url = http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC895096
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] The Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut are covered with the Canadian Shield, and rocky outcrops, sub Arctic forest soils, and stony phases make up most of the geography. It is an area of comparatively smaller population and not commercially exploited for the most part. Whaling, prawns, and trapping food processing contribute to agricultural food production here. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =http://www.gov.bc.ca/
coauthors =BC Government Home Page
title =Northwest Territories Agriculture
work =
publisher =Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministry
date =
url =http://www.farmnwt.com/State%20of%20the%20Industry%202000.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate =2007-04-10
]

In New France hops, hemp and livestock were introduced in 1663. The seigneurial system of farming was adopted in Quebec. [cite web
last = Dick
first = Lyle
authorlink =
coauthors = Taylor, Jeff
title =Quebec. Agriculture, History of
work = The Canadian Encyclopaedia
publisher = Historica Foundation of Canada
date = 2008
url =http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC895092
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] Quebec's agricultural sector relies heavily on its fruit and vegetable production. In 1890, a competition began to encourage farmers to improve their farms to achieve the Agricultural Merit Order. County farm improvement contests were begun about 1930 involving over 5,000 farms and their evolution over five years. They have some interests in livestock and mixed farming and diary as well. St. Hyacinthe operated an artificial insemination station from 1951 for breeders clubs.cite book | title=The Canada Year Book 1951 The Official Statistical Annual of the Resources, History, Institutions, and Social and Economic Conditions of Canada | publisher=King's Printer and Controller of Stationery | year=1951 |editor=Cloutier, Edmond | ISBN=0-7715-8268-4
] [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =2001 Census of Agriculture - Agriculture in Quebec
work =Sharp decline in number of farms in Quebec
publisher =2001 Census of Agriculture
date =2003-12-02
url =http://www.statcan.ca/english/agcensus2001/first/regions/farmqc.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-10
] The British enforced Corn (Cereal grains )laws, 1794-1846, protected the British agricultural sector from imports of British North American wheat. The Reciprocity Treaty, June 6, 1854, developed a trade agreement between Canada and the United States which affected trade of wheat grown in Ontario. [cite web
last = Masters
first =D.C.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Reciprocity Agriculture, History of
work = The Canadian Encyclopaedia
publisher = Historica Foundation of Canada
date = 2008
url =http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0006710
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] Northern Ontario is mainly tundra and forested area, whereas southern Ontario has lands suitable for livestock and general farming as well as geography suitable for pasture and dairying industries. Fruit farming and tobacco farms can also be found in southern Ontario. Ontario is the largest producer of mixed grains, soybeans and shelled corn in the country. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =The Archives of Ontario Celebrates Our Agricultural Past
work Queen's Printer for Ontario
publisher =Archives of Ontario
date = 2006-09-25
url =http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/ENGLISH/exhibits/agriculture/index.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-10
]
Lord Selkirk, founder of the Red River Colony, harvested the first wheat crop in the western prairies in 1814. Red Fife wheat was introduced in 1868. Swine were brought to the Red River colony as early as 1819. The frontier land of southwest Alberta and southeast Saskatchewan were opened to ranching in the 19th century. [cite web
last = Hubner
first =Brian
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =History of Agriculture in the Prairie Provinces
work = University of Manitoba Libraries
publisher =
date = 998,
url =http://www.umanitoba.ca/libraries/archives/exhibits/agric_exper/agric_prairies/history.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] Manitoba has a combination of mixed grain, livestock, and mixed farming industries in its southernmost areas. Cattle ranching around Lake Manitoba is also quite successful. Northern Manitoba consists of extensive lakes and forested geographical areas. [cite web
last =Deveson
first =Morris
authorlink =
coauthors =Bill & Sue-On Hillman Eclectic Studio
title =Manitoba History: Manitoba Agricultural Hall of Fame
work =
publisher = Manitoba Agricultural Hall of Fame Inc.
date =1995-02-28
url =http://www.mts.net/~agrifame/histormb.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-10
] The Dominion Land Act of 1872 offered agricultural pioneers an opportunity to "prove up" a quarter section of land (160 acres/65 hectares] ) in western Canada for a $10.00 filing fee and three years of improvements combined with residence on the land.cite web
last =Adamson
first =Julia
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Saskatchewan Gen Web Project - Homestead Information
work =
publisher =rootsweb
date =Sun Mar 25 2007
url =http://www.rootsweb.com/~cansk/Saskatchewan/homestead.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-07
] Saskatchewan still has cattle ranching along its southwestern corner; grain farming and crops such as wheat, oats, flax, alfalfa, and rapeseed (especially canola) dominate the parkland area. Mixed grain farming, dairy farms, mixed livestock and grazing lands dot the central lowlands region of this prairie province. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame
work =
publisher =zu.com communications inc.
date =2006
url =http://www.sahf.ca/
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-10
]

Alberta is renowned still for its stampedes, and cattle ranching is a main industry. The agricultural industry is supplemented by livestock and mixed farming and wheat crops. Alberta is the second largest producer of wheat in Canada. Grain and dairying also play a role in the livelihoods of Alberta farmers. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =Government of Alberta
coauthors =http://www.gov.ab.ca/
title =Alberta Agriculture and Food : Home Page
work =
publisher =
date =
url =http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/app21/rtw/index.jsp
format =
doi =
accessdate =2007-04-10
] The open parkland area extends across the three prairie provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Canada's production of wheat, oats, flaxseed, and barley come mainly from this area. Meat processing is the largest industry here, followed by dairy production, breweries, and the subsidiary industry of agricultural implements. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =History of Agriculture in the Prairie Provinces
work =Archives of the Agricultural Experience
publisher =University of Manitoba Archives Special Collections, the Libraries
date =1998
url =http://www.umanitoba.ca/libraries/units/archives/exhibits/agric_exper/agric_prairies/history.html
format =
doi =
accessdate =2007-04-10
]

British Columbia is covered in highlands; its eastern boundary is the Rocky Mountains. Livestock, cattle ranches, fruit farming and dairying dot the province. Agriculture and fisheries are a small contribution industry over shadowed by construction and forestry. [cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries
work =
publisher =
date =2007-03-16
url =http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/fisheries/index.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-10
]

Agricultural production in British Columbia supplied the gold rush industry, mining and logging industries. Agricultural producers relied on these local markets, following the economic boom and bust of each enterprise respectively. The British Columbia Fruit-Growers' Association was established in 1889 to foster an export market of this commodity. [cite web
last = Dick
first = Lyle
authorlink =
coauthors = Taylor, Jeff
title =British Columbia. Agriculture, History of
work = The Canadian Encyclopaedia
publisher = Historica Foundation of Canada
date = 2008
url =http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC895095
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2008-01-28
] The Canada Agriculture Museum preserves Canadian agricultural history. cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Canada Agriculture Museum - Splash Page - Musée de l'agriculture
work = Canada Science and Technology Museum Corporation
publisher = Ottawa, Canada
date =
url = http://www.agriculture.technomuses.ca/
format =
doi =
accessdate =2008-01-29
]

Major agricultural products

Agriculture in Canada comprises five main agricultural production sectors of commodity production resulting in farm cash receipts from both domestic and foreign markets.

Agricultural economy

Canadian farms, fisheries and ranches produce a wide variety of crops, livestock, food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals which are dependent upon the geography of the province. In 2001 farms numbered only 246,923 at a size of 676 acres (2.74 km²) as the production of food and fiber for human or livestock sustenance has evolved into intensive and industrial practices. [cite web | url= http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/020515/td020515.htm | author = Statistics Canada |authorlink =Statistics Canada| title = 2001 Census of Agriculture - Canadian farm operations in the 21st century | accessdate = 2007-01-08] As of 2002, wheat constituted the largest crop area at 12.6%. Canadian farmers received a record $36.3 billion in 2001 from livestock, crop sales and program payments.Citation
last =Statistics Canada
first =The Canada e-Book
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =The Economy Statistics Canada
date = 2004-08-26
year =
url =http://www43.statcan.ca/03/03b/03b_002_e.htm
accessdate = 2007-04-07
] In 2001, the accrued net income of farm operators from farm production amounted to 1,633 million dollars, which amounts to 0.147% of Canada's gross domestic product at market prices which is 1,108,200 million dollars. Fisheries are also playing an important role while forestry plays a secondary role. Canada's evolution has abandoned subsistence techniques and now sees a mere 3% of Canada's population employed as a mechanized industrial farmer who are able feed the rest of the nation's population of 30,689.0 thousand people (2001) as well as export to foreign markets. [Citation
last =Statistics Canada
first =The Canada e-Book
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =The Population Statistics Canada
date =
year =
url =http://142.206.72.67/02/02a/02a_000_e.htm#t01
accessdate = 2007-04-07
] . (Canada's estimated population was 32,777,300 on January 1 2007. [Citation
last =
first =
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =The Daily, Thursday, March 29, 2007. Canada's population estimates
date =
year =
url =http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/070329/d070329b.htm
accessdate = 2007-04-07
]

Trade

The marketing and economic movement of Canada's various agriculture commodities has been a challenge. Domestic trade encompasses providing goods within Canada provincially and inter-provincial. Support agencies and services such as storage, railways, warehouses, stores, banking institutions all effect domestic trade. Trade of wheat from the 'Bread basket of the World' or Canada's prairies are monitored by the Canadian Wheat Board. Canada's depression of 1882-1897 brought a low of 64¼ cents per bushel ($24/t) as of 1893. This era during Laurier's administration saw thousands of homesteads cancelled. Wheat prices soared during World War I. In 1928, Canada exported high quantities of wheat, flour, and goods. The depression took its toll on Canada as exports sunk to approximately 40% of their 1928 amount. European markets stopped needing to import Canadian wheat as they started growing their own varieties, and then World War II events put a blockade on trade to European markets. Canada became more of an industrial entity during the time of this industrial revolution, and less of an agricultural nation. Following World War II the United Kingdom entered into contract for a large amount of agricultural commodities such as bacon, cheese, wheat, oats and barley. After the United Kingdom, the United States is Canada's largest external trade partner. Between 1943 and 1953, the average export of Canadian wheat was 347,200,000 bushels (9,449,000 t). cite book | title=A Historical Atlas of Canada | publisher=Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd. | year=1959 | editor=Kerr, D.G.G. | ] The three year International Wheat Agreement of 1955, included exports of wheat or flour to 28 of 44 importing countries including Germany, Japan, Belgium, UK, and the Netherlands. [cite book | title=A Historical Atlas of Canada | publisher=Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd. | year=1959 | editor=Kerr, D.G.G. | ] cite book | title=Canada 1956 The Official Handbook of Present Conditions and Recent Progress | publisher=Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa. | year=1956 | editor=Cloutier, Edmond | ]

Agribusiness

Agribusiness are activities of food and fibre production and processing which are not part of the farm operation. This would include the production of farm equipment and fertilizers to aid farm production. cite encyclopedia
title =agribusiness
encyclopedia =Encyclopedia Britannica Micropaedia
volume = 1
pages = 153-154
publisher = Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.
location = Chicago
date = 1985
url =
accessdate = 2008-02-01
] Agribusiness also includes the firms that purchase the raw goods from the farm for further processing. The meat packing industry, flour mill, and canning industry would be included in the agribusiness sector processing farm products. cite encyclopedia
last =Moncrieff
first = P.M.
title =Agribusiness
encyclopedia = The Canadian Encyclopedia Britannica
volume = 1 A-For
pages = 17
publisher = Hurtig Publishers
location = Edmonton
date = 1985
url =
accessdate = 2008-02-01
]

Industry categories

According to Agriculture and Food Canada, these are the classifications of Canadian Agriculture Industries.Citation
last =
first =
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =Canada's Agriculture, Food and Beverage Industry - Factsheets
date =
year =
url =http://ats.agr.ca/supply/factsheet-e.htm
accessdate = 2006-11-28
]

Agricultural Science

Agricultural science began developing new styles of farming and strains of wheat and crops so that farming could become a successful venture. Farming methods were developed at places such as Indian Head Experimental Farmcite web
last = Smith
first =Allan E.
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan Agriculture Canada Research Stations
work =Western Economic Diversification Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan.
publisher =CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA
date =
url =http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/agriculture_canada_research_stations.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-11
] , Rosthern Experimental Station [ [cite web
last =JONES
first =STEPHEN MORGAN
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Canadian Encyclopedia
work =Research Stations, Agricultural
publisher =
date =
url =http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0006783
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-11
] , and Bell Farmcite web
last =Hawkes
first = John
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Saskatchewan Gen Web Project - SASKATCHEWAN AND ITS PEOPLE by JOHN HAWKES
work =Bell Farm
publisher = Julia Adamson Rootsweb.com
date =Wed Jun 15 2005
url =http://www.rootsweb.com/~cansk/SaskatchewanAndItsPeople/Volume2/index.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-11
] . The Better Farming Train traveled around rural areas educating pioneer farmers.cite web
last =Hawkes
first =John
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =SASKATCHEWAN AND ITS PEOPLE
work =
publisher = Saskatchewan Gen Web Project Vol I 1924
date =Wed Jun 15 2005
url =http://www.rootsweb.com/~cansk/SaskatchewanAndItsPeople/VolumeII/index.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2007-04-11
] The 1901 census showed 511,100 farms and the number of farms peaked in 1941 at a record 732,800 farms.cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Farming in Canada
work = The Economy > Primary industries
publisher = Statistics Canada
date = 2004-08-26
url = http://www43.statcan.ca/03/03b/03b_002_e.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate =2008-01-29
] . The industrial revolution modernized the farming industry as mechanized vehicles replaced the oxen ploughed land or the horse drawn cart. Farms became much larger, and mechanized evolving towards industrial agriculture.

Production

Farming activities were very labor intensive before the industrial revolution and the advent of tractors, combines, balers, etc. In the late 1800s to mid 1900s, a great percentage of the Canadian labor force was engaged in high labor, smaller farming practices. After mechanization, scientific advancement, improved marketing practices farms became more efficient, larger and less labor intensive. The labor population was freed up and went to industry, government, transportation, trade and finance. Citation
last =valley
first =brandon
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =Tables by subject Agriculture Statistics Canada
work = Statistics Canada
date =
year =
url =http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/ind01/l2_920.htm
accessdate = 2006-11-28
] Agriculture, stock raising and horticulture employed one-fourth of the Canadian population according to the 1951 census as well as providing products for exports and Canadian manufacturing concerns. [cite book | title=The Canada Year Book 1951 The Official Statistical Annual of the Resources, History, Institutions, and Social and Economic Conditions of Canada | publisher=King's Printer and Controller of Stationery | year=1951 |editor=Cloutier, Edmond | ISBN=0-7715-8268-4 ]

Farm equipment

The Oliver plow was in use by 1896 which could cut through the prairie sod. Binders which could cut and tie grain for the harvest season and grain elevators for storage were introduced in the late 1800s as well.Citation
last =McCormick Reaper Centennial Source Material (International Harvester Company: Chicago) 1931.
first =Virginia Agricultural Experimental Station
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =Grain Harvesting
date =November 30, 2006
year =
url =http://www.vaes.vt.edu/steeles/mccormick/harvest.html
accessdate =
] Plows {plough), tractors, spreaders, combines to name a few are some mechanized implements for the grain crop or horticultural farmer which are labor saving devices. Many Canadian museums such as Reynolds-Alberta Museum will showcase the evolution and variety of farm machinery.

Challenges

The depression and drought of the Dirty Thirties was devastating. This drought resulted in a mass exodus of population from the prairies, as well as new agricultural practices such as soil conservation, and crop rotation.cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =Drought Watch web site
work =
publisher =Government of Canada, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration
date =2002-02-03
url =http://www.agr.gc.ca/pfra/drought/index_e.htm
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2006-11-28
]

Soil conservation practices such as crop rotation, cover crops, and windbreaks to name a few were massively developed and set in forth upon recovering from the drought experiences of the dirty thirties. Literally layers and layers of topsoil would be blowing away during this time. Bow River Irrigation Project, Red Deer River Project and the St. Mary Irrigation project of Alberta, were a few of the major projects undertaken by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act (P.F.R.A.) resulting in reservoirs, and distribution systems.

Wheat diseases such as wheat bunt and stinking smut can be successfully treated with a fungicide. Disease of plants and animals can break an agricultural producer. Tuberculosis in animals was an early threat, and cattle needed to be tested, and areas accredited in 1956. The newer disease such as chronic wasting disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affects both elk and deer. Elk and deer raising is a pioneer field of domestication, has had a setback with this disease.Citation
last =Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance
first =
author-link =
last2 =Pyron Technologies, Inc.
first2 =
author2-link =
title =Chronic Wasting Disease
date =
year =
url =http://www.cwd-info.org/index.php/fuseaction/about.main
accessdate = 2006-11-28
] Mad cow disease in cattlecite web| url=http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/heasan/disemala/bseesb/bseesbindexe.shtml| title= Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE in North America |author = Canadian Food Inspection Agency| accessdate=2006-11-28] and scrapie of sheepcite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Animal Health Scrapies Manual of Procedures Module 1 and 2
work = Canadian Food Inspection Agency
publisher = Government of Canada
date =
url = http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/heasan/man/scrtre/scrtre-1-2e.shtml
format =
doi =
accessdate =2006-11-28
] are monitored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The poultry sector was plagued by Pullorum disease, and by controlling the flock via poultry husbandry, this disease has been brought under control.

Plants whose traits can be modified to survive a disease or insect have made inroads into Canadian agricultural practices. Cereal rusts which can destroy the majority of areas seeded to wheat, was controlled in 1938 by breeding strains which were rust-resistant. This strain was successful until around 1950, when again a new variety of rust broke out, and again a new species of wheat called Selkirk was developed which was rust resistant.Citation

first =
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title =Genetically modified crops: steady growth in Ontario and Quebec
Work=Statistics Canada
date =2002-12-06
year =
url =http://www.statcan.ca/bsolc/english/bsolc?catno=21-004-X20021126389
accessdate = 2006-11-28
] Biotechnology is the center of new research and regulations affecting agriculture this century.Citation
last =CanadiaBranch Office of Biotechnologyn Food Inspection Agency
first =
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title = - Animal Health - Scrapies Manualof Procedures - Module 1 and 2
Work=Canadian Food Inspection Agency
date =
year =
url =http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/sci/biotech/gen/terexpe.shtml
accessdate =2006-11-28
] [cite web
last = Small, E. New crops for Canadian agriculture. p. 15–52. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title =New crops for Canadian agriculture.
work =Small, Ernest 1999. p. 15–52. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
publisher =
date =1999.
url =http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1999/v4-015a.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2006-11-29
]

Developmental and educational institutions

To increase the viability of agriculture as an economic lifestyle several improvements have been made by various nationwide educational facilities. Inroads and innovations have been made in the diverse fields of agricultural science, agricultural engineering, agricultural soil science, Sustainable agriculture, Agricultural productivity, agronomy, biodiversity, bioengineering, irrigation and swine research for example.

References

Books

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External links

* [http://www.agr.gc.ca/ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada / Agriculture et Agroalimentaire ]
* [http://agriculture.technomuses.ca/ Canada Agriculture Museum]
* [http://www.soiltosky.ca/ Soil to Sky: Careers in Canadian Agriculture in Food]


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  • Agriculture in Saskatchewan — is the production of various food, feed, or fiber commodities to fulfill domestic and international human and animal sustenance needs. The newest agricultural economy to be developed in renewable biofuel production or agricultural biomass which… …   Wikipedia

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  • Canada — • Comprises all that part of North America north of the United States, with the exception of Newfoundland, and Labrador Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Canada     Canada      …   Catholic encyclopedia

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  • Canada — /kan euh deuh/, n. a nation in N North America: a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. 29,123,194; 3,690,410 sq. mi. (9,558,160 sq. km). Cap.: Ottawa. * * * Canada Introduction Canada Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural… …   Universalium

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