Voiceless bilabial plosive


Voiceless bilabial plosive

The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|p, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is p. The voiceless bilabial plosive in English is spelled with 'p', as in "pit" or "speed".

IPA| [p] is missing from about 10% of languages that have a IPA| [b] . (See voiced velar plosive for another such gap.) This is an areal feature of the "circum-Saharan zone" (Africa north of the equator, including the Arabian peninsula). It is not known how old this areal feature is, and whether it might be a recent phenomenon due to Arabic as a prestige language (Arabic lost its IPA|/p/ in prehistoric times), or whether Arabic was itself affected by a more ancient areal pattern. It is found in other areas as well; for example, in Europe, Proto-Celtic and Old Basque are both reconstructed as having IPA| [b] but no IPA| [p] .

Nonetheless, the IPA| [p] sound is very common cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain IPA| [p] , and some distinguish more than one variety. Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain IPA| [p] .

Features

Features of the voiceless bilabial plosive:

* Its manner of articulation is plosive or stop, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract.
* Its place of articulation is bilabial which means it is articulated with both lips.
* Its phonation type is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
* It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth.
* It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by allowing the airstream to flow over the middle of the tongue, rather than the sides.
* The airstream mechanism is pulmonic egressive, which means it is articulated by pushing air out of the lungs and through the vocal tract, rather than from the glottis or the mouth.

Varieties of the voiceless bilabial plosive

Occurrence

See also

* List of phonetics topics

References

Bibliography

*Harvard reference
last=Carbonell
first=Joan F.
last2=Llisterri
first2=Joaquim
year=1992
title=Catalan
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=22
issue=1-2
pages=53-56

* Harvard reference
last=Cruz-Ferreira
first=Madalena
year= 1995
title=European Portuguese
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=25
issue=2
pages=90-94

*Harvard reference
last=Fougeron
first=Cecile
last2=Smith
first2=Caroline L
year=1993
title=Illustrations of the IPA:French
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=23
issue=2
pages=73-76

* Harvard reference
last=Gussenhoven
first=Carlos
year= 1992
title=Dutch
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=22
issue=2
pages=45-47

*Harvard reference
last = Jassem
first = Wiktor
year= 2003
title=Polish
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=33
issue=1
pages=103-107

*Harvard reference
last = Martínez-Celdrán
first= Eugenio
last2 = Fernández-Planas
first2= Ana Ma.
last3 = Carrera-Sabaté
first3 = Josefina
year= 2003
title=Castilian Spanish
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=33
issue=2
pages=255-259

*Harvard reference
last = Okada
first = Hideo
year= 1991
title=Phonetic Representation:Japanese
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=21
issue=2
pages=94-97

*Harvard reference
last =Padgett
first= Jaye
year= 2003
title= Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian
journal= Natural Language & Linguistic Theory
volume=21
issue=1
pages=39-87

*Harvard reference
last = Rogers
first = Derek
last2 = d'Arcangeli
first2 = Luciana
year= 2004
title=Italian
journal=Journal of the International Phonetic Association
volume=34
issue=1
pages=117-121


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