Phrygian mode


Phrygian mode

The Phrygian mode can refer to two different musical modes or diatonic scales: the ancient Greek Phrygian mode and the Mediaeval Phrygian mode. The modern form of the Phrygian mode in use is based on the latter. It is also known in Arabic and in the Middle East as the "Kurdish mode".

Ancient Greek Phrygian mode

The Phrygian mode is named after the ancient kingdom of Phrygia in Anatolia. Confusingly, the ancient-Greek Phrygian mode is the same as the mediaeval and modern Dorian mode.

In Greek music theory, it was based on the Phrygian tetrachord: a series of rising intervals of a whole tone, followed by a semitone, followed by a whole tone. Applied to a whole octave, the Phrygian mode was built upon two Phrygian tetrachords separated by a whole tone. This is the same as playing all the white notes on a piano keyboard from D to D: D E F G | A B C DPlacing the two tetrachords together, and the single tone at bottom of the scale produces the Hypophrygian mode (below Phrygian): G | A B C D | (D) E F GPlacing the two tetrachords together, and the single tone at the top of the scale produces the Hyperphrygian mode (above Phrygian), which is effectively the same as the Hypodorian mode: A B C D | (D) E F G | A

Mediaeval and modern Phrygian mode

The early Catholic church developed a system of eight musical modes (octoechos) that mediaeval music scholars based on ancient Greek modes. However, due to a misinterpretation of the Latin texts of Boethius, mediaeval modes were given the wrong Greek names.Fact|date=July 2008 In mediaeval and modern music, the Phrygian mode closely related to the modern natural minor musical mode, also known as the Aeolian mode.

The following is the Phrygian mode starting on E, or E Phrygian, with corresponding tonal scale degrees describing how the modern major mode and natural minor mode can be altered to produce the Phrygian mode: E Phrygian Mode: E F G A B C D E Major: 1 music|flat2 music|flat3 4 5 music|flat6 music|flat7 1 Minor: 1 music|flat2 3 4 5 6 7 1

Modern uses of the Phrygian mode

Phrygian dominant

A Phrygian dominant scale is produced by raising the third scale degree of the mode: E Phrygian dominant Mode: E F music|sharpG A B C D E Major: 1 music|flat2 3 4 5 music|flat6 music|flat7 1 Minor: 1 music|flat2 music|sharp3 4 5 6 7 1The Phrygian dominant is also known as the Spanish gypsy scale, and is often used in flamenco music. Flamenco music uses both Phrygian and Phrygian-dominant often alternating between the two.Fact|date=July 2008

"Sus4" chord

In jazz and other popular styles, the Phrygian mode is used over chords and sonorities built on the mode, such as the sus4(music|flat9) chord. (See Suspended chord.) Esus4(music|flat9) chord E-F-A-B (typical voicing)Even though the Phrygian mode contains a minor triad (E-G-B), the unique characteristic of the Phrygian mode, music|flat2 or F, is utilized in this chord instead. In order to distinguish itself from the minor mode and Dorian mode which are closely related, the third degree of the Phrygian mode, G in this case, is considered an avoid tone. Use of E Phrygian mode over Esus4(music|flat9) chord E F G A B C D E avoid tone

Examples

Mediaeval and Renaissance

* The following compositions of Josquin are written in the Phyrgian mode::* 4-part setting of Mille Regretz:* "Missa Pange lingua":* 6-part motet Praeter Rerum Seriem
* Cipriano de Rore's 7-part Missa Praeter Rerum Seriem

Classical and Romantic

*The horn call that begins and ends the slow movement of Brahms' Fourth Symphony is based on the Phrygian mode, out of which the main theme of this movement emerges.
*Possibly influenced by flamenco, the 11th movement of Isaac Albéniz's Iberia, "Jerez", has substantial passages near the beginning which can be seen as pure E Phrygian, including later on instances of the tonic triad being changed to the major. (It's a little ambiguous, because the same passage could be seen as A Aeolian, followed by A minor when the dominant major triads enter the music.)Fact|date=July 2008
*Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis

Modern

*Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit"
*Bjork's "Hunter"
*Theme song from TV show "Unsolved Mysteries"
*Jimmy Somerville's "So Cold The Night"
*Metallica's "Wherever I May Roam" (guitar solo) and "Creeping Death" (bridge)
*Megadeth's "Symphony of Destruction"
*Iron Maiden's "Remember Tomorrow"
*Pink Floyd's "Matilda Mother" (organ solo) and "Set The Controls For The Heart Of The Sun"
*The closing aria of Philip Glass' opera "Satyagraha"
*Fiona Apple's "Sullen Girl"
*Alice in Chains's "Would?"
*Robert Plant's "Calling to You"
*Gordon Duncan's "The Belly Dancer"
*Theme song from "Predator" the motion picture
*Steve Vai's "For the Love of God"
*Uli Jon Roth's "The Sails Of Charon"
*Jamiroquai's "Deeper Underground"
*Yasunori Mitsuda's theme music for "Magus" from the video game Chrono Trigger
*Various music from video games "Super Metroid" and "Metroid Prime"
*The Doors's "Not to Touch the Earth"
*Dick Dale's "Misirlou"

ee also

* Phrygian dominant scale


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Phrygian mode — Phrygian Phryg i*an, a. [L. Phrygius, Gr. ?, fr. ? Phrygia, a country of Asia Minor.] Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or to its inhabitants. [1913 Webster] {Phrygian mode} (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek modes, very bold and vehement in style; so… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • phrygian mode — noun Usage: usually capitalized P 1. : one of seven diatonic octave species in ancient Greek music consisting of two disjunct tetrachords represented on the white keys of the piano by a descending diatonic scale from D to D see greek mode… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Phrygian mode — Music. an authentic church mode represented on the white keys of a keyboard instrument by an ascending scale from E to E. [1800 10] * * *       in music, third of the eight medieval church modes. See church mode. * * * …   Universalium

  • Phrygian mode — noun Music the mode represented by the natural diatonic scale E–E (containing a minor 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th) …   English new terms dictionary

  • Phrygian mode — /ˈfrɪdʒiən moʊd/ (say frijeeuhn mohd) noun (in music) a mode which can be represented by a scale of an octave of white keys on the piano from E to E …   Australian English dictionary

  • Phrygian Gates — is a piano piece written by minimalist composer John Coolidge Adams in 1977 1978.The piece, together with its smaller companion China Gates is what is considered Adams opus one . They are, according to his own claims, his first compositions… …   Wikipedia

  • Phrygian — can refer to: *A person from Phrygia *Phrygian cap once characteristic of the region * Phrygian language *Phrygian mode in music * Phrygian Valley, a historic location in northwestern Turkey …   Wikipedia

  • Phrygian — Phryg i*an, a. [L. Phrygius, Gr. ?, fr. ? Phrygia, a country of Asia Minor.] Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or to its inhabitants. [1913 Webster] {Phrygian mode} (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek modes, very bold and vehement in style; so called… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Phrygian stone — Phrygian Phryg i*an, a. [L. Phrygius, Gr. ?, fr. ? Phrygia, a country of Asia Minor.] Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or to its inhabitants. [1913 Webster] {Phrygian mode} (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek modes, very bold and vehement in style; so… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Phrygian — late 15c., native of Phrygia, region in ancient Asia Minor; Phrygian mode in Greek music theory is from 1570s (it was held to be of a warlike character ). Phrygian cap (1796) was the type adopted by freed slaves in Roman times, and subsequently… …   Etymology dictionary


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