- Pope Paschal II
English name=Paschal II
August 13, 1099
January 21, 1118
Paschal II, born Ranierius, (died
January 21, 1118) was Popefrom August 13, 1099until his death. A monk of the Cluniac order, he was created Cardinal Priestof the "Titulus S. Clementi" by Pope Gregory VII(1073–85) about 1076, and was consecrated Pope in succession to Pope Urban II(1088–99) on August 19, 1099.
He was born in Bleda, near
In the long struggle with the Emperors over investiture, he zealously carried on the Hildebrandine policy, but with only partial success. In 1104 Paschal II succeeded in instigating the Emperor's second son to rebel against his father, but soon found
Emperor Henry V(1105–25) even more persistent in maintaining the right of investiture than Emperor Henry IV(1056–1105) had been. The imperial Diet at Mainzinvited Paschal II to visit Germany and settle the trouble in January 1106, but the Pope in the Council of Guastalla(October 1106) simply renewed the prohibition of investiture. In the same year he brought to an end the investiture struggle in England, in which Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, had been engaged with Henry I of England(1100–35), by retaining to himself exclusive right to invest with the ring and crozier, but recognizing the royal nomination to vacate benefices and the oath of fealty for temporal domains. He went to Franceat the close of 1106 to seek the mediation of Philip I of France(1060–1108) and Prince Louis in the Imperial struggle, but, his negotiations remaining without result, he returned to Italy in September 1107. When Henry V advanced with an army into Italy in order to be crowned, the Pope agreed to a compact (February 1111), by the terms of which the Church should surrender all the possessions and royalties it had received of the empire and kingdom of Italy since the days of Charlemagne(768–814), while Henry V on his side should renounce lay investiture. Preparations were made for the coronation on 12 February, 1111, but the Romans rose in revolt against him, and the German king retired taking the Pope and curia with him.
After sixty-one days of harsh imprisonment, during which Prince
Robert I of Capua's Norman army was repulsed on its rescue mission, Paschal II yielded and guaranteed investiture to the Emperor. Henry V was then crowned in St. Peter's on 13 April, 1111, and after exacting a promise that no revenge would be taken for what had passed withdrew beyond the Alps. The Hildebrandine party was aroused to action, however; a Laterancouncil of March 1112 declared null and void the concessions extorted by violence; a council held at Viennain October 1111 actually excommunicated the Emperor, and Paschal II sanctioned the proceeding. Towards the end of his pontificate trouble began anew in England; Paschal II complained (1115) that councils were held and bishops translated without his authorization, and threatened Henry I with excommunication. On the death of the countess Matilda, who had bequeathed all her territories to the Church (1115), the Emperor at once laid claim to them as imperial fiefs and forced the Pope to flee from Rome. Paschal II returned after the Emperor's withdrawal at the beginning of 1118, but died within a few days on January 21, 1118.
Actions during his reign
Pope Paschal II ordered the building of the new basilica of
Santi Quattro Coronati, on the ashes of the one burned during the Norman Sack of Rome (1084). The first bishop of America was appointed during Paschal II's reign, nearly four centuries before Columbus's first voyage across the Atlantic. Erik Gnupssonwas given the province of Greenlandand Vinland, the latter believed to refer to what is now Newfoundland.
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