Ingrid Bergman


Ingrid Bergman

Infobox actor
name = Ingrid Bergman


imagesize = 200px
caption = "For Whom the Bell Tolls" - Ingrid Bergman's first color film.
birthdate = birth date|1915|8|29|mf=y
birthplace = Stockholm, Sweden
deathdate = death date and age|1982|8|29|1915|8|29|mf=y
deathplace = London, United Kingdom
yearsactive = 1935-1982
spouse = Aron Petter Lindström
(1937-1950)
Roberto Rossellini
(1950-1957)
Lars Schmidt
(1958-1975)
academyawards = Best Actress
1944 "Gaslight"
1956 "Anastasia"
Best Supporting Actress
1974 "Murder on the Orient Express"
emmyawards = Outstanding Lead Actress - Miniseries or a Movie
1960 "Turn of the Screw"
1982 "A Woman Called Golda"
tonyawards = Best Leading Actress in a Play
1947 "Joan of Lorraine"
goldenglobeawards = Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama
1944 "Gaslight"
1945 "The Bells of St. Mary's"
1956 "Anastasia"

1982 "A Woman Called Golda"
baftaawards = Best Supporting Actress
1974 "Murder on the Orient Express"
cesarawards = Honorary César
1976 Lifetime Achievement
awards = NBR Award for Best Actress
1958 "The Inn of the Sixth Happiness"
1978 "Autumn Sonata"
NSFC Award for Best Actress
1978 "Autumn Sonata"
NYFCC Award for Best Actress
1945 "Spellbound" ; "The Bells of St. Mary's"
1956 "Anastasia"
1978 "Autumn Sonata"
Walk of Fame - Motion Picture
6759 Hollywood Blvd

Audio|sv-Ingrid_Bergman.ogg|Ingrid Bergman (pronounced|ˈbærjman in Swedish, but usually IPAEng|ˈbɝgmən in English) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a Swedish three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning actress. She also won the Tony Award for Best Actress in the first Tony Award ceremony in 1947. She is ranked as the fourth greatest female star of American cinema of all time by the American Film Institute. [cite web | url = http://www.afi.com/tvevents/100years/stars.aspx | title = AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars | work = American Film Institute | accessdate = 2006-10-23 ]

Biography

Early years: 1915-1938

Bergman, named after Princess Ingrid of Sweden, was born in Stockholm, Sweden on August 29, 1915 to a Swedish father, Justus Samuel Bergman, and a German mother, Friedel Adler Bergman. [cite book | author=Chandler, Charlotte | title=Ingrid: Ingrid Bergman, A Personal Biography | publisher=Simon & Schuster | year=2007 | location=New York | isbn=0-7432-9421-1 | pages=p. 21] When she was three years old, her mother died. Her father passed away when she was thirteen. She was then sent to live with an aunt, who died of heart complications only six months later. Afterwards she was raised by another aunt and uncle, who had five children.

At the age of 17, Ingrid Bergman auditioned for and was accepted to the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. During her first summer break, she was hired at a Swedish film studio, which consequently led to her leaving the Royal Dramatic Theater to work in films full time, after having attended for only one year. Her first film role after leaving the Royal Dramatic Theater was a small part in 1935's "Munkbrogreven" (She had previously been an extra in the 1932 film "Landskamp").

On July 10, 1937, at the age of 21, she married a dentist, Petter Lindström (who would later become a neurosurgeon). On September 20, 1938, she gave birth to a daughter, Pia Lindström.

After a dozen films in Sweden (including "En kvinnas ansikte" which would later be remade as "A Woman's Face" with Joan Crawford) and one in Germany, "Die vier Gesellen" (1938), Bergman was signed by Hollywood producer David O. Selznick to star in the 1939 English language remake of her 1936 Swedish language film, "Intermezzo". According to Bergman's A&E Biography, Selznick suggested she change her name, have her teeth capped, and her eyebrows plucked, but Ingrid was having none of it. Taken aback by her reply, Selznick changed his mind, allowing Ingrid to keep all her real features and her real name. "Intermezzo" was an enormous success and Bergman became a star, described as "Sweden's illustrious gift to Hollywood". Some things that set her apart from other female stars in Hollywood at that time were that she did not change her name, her appearance was entirely natural with little to no makeup, and that she was one of the tallest leading ladies.

Hollywood period: 1938-1949

After completing one last film in Sweden and appearing in three moderately successful films in the United States, Bergman joined Humphrey Bogart in the 1942 classic film "Casablanca", which remains her best-known role. Bergman did not consider "Casablanca" to be one of her favorite performances. "I made so many films which were more important, but the only one people ever want to talk about is that one with Bogart." About Bogart, she said "I never really knew him. I kissed him, but I didn't know him." [ [http://www.ingridbergman.com The Official Ingrid Bergman Website] .]

That same year, she received her first Academy Award nomination for Best Actress for "For Whom the Bell Tolls" (1943), which was also her first color film. The following year, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for "Gaslight" (1944). After losing to Ingrid Bergman for the 1944 Best Actress Academy Award, Barbara Stanwyck told the press she was a "member of The Ingrid Bergman Fan Club," declaring, "I don't feel at all bad about the Award because my favorite actress won it and has earned it by all her performances." [cite web
url = http://theoscarsite.com/1944.htm
title = All the Oscars: 1944
work = the OscarSite.com - A celebration of all things Oscar
author = Gary Moody
accessdate = 2006-12-10
] She received a third consecutive nomination for Best Actress with her performance as a nun in "The Bells of St. Mary's" (1945). Bergman had been considered for the role of Mother Maria-Veronica in 1944's "The Keys of the Kingdom", but the part ultimately went to Rose Stradner, who was then the wife of the film's producer, Joseph Mankiewicz.

Later, she would receive another Best Actress nomination for "Joan of Arc" (1948), an independent film produced by Walter Wanger and initially released through RKO. Bergman had championed the role since her arrival in Hollywood, which is one of the reasons she had played it on the Broadway stage in Maxwell Anderson's "Joan of Lorraine". Partly because of the scandal with Rossellini, the film, based on the Anderson play, was not a big hit, and received disastrous reviews. It was subsequently shorn of 45 minutes, and it was not until its restoration to full length in 1998 and its 2004 appearance on DVD that later audiences could see it as it was intended to be shown.

Bergman starred in the Alfred Hitchcock films "Spellbound" (1945), "Notorious" (1946), and "Under Capricorn" (1949). Unlike her earlier Hitchcock films, "Under Capricorn" was a slow-paced costume drama, slow to such a degree that Bergman's reputation and the film's release suffered from this,fact|date=October 2007 in addition to the gathering adverse publicity over Bergman's affair with Rossellini. Ingrid Bergman was a student of the acting coach Michael Chekhov during the 1940s. Coincidentally, it was his role in "Spellbound", of which she was a star, that he received his only nomination for an Academy Award. [cite web
url = http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=5949
title = Michael Chekhov
work = Literary Encyclopedia
publisher = The Literary Dictionary Company Limited
author = Adam J. Ledger
accessdate = 2007-03-06
]

Between motion pictures, Bergman appeared in the stage plays "Liliom", "Anna Christie", and "Joan of Lorraine". Furthermore, during a press conference in Washington, D.C. for the promotion of "Joan of Lorraine", she protested against segregation after seeing it first hand at the theater she was acting in. This led to a lot of publicity and some hate mail.

Ingrid Bergman went to Alaska during World War II in order to entertain troops. Soon after the war ended, she also went to Europe for the same purpose, where she was able to see the devastation caused by the war. It was during this time that she began a relationship with the famous photographer Robert Capa. She became a smoker after needing to smoke for her role in "Arch of Triumph".

Italian period: 1949-1957

In 1949, Bergman met Italian director Roberto Rossellini in order to make the film "Stromboli" (1950), after having been a fan of two of his previous films that she had seen while in the United States. During the making of this movie, she fell in love with him and became pregnant with a son, Renato Roberto Giusto Giuseppe ("Robin") Rossellini (born February 7, 1950).

The pregnancy caused a huge scandal in the United States. It even led to her being denounced on the floor of the U.S. Senate by Edwin C. Johnson, a Democratic senator from Colorado, who referred to her as "a horrible example of womanhood and a powerful influence for evil." In addition, there was a floor vote, which resulted in her being made persona non grata. The scandal forced Ingrid Bergman to exile herself to Italy, leaving her husband and daughter in the United States. Her husband, Dr. Petter Lindström, eventually sued for desertion and waged a custody battle for their daughter.

Ingrid Bergman married Roberto Rossellini on May 24, 1950. On June 18, 1952, she gave birth to twin daughters, Isabella Rossellini, who is a famous actress and model, and Isotta Ingrid Rossellini, a professor of Italian Literature. Over the next few years, she appeared in several Italian films for Rossellini, including "Giovanna d'Arco al rogo" ("Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher", "Joan of Arc at the Stake", 1954), a 1935 dramatic oratorio by Arthur Honegger about Joan of Arc. Their marriage ended in divorce on November 7, 1957.

After separating from Rossellini, she starred in Jean Renoir's "Elena and Her Men" ("Elena et les Hommes", 1956), a romantic comedy where she played a Polish princess caught in political intrigue. Although the film wasn't a success, it has since come to be regarded as one of her best performances.

During her time in Italy, anger over her private life had continued unabated in the United States, with Ed Sullivan at one point infamously polling his TV show audience as to whether she should be permitted to appear on his show. Although the audience was mostly in favor, Ed declined to book her. Steve Allen then booked her on his show opposite Sullivan, and answered critics with a letter stating "If it became a principle to keep off TV those performers who have been guilty of adultery, then I am very much afraid that a great many of your favorite programs would disappear." [cite episode |title=Steve Allen |url=http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/multimedia/video/2008/wallace/allen_steve.html |series=The Mike Wallace Interview |network=ABC |city=New York City |airdate=1957-07-07 |transcripturl=http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/multimedia/video/2008/wallace/allen_steve_t.html]

Later years: 1957-1982

With her starring role in 1956's "Anastasia", Bergman made a triumphant return to the American screen and won the Academy Award for Best Actress for a second time. The award was accepted for her by her friend Cary Grant. [cite web
url = http://www.imdb.com/Sections/Awards/Academy_Awards_USA/1957
title = 1957 Academy Awards
work = Internet Movie Database
accessdate = 2006-10-23
] Bergman would not make her first post-scandal public appearance in Hollywood until the 1958 Academy Awards, when she was the presenter of the Academy Award for Best Picture. [cite web
url = http://theoscarsite.com/1958.htm
title = All the Oscars: 1958
work = the OscarSite.com - A celebration of all things Oscar
author = Gary Moody
accessdate = 2006-12-10
] Furthermore, after being introduced by Cary Grant and walking out on stage to present, she was given a standing ovation.

Bergman would continue to alternate between performances in American and European films for the rest of her career and also made occasional appearances in television dramas such as a 1959 production of "The Turn of the Screw" for "Startime" for which she won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress.

During this time, she also performed in several stage plays. In addition, she married the producer Lars Schmidt, a fellow Swede, on December 21, 1958. This marriage ultimately led to divorce in 1975.

In 1972, Senator Charles H. Percy entered an apology into the Congressional Record for the attack made on her 22 years earlier by Edwin C. Johnson. She was the President of the Jury at the 1973 Cannes Film Festival. [cite web
url = http://www.festival-cannes.fr/perso/index.php?langue=6002&personne=4296444
title = Ingrid Bergman Profile
work = Cannes Film Festival
accessdate = 2006-10-23
]

Bergman received her third Academy Award (and first for Best Supporting Actress) for her performance in "Murder on the Orient Express" (1974), but she publicly declared at the Academy Awards telecast that year that the award rightfully belonged to Italian actress Valentina Cortese for "Day for Night" by concluding her acceptance speech with "Please forgive me, Valentina. I didn't mean to." [cite web
url = http://theoscarsite.com/1974.htm
title = All the Oscars: 1974
work = the OscarSite.com - A celebration of all things Oscar
author = Gary Moody
accessdate = 2006-12-10
]

Bergman could speak Swedish (her native language), German (her second language), English (learned when brought over to United States), Italian (learned while exiled in Italy Fact|date=July 2007), and French (learned formally from language teachers) fluently. In addition, she acted in each of these languages at various times. Fellow actor John Gielgud, who had acted with her in "Murder on the Orient Express" and who had directed her in the play "The Constant Wife", playfully mocked this ability when he remarked, "She speaks five languages and can't act in any of them." [cite news
url = http://www.reviewjournal.com/lvrj_home/2002/Aug-26-Mon-2002/news/19489130.html
title = The Punch Line
publisher = Las Vegas Review-Journal
date = 2002-08-26
accessdate = 2006-10-22
]

Although known chiefly as a film star, Bergman strongly admired the great English stage actors and their craft. She had the opportunity to appear in London's West End, working with such stage stars as Sir Michael Redgrave in "A Month in the Country" (1965), Sir John Gielgud in "The Constant Wife" (1973) and Dame Wendy Hiller in "Waters of the Moon" (1977-78).

In 1978, she played in Ingmar Bergman's "Höstsonaten" ("Autumn Sonata") for which she received her seventh Academy Award nomination and made her final performance on the big screen. In the film, Bergman plays a celebrity pianist who returns to Sweden to visit her neglected daughter, played by Liv Ullmann. The film was shot in Norway. It is considered by many to be among her best performances. Fact|date=February 2008She hosted the AFI's Life Achievement Award Ceremony for Alfred Hitchcock in 1979. [cite web
url = http://imdb.com/title/tt0268597/
title = The American Film Institute Salute to Alfred Hitchcock
work = Internet Movie Database
accessdate = 2006-10-23
]

She was honored posthumously with her second Emmy Award for Best Actress in 1982 for the television mini-series "A Woman Called Golda", about the late Israeli prime minister Golda Meir. It was her final acting role.

Death

Ingrid Bergman died in 1982 on her 67th birthday in London, England, following a long battle with breast cancer. The exact cause was lymphoma complications following a breast cancer operation. Her body was cremated in Sweden. Most of her ashes were scattered in the sea with the remainder being interred in the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm next to her parents. A single violin played the song "As Time Goes By", the theme from "Casablanca," recalling her most famous role, that of Ilsa Lund.

Autobiography

In 1980, Bergman's autobiography was published under the title "Ingrid Bergman: My Story". It was written with the help of Alan Burgess, who had written the book "The Small Woman," on which the film "The Inn of the Sixth Happiness" was based. In the book, she discusses her childhood, her early career, her life during her time in Hollywood, the Rossellini scandal and subsequent events. The book was written after her children warned her that she would only be known through rumors and interviews if she did not tell her own story. It was through this autobiography that her affair with Robert Capa became known.

Legacy

For her contributions to the motion picture industry, Ingrid Bergman has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6759 Hollywood Blvd. She continues to be a cultural icon — not only for her role in "Casablanca", but for her career as a whole and for her innocent, natural beauty. In addition, she is considered by many to be one of the foremost actresses of the 20th century.

There is a hybrid tea rose named after her. [cite web
url = http://www.worldrose.org/awards/ingrid.html
title = Ingrid Bergman Rose Awards Page
work = World Federation of Rose Societies
accessdate = 2006-10-23
]

She was the topic of a Woody Guthrie song entitled "Ingrid Bergman", which was composed in the year 1950. At the request of Woody's daughter Nora Guthrie, English folk-rocker Billy Bragg and the alternative country group Wilco set these lyrics to music and placed the song on the 1998 hit album "Mermaid Avenue." [cite web
url = http://www.woodyguthrie.org/Lyrics/Ingrid_Bergman.htm
title = Ingrid Bergman Lyrics
work = Official Woodie Guthrie Website
accessdate = 2006-10-23
]

Awards

Filmography

ee also

* Ingmar Bergman
* Alfred Hitchcock
* Gary Cooper
* Charles Boyer
* Cary Grant
* Victor Fleming
* Humphrey Bogart
* Yul Brynner

Notes

References

*cite book | author=Bergman, Ingrid and Burgess, Alan | title=Ingrid Bergman: My Story | publisher=Delacorte Press | year=1980 | location=New York | isbn=0-440032-99-7

*cite book | author=Chandler, Charlotte | title=Ingrid: Ingrid Bergman, A Personal Biography | publisher=Simon & Schuster | year=2007 | location=New York | isbn=0-7432-9421-1

*cite book | author=Leamer, Laurence | title=As Time Goes By: The Life of Ingrid Bergman | publisher=Harper & Row | year=1986 | location=New York | isbn=0-060154-85-3

External links

Biographical profiles

*
*
*
* [http://www.tcm.com/2006/summer/confidential.jsp?id=29 TCM Confidential: Ingrid Bergman]
*
*findagrave|1665

Official sites

* [http://www.ingridbergman.org/ Ingrid Bergman website by her family]
* [http://www.ingridbergman.com/ Ingrid Bergman site run by CMG]
* [http://www.wesleyan.edu/cinema/collections/bergman.htm Ingrid Bergman Collection] at Wesleyan University

Interviews

* [http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/movies/bestpictures/casablanca-ar.html 1943 New York Times Interview]
* [http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0312/04/lkl.00.html Larry King transcript] with Ingrid Bergman's daughters on the 60th anniversary of "Casablanca"
* [http://www.salon.com/july97/mothers/rossellini970704.html Excerpt from Isabella Rossellini's "Some of Me" that describes Ingrid Bergman's passion for cleaning]

Rich media — video

*fr icon [http://archives.radio-canada.ca/IDC-0-72-56-127-10/arts_culture/ingrid_bergman_amerique/ Television interview] by Radio-Canada reporter Judith Jasmin on July 15, 1957
*fr icon [http://www.ina.fr/archivespourtous/index.php?vue=notice&from=themes&code=C0524217924&num_notice=2&total_notices=2 Television interview] on JT 20H on February 22, 1959
*fr icon [http://www.ina.fr/archivespourtous/index.php?vue=notice&from=themes&code=C0524217924&num_notice=1&total_notices=2 Television interview] by France Roche on Cinépanorama on November 19, 1960

Rich media — audio

*Radio rich media may be found in the radio credits table.
* [http://www.kiddierecords.com/2006/archive/week_47.htm Ingrid Bergman's Spoken Word Version of The Pied Piper of Hamelin]
* [http://www.eoneill.com/artifacts/flash/msm1/msm1.htm Audio Recording of Ingrid Bergman in the NY Production of "More Stately Mansions" (1967)] (Adobe Flash)

Others

* [http://www.ingrid.siberiansiren.com/ Immortal Ingrid]
* [http://www.mattcawley.com/ingrid/ The Complete Ingrid Bergman Page - A Fansite]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1665 Ingrid Bergman Memorial Page]
* [http://film.virtual-history.com/person.php?personid=98 Photographs and bibliography]

Persondata
NAME=Bergman, Ingrid
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Actress
DATE OF BIRTH=August 29, 1915
PLACE OF BIRTH=Stockholm, Sweden
DATE OF DEATH=August 29, 1982
PLACE OF DEATH=London, England, United Kingdom


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