- Pope Gelasius II
English name=Gelasius II
January 24 1118
January 29 1119
Gelasius II (died
January 29 1119), born Giovanni Coniulo, was Popefrom January 24 1118to January 291119.
He was born at
Gaetafrom an illustrious family of Pisa, one of the four main historical Marine Republics of Italy ( Repubbliche Marinare).
He became a monk of
Monte Cassino, was taken to Romeby Pope Urban II(1088–99), and made papal chancellorand Cardinal Deaconof Santa Maria in Cosmedin. As chancellor from 1089 to 1118, he drastically reformed the papal administration, establishing a permanent staff of clerks for the papacy, overcoming the previous custom of relying on Roman notaries to write papal documents, and introducing the minuscule curial script. His tenure also established the precedent that the papal chancellor should always be a cardinal, and should hold the office for life or until he was elected Pope.
Shortly after his unanimous election to succeed
Pope Paschal II(1099–1118) he was seized by Cencio II Frangipane, a partisan of the Emperor Henry V (1105–25), but freed by a general uprising of the Romans on his behalf. Henry V sought to enforce the privilege of investiture to the papacy conceded to the Emperor by Paschal II, but then revoked. He drove Gelasius II from Rome in March 1118, pronounced his election null and void, and set up Burdinus, archbishop of Braga, as antipope under the name of Gregory VIII (1118–21).
Gelasius II fled to
Gaeta, where he was ordained priest on the 9 March 1118and on the following day received episcopal consecration. He at once excommunicated Henry V and the antipopeand, under Norman protection, was able to return to Rome in July; but the disturbances of the imperialist party, especially of the Frangipani, who attacked the Pope while celebrating Mass in the church of St. Prassede, compelled Gelasius II to go once more into exile. He set out for France, consecrating the cathedral of Pisaon the way, and arrived at Marseillein October. He was received with great enthusiasm at Avignon, Montpellierand other cities, held a synod at Viennein January 1119, and was planning to hold a general council to settle the investiture contest when he died at Cluny.
*cite book | author=Barraclough, Geoffrey| title=The Medieval Papacy | publisher=Thames and Hudson | year=1964 | id=ISBN 0-500-33011-5
*cite book | author=Duffy, Eamon| title=Saints and Sinners. A History of the Popes | publisher=Yale University Press | year=1997 | id=ISBN 0-300-07332-1
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Coniulo, Giovanni
SHORT DESCRIPTION=pope from 1118 until 1119
DATE OF BIRTH=around 1058
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
January 29, 1119
PLACE OF DEATH=
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