- Evolutionary educational psychology
Evolutionary educational psychology is the study of the relation between inherent folk knowledge and abilities and accompanying inferential and
attributional biases as these influence academic learningin evolutionarilynovel culturalcontexts, such as schools and the industrial workplace. The fundamental premises and principles of this discipline are presented below.
The premises of evolutionary educational psychology
The premises state there are
*(a) aspects of
mindand brain that have evolved to draw the individuals’ attentionto and facilitate the processing of social ( folk psychology), biological ( folk biology), physical ( folk physics) information patterns that facilitated survival or reproductive outcomes during human evolution(Cosmides & Tooby, 1994; Geary, 2005; Gelman, 1990; Pinker, 1997; Shepard, 1994; Simon, 1956);
*(b) although plastic to some degree, these primary abilities are inherently constrained to the extent associated information patterns tended to be consistent across generations and within lifetimes (e.g., Caramazza & Shelton, 1998; Geary & Huffman, 2002);
*(c) other aspects of mind and brain evolved to enable the mental generation of potential future social, ecological, or climatic conditions and enable rehearsal of behaviors to cope with variation in these conditions, and are now known as general
fluid intelligence, or gF (including skill at everyday reasoning/problem solving; Chiappe & MacDonald, 2005; Geary, 2005; Mithen, 1996); and
*(d) children are inherently motivated to learn in folk domains, with the associated attentional and behavioral biases resulting in experiences that automatically and implicitly flesh out and adapt these systems to local conditions (Gelman, 1990; Gelman & Williams, 1998; Gelman, 2003).
The principles of evolutionary educational psychology
The principles represent the foundational assumptions for an evolutionary educational psychology. The gist is knowledge and expertise that is useful in the cultural milieu or ecology in which the group is situated will be transferred across generations in the form of
cultural artifacts, such as books, or learning traditions, as in apprenticeships (e.g., Baumeister, 2005; Richerson & Boyd, 2005; Flinn, 1997; Mithen, 1996). Across generations, the store of cultural knowledge accumulates and creates a gap between this knowledge base and the forms of folk knowledge and abilities that epigenetically emerge with children’s self-initiated activities.
There must of course be an evolved potential to learn evolutionarily novel information and an associated bias to seek novelty during the developmental period and indeed throughout the life span; this may be related to the
openness to experiencedimension of personality (Geary, 1995, 2002, in press).
However, the cross-generational accumulation of knowledge across cultures, individuals, and domains (e.g., people vs. physics) has resulted in an exponential increase in the quantity of secondary knowledge available in modern societies today. For most people, the breadth and complexity of this knowledge will very likely exceed any biases to learn in evolutionary novel domains.
The creation of knowledge vs. the learning of knowledge
A related issue concerns the traits that enable the "creation" of biologically secondary knowledge and thus culture and the extent to which these traits overlap with the ability to "learn" knowledge created by others.
Stated differently, Is the goal of education to have children recreate the process of discovery, to learn the products of discovery, or some combination? Some educators have advocated a focus on the process of discovery without full consideration of the constellation of traits and opportunity that contribute to the creation of secondary knowledge (e.g., Cobb, Yackel, & Wood, 1992). In fact, research on creative-productive individuals suggests that the full constellation of traits that facilitate the discovery and creation of secondary knowledge is rare and not likely reproducible on a large scale (Simonton, 1999a, 1999b, 2003; Sternberg, 1999; Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2005).
Natural selectionhas resulted in an evolved motivationaldisposition to attempt to gain access to and control of the resources that have covaried with survival and reproductive outcomes during human evolution.
*2.) These resources fall into three broad categories: social, biological, and physical which correspond to the respective domains of folk psychology, folk biology, and folk physics.
perceptual, and cognitivesystems, including inferential and attributional biases, have evolved to process information in these folk domains and to guide control-related behavioral strategies. These systems process restricted classes of information associated with these folk domains.
*4.) To cope with variation in social, ecological, or climatic conditions, systems that enabled the mental generation of these potential future conditions and enabled rehearsals of behaviors to cope with this variation evolved and the supporting attentional and cognitive mechanisms are known as general
fluid intelligenceand everyday reasoning.
*5.) Children are biologically biased to engage in activities that recreate the ecologies of human evolution; these are manifested as social play, and exploration of the environment and objects. The accompanying experiences interact with the inherent but skeletal folk systems and flesh out these systems such that they are adapted to the local social group and ecology.
Scientific, technological, and academicadvances initially emerged from the cognitive and motivational systems that support folk psychology, folk biology, and folk physics. Innovations that enabled better control of ecologies or social dynamicsor resulted in a coherent (though not necessarily scientifically accurate) understanding of these dynamics are likely to be retained across generations as cultural artifacts (e.g., books) and traditions (e.g. apprenticeships). These advances result in an ever growing gap between folk knowledge and the theories and knowledge base of the associated sciences and other disciplines (e.g., literature).
Schools emerge in societies in which scientific, technological, and intellectual advances result in a gap between folk knowledge and the competencies needed for living in the society.
*3.) The function of schools is to organize the activities of children such that they acquire the biologically secondary competencies that close the gap between folk knowledge and the occupational and social demands of the
*4.) Biologically secondary competencies are built from primary folk systems and the components of fluid intelligence that evolved to enable individuals to cope with variation and novelty.
*5.) Children's inherent motivational bias to engage in activities that will adapt folk knowledge to local conditions will often conflict with the need to engage in activities that will result in secondary learning.
*6.) The need for explicit instruction will be a direct function of the degree to which the secondary competency differs from the supporting primary systems.
Dual inheritance theory
Evolutionary developmental psychology
Human behavioral ecology
*Baumeister, R. F. (2005). [http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Psychology/Social/?view=usa&ci=9780195167030 The cultural animal: Human nature, meaning, and social life] . New York: Oxford University Press.
*Bernhard, J. Gary (1988). Primates in the Classroom: An Evolutionary Perspective on Children's Education. Amhurst: University of Massachusetts Press.
*Burman, J. T. (in press). Experimenting in relation to Piaget: Education is a Chaperoned Process of Adaptation. "Perspectives on Science, 16"(2).
*Caramazza, A., & Shelton, J. R. (1998). [http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/~caram/PDFs/1998_Caramazza_Shelton.pdf#search='Domainspecific%20knowledge%20systems%20in%20the%20brain%3A%20The%20animateinanimate%20distinction' Domain-specific knowledge systems in the brain: The animate-inanimate distinction] . "Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience", 10, 1-34.
*Chiappe, D., & MacDonald, K. (2005). [http://www.csulb.edu/~kmacd/iq.pdf The evolution of domain-general mechanisms in intelligence and learning] . "Journal of General Psychology", 132, 5-40.
*Cobb, P., Yackel, E., & Wood, T. (1992). A constructivist alternative to the representational view of mind in mathematics education. "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education", 23, 2-33. ( [http://www.citeulike.org/user/yish/article/377816 Abstract] )
*Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1994). Origins of domain specificity: The evolution of functional organization. In L. A. Hirschfeld & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), [http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521429935 Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture] (pp. 85-116). New York: Cambridge University Press. ( [http://cogweb.ucla.edu/Abstracts/Hirschfeld_Gelman_94.html#Cosmides,%20Leda%20and%20John%20Tooby Abstract] )
*Flinn, M. V. (1997). [http://www.missouri.edu/~anthmark/pdf/Flinn1997.pdf Culture and the evolution of social learning] . "Evolution and Human Behavior", 18, 23-67.
*Geary, D.C. (In press). Educating the Evolved Mind. In J.S. Carlson & J.R. Levin(Eds.), "Psychological Perspectives on Contemporary Educational Issues" (p. 28). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. (Cited with permission by author)
*Geary, D. C. (2005). [http://www.apa.org/books/4318015.html The origin of mind: Evolution of brain, cognition, and general intelligence] . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
*Geary, D. C. (2002). [http://web.missouri.edu/~psycorie/GearyEvoEd.pdf Principles of evolutionary educational psychology] . "Learning and Individual Differences", 12, 317-345.
*Geary, D. C., & Huffman, K. J. (2002). [http://web.missouri.edu/~psycorie/GearyHuffman.pdf Brain and cognitive evolution: Forms of modularity and functions of mind] . "Psychological Bulletin", 128, 667-698.
*Geary, D. C. (1995). [http://web.missouri.edu/~psycorie/AmericanPsych95.pdf Reflections of evolution and culture in children’s cognition: Implications for mathematical development and instruction] . "American Psychologist", 50, 24-37.
*Gelman, R., & Williams, E. M. (1998). [http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/faculty/GnG/pdf_files/1998EnablingConstraints.pdf Enabling constraints for cognitive development and learning: Domain-specificity and epigenesis] . In D. Kuhl & R. S. Siegler (Vol. Eds.), [http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471057304.html Cognition, perception, and language] , Vol 2 (pp. 575-630). W. Damon (Gen. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Fifth Ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
*Gelman, R. (1990). [http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/faculty/GnG/pdf_files/1990FirstPrinciplesOrganize.pdf First principles organize attention to and learning about relevant data: Number and animate-inanimate distinction as examples] . "Cognitive Science", 14, 79-106.
*Gelman, S. A. (2003). [http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Psychology/Developmental/?view=usa&ci=9780195181982 The essential child: Origins of essentialism in everyday thought] . New York: Oxford University Press.
*Mithen, S. (1996). [http://www.wwnorton.com/thamesandhudson/arch%5Fnew/528100%5Farch.htm The prehistory of the mind: The cognitive origins of art and science] . New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc.
*Pinker, S. (1997). [http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/books/htmw/index.html How the mind works] . New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
*Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). [http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/16460.ctl Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution] . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. [http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/712842.html Excerpt]
*Shepard, R. N. (1994). Perceptual-cognitive universals as reflections of the world. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review", 1, 2-28. ( [http://www.santafe.edu/research/publications/wpabstract/199311073 Abstract] )
*Simon, H. A. (1956). Rational choice and the structure of the environment. "Psychological Review", 63, 129-138.
*Simonton, D. K. (1999a). Talent and its development: An emergenic and epigenetic model. "Psychological Review", 106, 435-457. ( [http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/simonton/dksabstracts.html#205 Abstract] )
*Simonton, D. K. (1999b). [http://www.us.oup.com/us/catalog/general/subject/Psychology/Cognitive/?view=usa&ci=9780195128796 Origins of genius: Darwinian perspective on creativity] . New York: Oxford University Press.
*Simonton, D. K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior: The integration of product, person, and process perspectives. "Psychological Bulletin", 129, 475-494. ( [http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/simonton/dksabstracts.html#260 Abstract] )
*Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.) (1999). [http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521576040 Handbook of creativity] . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
*Wai, J., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2005). [http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Peabody/SMPY/WaiJEP2005 Creativity and occupational accomplishments among intellectually precocious youths: An age 13 to age 33 longitudinal study] . "Journal of Educational Psychology", 97, 484-492.
*Geary, D. C. (2006). [http://web.missouri.edu/~psycorie/files/DevRev%5B2006,%20proof%5D.pdf Evolutionary developmental psychology: Current status and future directions] . "Developmental Review, 26".
* Geary, D. C. (2005). [http://web.missouri.edu/~psycorie/FolkKnowledgePDF.pdf Folk knowledge and academic learning.] In B. J. Ellis & D. F. Bjorklund (Eds.), "Origins of the social mind" (pp. 493-519). New York: Guilford Publications.
* Geary, D. C. (2004). [http://web.missouri.edu/~psycorie/EvoCogDev%5BChap%5D.pdf Evolution and cognitive development.] In R. Burgess & K. MacDonald (Eds.), "Evolutionary perspectives on human development" (pp. 99-133). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
*Genovese, J.E.C. (2003). [http://human-nature.com/ep/downloads/ep01127137.pdf Piaget, Pedagogy, and Evolutionary Psychology] . "Evolutionary Psychology" 1: 127-137.
*J. Henrich and R. Boyd. (2002). [http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/boyd/Culture&CognitionByHenrich&Boyd.pdf Culture and Cognition: Why Cultural Evolution Does Not Require Replication of Representations] . "Culture and Cognition, 2:" 87–112.
* Zentall, T.R. (2006). Imitation: Definitions, evidence, and mechanisms. "Animal Cognition, 9," 335-353. (A thorough review of different types of social learning) [http://www.cogs.indiana.edu/spackled/imitation.pdf Full text]
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