English settlement in Argentina


English settlement in Argentina

English settlement in Argentina, the arrival of English emigrants in Argentina, took place in the period after Argentina's independence from Spain through the 19th century. Unlike many other waves of immigration to Argentina, English immigrants were not usually leaving England because of poverty or persecution, but went to Argentina as industrialists and major landowners. Argentina in the Victorian age was part of the United Kingdom's "informal empire", an independent nation that Britain had economic influence in that was outside the British Empire.cite news
last =Kuper
first =Simon
title =The conflict lives on
publisher =The Guardian
date =2002-02-25
url =http://www.guardian.co.uk/falklands/story/0,11707,657865,00.html
accessdate =2008-01-07
] Famous Argentines such as adventurer Lucas Bridges, Huracan football club president Carlos Babington, former president Roberto Marcelo Levingston and writer Jorge Luis Borges are of English descent.

English immigration

English settlers arrived in Buenos Aires in 1806 (then a Spanish colony) in small numbers, mostly as businessmen and traders, when Argentina was an emerging nation and the settlers were welcomed for the stability they brought to commercial life. As the 19th century progressed more English families arrived many bought land to develop the potential of the Argentine pampas for the large-scale growing of crops. The English founded banks, developed the export trade in crops and animal products and imported the luxuries that the growing Argentine middle classes sought.cite web
title =Emigration of Scots, English and Welsh-speaking people to Argentina in the nineteenth century
publisher =British Settlers in Argentina—studies in 19th and 20th century emigration
url =http://www.homepage.ntlworld.com/jnth/Emigration/migrant.htm
accessdate =2008-01-08
]

As well as those who went to Argentina as Industrialists and major landowners, others went as railway engineers, civil engineers and to work in banking and commerce. Others went to become whalers, missionaries and simply to seek out a future. English families sent second and younger sons, or what were described as the black sheep of the family, to Argentina to make their fortunes in cattle and wheat. English settlers introduced football to Argentina. Some English families owned sugar plantations.

Background

The United Kingdom was one of the first countries to recognise the independence of Argentina, in a treaty of 1825. English arrivals and investment played a large part in the development of the rail and tramways of Argentina, and of Argentine agriculture, livestock breeding, processing, refrigeration and export.cite news
title =Historia general de las Relaciones Exteriores de la República Argentina: Hacia la crisis (1880-1890)
language =Spanish
publisher =Universidad del CEMA
url =http://www.cema.edu.ar/ceieg/arg-rree/10/10-002a.htm
accessdate =2008-01-08
] At one point in the 19th century, ten per cent of the UK's foreign investment was in Argentina, despite not being a colony. In 1939, 39% of investment in Argentina was British.cite news
title =Historia general de las Relaciones Exteriores de la República Argentina: Capítulo 49: Las relaciones económicas con Gran Bretaña en el período 1930-1943
language = Spanish
publisher =Universidad del CEMA
url =http://www.cema.edu.ar/ceieg/arg-rree/10/10-007.htm
accessdate =2008-01-08
] English culture, or a version of it as perceived from outside, had a noted effect on the culture of Argentina mainly the middle classes. In 1888 local Anglo-Argentines established the Hurlingham Club, based on its namesake in London. The city of Hurlingham, Buenos Aires and Hurlingham Partido grew up around the club in Buenos Aires Province and took their names from the club.

In 1912 Harrods opened a department store in Buenos Aires; the only Harrods ever opened outside of London. Harrods Buenos Aires became independent of Harrods in the 1940s but still traded under the Harrods name.

High tea became standard amongst the upper and middle classes English speakers and generated the popular "merienda", an afternoon snack, (also known simply as "la leche" - milk) because it was served with the tea or as chocolate milk along with the sweets). The Richmond café on Florida Street is a notable tea venue near the, now abandoned, Harrods department store.

Gardened chalets built by railway executives near railway stations in suburbs such as Banfield, Munro, Ranelagh and Hurlingham gave a pointed English atmosphere to local areas in Buenos Aires, especially in winter when shrouded in grey mists and fallen oak leaves over cobblestones. Also suburban train stations and Victorian terminals like Estación Retiro in Retiro, Buenos Aires and Estación Constitución, as well as the numerous countryside stations in the Pampas. Around 100,000 Anglo-Argentines are the descendants of British immigrants to Argentina.cite news
last =Chavez
first =Lydia
title =Fare of the country: A bit of Britain in Argentina
publisher = New York Times
date =1985-06-23
url =http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=9A02E5D61039F930A15755C0A963948260
accessdate =
] . They are one of the most successful immigrant groups of Argentina, gaining prominence in commerce, industry, and the professions. Many are noted by their ability to speak English in family circles, with an undistinguishable English accent. A respected English language newspaper, the "Buenos Aires Herald", continues to be published daily in Buenos Aires.

Anglo-Argentines have traditionally differed from their fellow Argentines by largely retaining strong ties with their mother country, including education and commerce. cite news
last =Graham-Yooll
first =Andrew
author-link =Andrew Graham-Yooll
title =Dos nostalgias
language =Spanish
publisher =Clarín (newspaper)
date =1999-07-03
url =http://www.clarin.com/diario/1999/03/07/e-05103d.htm
accessdate = 2008-01-08
] Some schools in Argentina are bilingual offering both English language and Spanish language, including St. Mark's College, Monte Grande, St. Albans College, St.Georges College and Washington School, Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires had a number of "Cultural Inglesa" branches (English Cultural Association), and English language learning and teaching in state schools and private institutions was invariably geared towards the Received Pronunciation or "Queen's English" throughout the 20th century. Blue blazers and grey flannels are still used as uniforms in most private schools.

The Anglo-Argentine Society, based in London, was founded in 1948 and has about 900 members. It is a society for Argentine people living in the United Kingdom, particularly those of Anglo-Argentine heritage. One of its main aims is to promote understanding and friendship between the two countries.cite web
title =The Anglo-Argentine Society
publisher =The Anglo-Argentine Society
url =http://www.angloarg.dircon.co.uk/
accessdate =2008-01-08
]

econd World War

During World War II, 4,000 Argentines served with all three British armed services, even though Argentina was officially a neutral country during the war.cite news
title =Wings of Thunder - Wartime RAF Veterans Flying in From Argentina
publisher =PR Newswire
date =2005-04-06
url =http://www.prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=143472
accessdate =2008-01-08
] Over 600 Argentine volunteers served with both the Royal Air Force and the Canadian Air Force, mostly in the 164 Argentine-British RAF squadron [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN02329934 Argentine pilots break silence over World War Two] - Reuters ] , whose shield bore the sun from the Flag of Argentina and the motto, "Determined We Fly (Firmes Volamos)".

Many members of the Anglo-Argentine community also volunteered in non-combat roles, or worked to raise money and supplies for British troops. In April 2005 a special remembrance service was held at the RAF church of St Clement Danes in Londoncite news
last =Buckley
first =Martha
title =How Argentines helped British win war
publisher =BBC News
date =2005-04-09
url =http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4425035.stm
accessdate =2008-01-08
]

Falklands War

During the Falklands War (Spanish:"Guerra de las Malvinas"), Anglo-Argentines were questioned about their allegiance and diplomatic relations between the two countries were halted, although they have been normalised since then.

The Plaza San Martín in Retiro, Buenos Aires features a memorial for the dead of the Falklands War. Within the park is Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina (Argentine Air Force Square) where the "Torre de los Ingleses" (English Tower) is located, a monument donated by the Anglo-Argentine community for the 1910 centenary celebrations. It features a relief of the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom at the bottom. This monument has been the object of several acts of sabotage in the wake of the Falklands conflict. The park was previously named "Plaza Británica" (British park) but was renamed Plaza Fuerza Aérea Argentina in 1982, nevertheless, most Argentines still refer to it as the "Plaza Británica".

English place names

A number of towns, villages and cities have English place names. These include Banfield which is named after Edward Banfield. Hurlingham, Buenos Aires and Hurlingham Partido took their name from the Hurlingham Club (Argentina) around which the city of Hurlingham grew. Others include the town of Washington and City Bell, a small town in La Plata partido, Buenos Aires province, which was founded around 1900 by English immigrants and which is named after its founder, George Bell.

port

Sports such as tennis, rugby union, hockey, golfFact|date=August 2008, cricket and polo were introduced to Argentina by English settlers.

Polo

Polo was first played in Argentina at the Hurlingham Club and the "Argentine Polo Association" was founded at the club in 1922. Argentina has since become a dominant power in international polo, and the Campeonato Argentino Abierto de Polo has been held annually since 1893 at the Campo Argentino de Polo in Buenos Aires.

Football

English railway workers from Northern England founded the Buenos Aires Football Club on 9 May 1867 in Temple Street (now Viamonte) at a meeting organised by brothers Thomas and James Hogg who were originally from Yorkshire. The first football match to be played in Argentina was played at the Buenos Aires Cricket Club in Palermo, Buenos Aires on 20 June 1867. The match was played between two teams of British merchants, the White Caps and the Red Caps.cite web
last =Gorgazzi
first =Osvaldo José
authorlink =
coauthors =Bobrowsky, Josef
title =Some Information on the Early History of Football in Argentina
publisher =RSSSF
date =1999-02-18
url =http://www.rsssf.com/tablesa/arg-early-info.html
accessdate =2008-01-08
]
Alumni Athletic Club was founded in 1891 as "Buenos Aires English High School", and the club was the most successful in the amateur era in Argentina. The club took part in the inaugural Association Football League (AAFL) league in 1893 and played again in 1895 and 1900, under the name "English High School". In 1901 they changed their name to "Alumni". They continued to play in the league until the club were disbanded in 1911. The AAFL later became the Asociación del Fútbol Argentino.

Evidence of the influence of English settlers in Argentine football can be seen by club names, and the tradition of giving clubs English names, such as Club Atlético Banfield, Newell's Old Boys, Racing Club and River Plate.

A number of clubs were founded by English settlers, including -

*Club Ferrocarril Midland was founded on 28 June 1914 by English railway workers of the Buenos Aires Midland Railway.
*Ferro Carril Oeste was founded by English railway workers of the Buenos Aires Western Railway on 29 July 1904.
*Newell's Old Boys was founded in 1903 and named by former pupils of the "English High School of Rosario" in homage to its director and football coach, English immigrant Isaac Newell.cite web
title =Clasico Rosariono
publisher = footballderbies.com
url =http://www.footballderbies.com/honours/index.php?id=98
accessdate =2008-01-08
]
*Rosario Central was founded as the "Central Argentine Railway Athletic Club" on 24 December 1889 by English railway workers of the Central Argentine Railway.
*Talleres de Córdoba was founded in 1913 as "Atlético Talleres Central Córdoba" by English workers of the Córdoba Central Railway.

Anglican church in Argentina

Anglican churches were established in Argentina in the early 19th century to give a chaplaincy service to expatriate workers living in Argentina. In 1824 permission was given to hold Anglican church services and in 1831 St. John's Church was built in Buenos Aires.cite news
title =Anglicans in Argentina
publisher =Iglesia Anglicana Argentina
url =http://www.anglicanaargentina.org.ar/English/HTML/church_home.htm#
accessdate =2008-01-07
]

English naval captain and Christian missionary, Allen Gardiner founded the "Patagonia Mission" (later to be renamed the South American Missionary Society) in 1844 to recruit, send, and support Christian missionaries. His first mission, which included a surgeon and three fishermen was sent to the Yaghans on the island of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. They arrived at Picton island in Tierra del Fuego in December 1850 but their food began to run out. They had expected scheduled supplies, however they did not arrive and by September 1851, they had died from sickness and hunger. The Patagonia Mission continued and in 1854 changed its name to the South American Missionary Society.

In January 1869, the Society established a mission at Ushuaia in Tierra del Fuego under its superintendent, Waite Hockin Stirling. [Bridges, E L (1948) "The Uttermost Part of the Earth" Republished 2008, Overlook Press ISBN 978-1585679560 ] On 21 December 1869 Stirling was ordained at Westminster Abbey as the first Bishop of the Falkland Islands and at the time had episcopal authority over the whole of South America, until power shifted to the Bishop of Buenos Aires.cite journal
last =Millam
first =Peter J.
title =The Falklands - The World's Largest Diocese: "A Noble History and a Glorious Past"
journal =Falkland Islands Newsletter
issue =70
publisher =Falkland Islands Association
location =Falkland Islands
month =August | year =1997
url =http://www.falklands.info/history/histarticle18.html
accessdate =2008-01-07
] In 1914, the first mission, Misión Chaqueña, was founded in the north of Argentina.

The Anglican Diocese of Argentina is part of the Anglican Province of the Southern Cone of America and is headed by the current Bishop of Buenos Aires.cite journal
title =Quick facts: The Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of America
journal =Anglican Journal
publisher =The Anglican Church of Canada
location =Canada
date =2007-11-30
url =http://www.anglicanjournal.com/100/article/quick-facts-the-anglican-church-of-the-southern-cone-of-america/
accessdate =2008-01-07
]

English traditions in Argentina

English traditions are deeply rooted in Argentine society. Many Argentines often have afternoon tea, instead of an afternoon coffee break.

References

External links

* [http://www.angloarg.dircon.co.uk/ Anglo-Argentine Society website]
* [http://www.buenosairesherald.com Buenos Aires Herald, English language newspaper]
* [http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1990/1/90.01.06.x.html Immigration to Argentina-Report-Yale]


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