Executive Office of the President of the United States


Executive Office of the President of the United States
Executive Office of the President
Seal of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.jpg
Agency overview
Formed 1939
Headquarters White House
Employees Approx 2000
Agency executive William M. Daley, Chief of Staff
Parent agency Federal government of the United States
Website
Executive Office of the President

The Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the President of the United States, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President. The EOP is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, currently William M. Daley. The size of the White House staff has increased dramatically since 1939, and has grown to include an array of policy experts in various fields.

Contents

History

In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. This created the Executive Office of the President (EOP), reporting directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council.[1] Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors.[2]

The Eisenhower Executive Office Building at night.

Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the nineteenth century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president" (then the title of the president's chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, the size of the staff expanded to thirty-one, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers, although working directly for the President, often were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions.

From 1939 through the present, the situation changed dramatically. New units within the EOP were created, some by statute, some by executive order of the president. Among the most important are the Council of Economic Advisers (1946), the National Security Council and its staff (1947), the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (1963), the Council on Environmental Quality (1970), the Office of Science and Technology Policy (1976), the Office of Administration (1977), and the Office of National Drug Control Policy (1989). Under George W. Bush, additional units were added, such as the Office of Homeland Security (2001), which later became a cabinet department, and the Office of Faith-based and Community Initiatives (2001). Precise estimates as to the size and budget of the EOP are difficult to come by. Many people who work on the staff are "detailed" from other federal departments and agencies, and budgetary expenses are often charged elsewhere, for example Defense Department staff for the White House Military Office. Ballpark estimates indicate some 2,000 to 2,500 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).[3]

Organization

Senior staff within the Executive Office of the President have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.

Very few EOP officials are required to be confirmed by the Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions to this rule (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative). The core White House Staff appointments do not require Senate approval. The staff of the Executive Office to the President is headed by the White House Chief of Staff.

Entities in the Executive Office of the President

Council of Economic Advisers

Council on Environmental Quality

National Security Council

Office of Administration

  • Director of the Office of Administration: Beth Jones [7]

Office of Management and Budget

  • Director of the Office of Management and Budget: Jacob Lew[8]
    • Deputy Director of the Office of Management and Budget:
    • Deputy Director for Management (Chief Performance Officer): Jeffrey Zients[9]
      • Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management: Daniel Werfel[10]
      • Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy: Daniel Gordon[11]
      • Administrator of the Office of E-Government & Information Technology(Chief Information Officer): Steven VanRoekel (Designate)
      • Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs: Cass R. Sunstein [12]

Office of National Drug Control Policy

  • Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Gil Kerlikowske[13]
    • Deputy Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Dr. A. Thomas McLellan[14]

Office of Science and Technology Policy

  • Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy: John Holdren[15]

Office of the Trade Representative

President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board

President's Intelligence Advisory Board

  • Chair of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board: Chuck Hagel and David Boren [18]

Office of the Vice President of the United States

  • Assistant to the Vice President and Office Chief of Staff: Vacant

White House Office

Counselor to the President

  • Counselor to the President: Peter Rouse[21]

Senior Advisor to the President

  • Senior Advisor to the President: David Plouffe
  • Senior Advisor to the President and Assistant to the President for Intergovernmental Relations and Public Engagement: Valerie Jarrett[22]

References

  1. ^ American Presidency Project: "Message to Congress on Plan II to Implement the Reorganization Act," May 9, 1939, accessed May 6, 2011."The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education."
  2. ^ Harold C. Relyea (2008-03-17). "The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview". Congressional Research Service. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/98-606.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-14. 
  3. ^ John P. Burke. "Administration of the White House". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/policy/whitehouse. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  4. ^ "Key members of Obama-Biden national security team announced" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. 2008-12-01. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/key_members_of_obama_biden_national_security_team_announced/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  5. ^ "President-elect Barack Obama announces key members of National Security Team" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. 2008-12-23. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president-elect_barack_obama_announces_key_members_of_national_security_tea/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  6. ^ "Introducing the New Cybersecurity Coordinator" (Press release). Office of the President. 2009-12-22. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2009/12/22/introducing-new-cybersecurity-coordinator. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  7. ^ "U.S. Government Manual" (Press release). United States Government Printing Office. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=2009_government_manual&docid=217558tx_xxx-24.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  8. ^ "President-elect Barack Obama announces Office of Management and Budget Director and Deputy Director" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. 2008-11-25. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president_elect_barack_obama_announces_office_of_management_and_budget_dire/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  9. ^ a b "Weekly Address: Efficiency and Innovation" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-04-18. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/09/04/18/Weekly-Address-Efficiency-and-Innovation/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  10. ^ "Nominations sent to the Senate" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2008-08-04. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Presidential-nominations-sent-to-the-Senate-8-04-09/. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  11. ^ "Nominations sent to the Senate" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-10-05. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Presidential-Nominations-Sent-to-the-Senate-10/5/09. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  12. ^ "President Obama Announces Another Key OMB Post" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-04-20. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/President-Obama-Announces-Another-Key-OMB-Post/. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  13. ^ "White House Announces New Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-03-11. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/White-House-Announces-New-Director-of-the-Office-of-National-Drug-Control-Policy/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  14. ^ "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-04-10. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/President-Obama-Announces-More-Key-Administration-Posts-04-10-09/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  15. ^ "President-elect Obama announces key members of Science and Technology team" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. 2008-12-20. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president-elect_obama_announces_key_members_of_science_and_technology_team/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  16. ^ "President-elect Obama announces choices for Transportation, Labor, SBA and USTR posts" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. 2008-12-19. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president-elect_obama_announces_choices_for_transportation_labor_sba_and_us/. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  17. ^ "President-elect Barack Obama establishes President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. 2008-11-26. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president_elect_barack_obama_establishes_presidents_economic_recovery_advis. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  18. ^ "Remarks by the President Before Meeting with the President's Intelligence Advisory Board Co-Chairmen and Senior Leadership of the Intelligence Community" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-10-28. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-meeting-with-presidents-intelligence-advisory-board-co-chairmen-a. Retrieved 2009-12-04. 
  19. ^ Bill Daley tapped as Obama's chief of staff Chicago Tribune, January 6, 2011
  20. ^ "Emanuel stepping down, Pete Rouse to become Chief of Staff" (Press release). CNN. 2010-10-01. http://news.blogs.cnn.com/2010/10/01/emanuel-stepping-down-pete-rouse-to-become-chief-of-staff/. Retrieved 2010-10-01. 
  21. ^ Bill Daley tapped as Obama's chief of staff Chicago Tribune, January 6, 2011
  22. ^ "President-elect Obama and Vice President-elect Biden announce key White House staff" (Press release). Office of the President-Elect. http://change.gov/newsroom/entry/president_elect_obama_and_vice_presiden_elect_biden_announce_key_white_hous/. Retrieved 21 April 2009. 

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