- Kang Sheng
Kang Sheng (Chinese: 康生; 1898–
December 16, 1975), Communist Party of China(CPC) official, was the head of the People's Republic of China's security and intelligence apparatus at various points until his death, and was subsequently accused along with the Gang of Four of being responsible for persecutions during the Cultural Revolution.
Kang Sheng’s (康生) early life is documented as if relating to different people. He was born in Shandong to a gentry family and named Zhao Rong in 1903, [ Snow, Edgar, "Red Star Over China",Grove Press (New York: 1938), p. 473-474] or as Zhang Zongke, [http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/ks.html Stefan Landsberger's Chinese Propaganda Poster Pages-Kang Sheng ] ] perhaps in 1893, [ [http://rulers.org/chinprov.html Chinese administrative divisions ] ] 1898, [ [http://www.amazon.ca/Claws-Dragon-Sheng-Genius-Peoples/dp/product-description/0671797166 Amazon.ca: The Claws of the Dragon: Kang Sheng-The Evil Genius Behind Mao and His Legacy of Terror in People's China: John Byron, Robert Pack: Books ] ] or 1899. [Vladimirov, Peter, "The Vladimirov Diaries, Yenan, China: 1942-1945", Doubleday & Co (Garden City: 1975), p. 76. ] Kang studied at Shanghai University and joined the party, both in 1924-25. In 1920, Kang took preparatory courses at Qinghua University, then taught in a rural school in Zhujiang, Shandong (1921-23) before resuming studies in Shanghai.Vladimirov, p. 77.] He joined the CCP in 1924 or 1925 in
Shanghai, where he worked as a labor organizer under different alias such as Zhang Shaoqing and Zhao Rong, and took part in the unsuccessful Communist uprising in 1927. As a Shanghai district CCP leader, he participated in uprisings in that city under the leadership of Zhou Enlai(1926-27); when the uprising was put down by Kuomintang, Kang escaped from Shanghai. He was briefly a CCP department chief in the Jiangsu Provincial Committee in 1928 and then joined the surviving Communist cadres in the rural areas, and in 1930.
One report has Kang as CCP Central Committee Organization Department Director (1930-31), politburo member (from 1931) and Central Committee secretary (1931-33) before being sent as a permanent member of the CCP delegation to the Comintern Executive in Moscow. [ Vladimirov, p. 77] Other reports say that he studied in Moscow from as early as 1930, and remained there until 1937, working in the Comintern under
Wang Mingand, at least at times, along side Chen Yun. All three returned to China, to Yenan, in 1937 and taught at the Anti-Japanese University (Kang Da). [Snow, p. 473-474.]
Kang arrived in
Mao Zedong's base at Yan'an(Yenan) sometime in the late 1930s, with the latest inside information on Moscow’s thinking, and was appointed to the CCP CC Secretariat in 1938. He may have already realized that Wang Mingwas falling out of favor, and Zhang Guotaowas originally selected by the Cominternto replace Wang. Kang Sheng allied himself with Mao to destroy Wang's faction within the party, seeing Wang as the greatest enemy at the time.
Yan'an, Kang became a close friend of Jiang Qing, who may have been Kang's maid during his youth in Shandong, and who became a second-rate young actress in Shanghaiand a newly converted Communist. He introduced her to Mao Zedong, who later married her.
In June 1942, Kang was said to have been spending all his time with Mao. [Vladimirov, p. 30.It should be noted that this book by a Russian comintern agent, reflecting the period in which it was published, expresses strong bias, and takes positions on individuals that suggests politically motivated editing decades later.] There are conflicting reports about his role, or fate during the 1942 Rectification Campaign (
Zheng Feng): One source says he was criticized, and then replaced Li Weihanas head of the CCP Party School, [ibid] while another says he was responsible for turning Mao’s innocent effort to educate newly arrived cadres into a violent purge. In his August 1943 speech, [ [http://www.indiana.edu/~easc/resources/working_paper/noframe_7a_names.htm Working Papers-The Names of Rectification ] ] Kang explained how he and his colleagues used rectification to expose spies and trick anti-Party elements into reveling themselves. The strategy calls to mind the 1950s Hundred Flowers Movement and its aftermath.
During the 1946-49
Chinese Civil War, Kang was named to CCP chief of ShandongProvince and second Deputy General Secretary of the party’s East ChinaBureau.
Kang played no visible public role in the early years of the PRC: it is said that the enmity of President
Liu Shaoqiand Premier Zhou Enlaikept his role to a minimum. He resurfaced in the mid- 1950s following his active role in the purge of military leader Peng Dehuai, and apparently resumed control of the CPC security apparatus. He became Mao's personal agent in the intra-Party struggles that began with the " Anti-Rightist Campaign" of 1959 and culminated in the 1966-76 Cultural Revolution. As a close associate of Jiang Qing, he became a member of the Party Secretariat under Deng Xiaopingin 1962. By 1966, he became an "adviser" to the Cultural Revolution Group under the Central Committee, and a member of the Politburo's Standing Committee. His actions set into motion the Cultural Revolution, which he created in order to increase his personal power and rank within the CPC.
Kang was closely involved in the
Cultural Revolutionpurges which resulted in the downfall of Peng Dehuai, Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping, Marshal Lin Biao, Marshal He Long, and many other leading CPC figures. His position in the CPC rose with the fall of each of these high-ranking leaders. Kang's campaigns of state terror reached as far as Inner Mongolia, where he instigated a deadly witchhuntfor members of the defunct Inner Mongolian People's Party, which had once existed as a separatist party but was disbanded and absorbed by the CPC long before; and YunnanProvince, where thousands were died. In this wave of persecution, Kang Sheng adopted a different tactics than that of Yan'an: learning from his dismay from Zheng Fengmovement more than two decades earlier, Kang Sheng cleverly stayed in the background this time, and encouraged the Red Guards (China)and the general populace to eliminate the class enemy, as well as fighting each other, hence shifted the responsibility ostensively away from himself and Mao. As a result, Mao was pleasd with Kang Sheng for achieving the elimination of the so-called class enemy while shifting the responsibility to others (including those already died in the infights between different sects of Red Guards (China)), and Kang Sheng's position was further strengthened in the Cultural Revolution.
Kang also left a lasting imprint on China's foreign policy. While the mainstream of the CPC leadership cultivated Prince
Norodom Sihanoukas Cambodia's anti-Western and anti-imperialist leader, Kang advocated that Khmer Rougeguerrilla leader Pol Potwas the real revolutionary leader in the Southeast Asian nation. As a result, Pol became the recipient of Chinese aid for years to come.
At the apex of his power, Kang ranked fourth behind
Mao, Lin Biao, and Zhou Enlai. His last service to Mao was the 1976 campaign to criticise "rightist deviationism," which was aimed at Zhou Enlaiand Deng Xiaoping, though Kang died of cancerin late 1975 before it was launched. Even before drawing his last breath, Kang had called Mao's English interpreters and proteges Nancy Tang and Wang Hairong to his hospital, accusing Jiang Qingof having betrayed the CPC to the KMT before the Communistvictory. Kang may have forecasted Jiang's fall, or he may merely have been speculating as to her fate.
Had Kang not died, he would certainly have been removed from power along with the Gang of Four (
Jiang Qingand her associates) after Mao's death. In a secret speech delivered in 1978, Hu Yaobang(who became CPC General Secretary in 1981) compared Kang to Soviet secret police chiefs Felix Dzerzhinskyand Lavrenty Beria. He was posthumously expelled from the Party in 1980, and his remains were removed from Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemeteryin Beijing, where the remains of many prominent CPC leaders are interred.
In contrast to Dzerzhinsky, who was a pious believer in
communismand who lived a very simple and modest daily life, Kang lived an extravagant and corrupt lifestyle. As the best calligraphist among senior leaders of CPC, as well as a painter, art and antique connoisseur, poet, and historian, Kang had a great appetite for valuable Chinese antiques and used his power to embezzle many from the Forbidden Cityand from the storehouses of the Cultural Relics Bureau during the Cultural Revolution, a fact uncovered only after his death. According to the audits by the Chinese government and researches by the Japanese, Kang Sheng was both the very first millionaire and the first multi-millionaire in China, based on the value of artifacts he owned (or more precisely, robbed and stole) in 1970s price. Furthermore, it was rumored that he had kept an affair with the sister of his wife Cao Yi'oufor quite a long time, and he built several villas for their rendezvous.
Kang's career is covered in the book ISBN 0-688-09722-7 The Chinese Secret Service by Roger Faligot and Remi Kauffer
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Kang Sheng — während der 1940er Jahre in Yan’an Kāng Shēng (chinesisch 康生; mit richtigem Namen Zhang Shaoqing; * 1898 in Jiaonan, Provinz Shandong in der Volksrepublik China; † 16. Dezember 1975) war ein hochrangiges Mitglied der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas … Deutsch Wikipedia
KANG SHENG — [K’ANG CHENG] (1899 1975) Originaire d’un milieu de propriétaires aisés, Kang Sheng voit le jour à Zhucheng (Shandong). Exclu de l’école pour ses activités subversives, il étudie à Shanghai et a pour professeur Qu Qiubai, futur secrétaire général … Encyclopédie Universelle
Kang Sheng — Dans ce nom asiatique, le nom de famille, Kang, précède le prénom. Kang Sheng (康生, 1903 1975), de son vrai nom Zhang Zongke, est certainement un des dirigeants les plus énigmatiques de la République populaire de Chine. Longtemps à la tête des… … Wikipédia en Français
Kang Sheng — ▪ Chinese leader Wade Giles romanization K ang Sheng , original name Zhang Zongke , assumed name Zhao Rong born 1898, Zhucheng, Shandong province, China died Dec. 16, 1975, Beijing Chinese communist official who is considered to have… … Universalium
Kang-sheng Lee — Lee Kang sheng Lee Kang sheng est un nom chinois ; le nom de famille, Lee, précède donc le prénom. Lee Kang sheng est un acteur et réalisateur taïwanais. Né à Taipei en 1968, il est considéré comme l acteur fétiche de Tsai Ming liang et a… … Wikipédia en Français
Lee Kang-Sheng — est un nom chinois ; le nom de famille, Lee, précède donc le prénom. Lee Kang sheng est un acteur et réalisateur taïwanais. Né à Taipei en 1968, il est considéré comme l acteur fétiche de Tsai Ming liang et a joué dans la majeure partie de… … Wikipédia en Français
Lee kang-sheng — est un nom chinois ; le nom de famille, Lee, précède donc le prénom. Lee Kang sheng est un acteur et réalisateur taïwanais. Né à Taipei en 1968, il est considéré comme l acteur fétiche de Tsai Ming liang et a joué dans la majeure partie de… … Wikipédia en Français
Lee Kang-sheng — Infobox actor name = Lee Kang sheng caption = Lee Kang sheng at the 2007 World Film Festival of Bangkok. birthname = birthdate = 1968 birthplace = Taipei, Taiwan deathdate = deathplace = restingplace = restingplacecoordinates = othername =… … Wikipedia
Lee Kang-sheng — Dans ce nom chinois, le nom de famille, Lee, précède le prénom. Lee Kang sheng Lee Kang sheng en … Wikipédia en Français
Kang — bezeichnet: Kang (Ofenbett), eine aus Ziegeln gemauerte heizbare Schlafbank Kang ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Kang Chia I (* 1963), taiwanische Badmintonspielerin Kang Chil gu (* 1984), südkoreanischer Skispringer Kang Chol hwan (*… … Deutsch Wikipedia