- Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages is a period in the
history of Europefollowing the fall of the Western Roman Empirespanning roughly five centuries from AD500 to 1000. [Events used to mark the period's beginning include the sack of Romeby the Goths(410), the deposition of the last western Roman Emperor(476), the Battle of Tolbiac(496) and the Gothic War(535–552). Particular events taken to mark its end include the founding of the Holy Roman Empireby Otto I the Great(962), the Great Schism(1054) and the Norman conquestof England (1066).] Aspects of the evolution of the earlier classical period are discussed under the heading " Dark Ages". The Early Middle Ages were followed by the High Middle Ages.
Collapse of Rome (372-410)
Starting in the second century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, and population. Only 40 percent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks have been found for the third century as for the first. [Hopkins,Keith "Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (200 B.C.-A.D. 400)"] The population of the
Roman Empireshrank from 65 million in 150 to 50 million in 400, a decline of more than 20 percent. Some have connected this to the Migration Period Pessimum(300-700), when there was a decline in temperature globally which reduced agricultural harvests. [cite journal |last=Berglund |first=B. E. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2003 |month= |title=Human impact and climate changes—synchronous events and a causal link? |journal=Quaternary International |volume=105 |issue= |pages=7–12 |doi=10.1016/S1040-6182(02)00144-1 |url=http://www.geol.lu.se/personal/bnb/pdf-papers/human_impact.pdf |accessdate= |quote= ]
Migrating south from Scandinavia, the Germanic peoples reached the Black Sea early in the third century. They created confederations which proved more formidable opponents than the
Sarmatians, whom the Romans had dealt with earlier. In Romania and the grassy steppes north of the Black Sea, the Goths, a Germanic people, created at least two kingdoms, one Therving, the other Greuthung. [Heather, Peter, 1998, "The Goths", pp. 51-93] The arrival of the Hunsin 372-375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns were a confederation of central Asian tribes who founded an empire with a Turkic-speaking aristocracy. They had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Gothic people were forced to seek refuge in Roman territory (376). The Goths agreed to enter the Empire as unarmed settlers, but many bribed the Danube border guards into allowing them to bring their weapons with them.
The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting machine. The Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain formation in combat, while cavalry tended to flee when faced with danger. But unlike a barbarian army, the legions required constant training and salaries that made them a huge expense for the empire. As agriculture and economic activity declined, taxes grew harder to collect, and the system came under strain.
Gothic War (376-382), the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople(378). Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valensordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigernwithout waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, who was on the way with reinforcements. While the Romans were fully engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one third of the Roman army managed to escape. It was the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since Cannae, according to Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus. The core army of the eastern empire was destroyed, Valens killed, and the Goths freed to lay waste the Balkans, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibboncomments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of "justice" which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians." [Gibbon, Edward, "A History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", 1776.]
The empire lacked the resources, and perhaps the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army that had been destroyed at Adrianople, so it was forced to rely on barbarian armies to fight on its behalf. The
Eastern Roman Empirewas able to buy off the Goths with tribute. The Western Roman Empirewas less fortunate. Stilicho, the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhinefrontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy by the Visigoths in 402-03 and by other Goths in 406-07.
Fleeing before the terrifying advance of the
Huns, the Vandals, Suebi, and Alanslaunched an attack across the frozen Rhine near Mainz; on 31 December, 406, the frontier gave way and these tribes surged into Gaul. They were soon followed by the Burgundiansand by bands of the Alamanni. In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, Emperor Honoriushad Stilicho summarily beheaded (408). Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of the last of the Roman generals," wrote Gibbon. Honorius was left with only worthless courtiers to advise him. In 410, the Visigoths led by Alaric Icaptured the city of Rome and for three days there was fire and slaughter as bodies filled the streets, palaces were stripped of their valuables, and those thought to have hidden wealth were interrogated and tortured. As newly converted Christians, the Goths respected church property. But those who found sanctuary in the Vatican and in other churches were the fortunate few.
Migrations (Dark Age) 400-700
The Goths and Vandals were only the first of many waves of invaders that flooded Western Europe. Some lived only for war and pillage and disdained Roman ways. Others admired Rome and wished to become its heirs. "A poor Roman plays the Goth, a rich Goth the Roman" said King Theodoric of the Ostrogoths. [ [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Excerpta_Valesiana/2*.html "Excerpta Valesiana"] ]
The Romans were trinitarian Christians, the disciplined subjects of a long-established bureaucratic empire. The Germanic peoples knew little of cities, money, or writing. They were recent converts to Arian Christianity and were thus heretics to the churchmen of the empire.
The era of the migrations has historically been termed the "
Dark Ages" by some Western European historians, and as " Völkerwanderung," or "wandering of the peoples", by German historians. The term "Dark Ages" may have fallen from favour since the Second World War, partly to avoid the entrenched stereotypes associated with the phrase, but also because more recent research and archaeological findings from the period challenge old notions of backwardness in the arts, technology, political and social organizations.Fact|date=June 2007
The earlier settled population was left intact or only partially displaced. Whereas the peoples of France, Italy, and Spain continued to speak dialects of Latin, that today constitute the
Romance languages, the language of the smaller Roman-era population of what is now England disappeared with barely a trace in the territories conquered by the Anglo-Saxons, although the Brittanic kingdoms of the west remained Brythonicspeakers. The new peoples greatly altered established society, including law, culture, religion, and patterns of property ownership.
pax Romana" had provided safe conditions for trade and manufacture, and a unified cultural and educational milieu of far-ranging connections. As this was lost, it was replaced by the rule of local potentates, sometimes members of the established Romanized ruling elite, sometimes new lords of alien culture. In Aquitania, Gallia Narbonensis, southern Italy and Sicily, Baeticaor southern Spain, and the Iberian Mediterranean coast, Roman culture lasted until the sixth or seventh centuries.
Everywhere, the gradual break-down of economic and social linkages and infrastructure resulted in increasingly localized outlooks. This breakdown was often fast and dramatic as it became unsafe to travel or carry goods over any distance; there was a consequent collapse in trade and manufacture for export. Major industries that depended on trade, such as large-scale pottery manufacture, vanished almost overnight in places like Britain.
Tintagelin Cornwall, as well as several other centres, managed to obtain supplies of Mediterranean luxury goods well into the sixth century, but then lost their trading links. Administrative, educational and military infrastructure quickly vanished, and the loss of the established " cursus honorum" led to the collapse of the schools and to a rise of illiteracy even among the leadership. The careers of Cassiodorus(died c. 585) at the beginning of this period and of Alcuin of York(died 804) at its close were founded alike on their valued literacy.
For the formerly Roman area, there was another 20 percent decline in population between 400 and 600, or a one third decline for 150-600. [McEvedy 1992, op. cit.] In the eighth century, the volume of trade reached its lowest level since the Bronze Age. The very small number of shipwrecks found that dated from the 8th century supports this (which represents less than 2% of the number of shipwrecks dated from the first century CE). There was also reforestation and a retreat of agriculture that centred around 500. This phenomenon coincided with a period of rapid cooling, according to tree ring data. [Berglund, ibid.] The Romans had practised two-field agriculture, with a crop grown in one field and the other left fallow and ploughed under to eliminate weeds. With the gradual breakup of the institutions of the empire, owners were unable to stop their slaves from running away and the plantation system broke down. Systematic agriculture largely disappeared and yields declined to subsistence level.
The death of
Theodosius Iin 395 was followed by the division of the empire between his two sons. The Western Roman Empiredisintegrated into a mosaic of warring Germanic kingdoms in the fifth century, making the Eastern Roman Empirein Constantinople the legal successor to the classical Roman Empire. After Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the Empire, historians refer to the empire as "Byzantine." Westerners would gradually begin to refer to it as "Greek" rather than "Roman." The inhabitants, however, always called themselves "Romaioi", or Romans.
The Eastern Roman Empire aimed at retaining control of the trade routes between Europe and the Orient, which made the Empire the richest polity in Europe. Making use of their sophisticated warfare and superior diplomacy, the Byzantines managed to fend off assaults by the migrating barbarians. Their dreams of subduing the Western potentates briefly materialized during the reign of
Justinian Iin 527-565. Not only did Justinian restore some western territories to the Roman Empire, but he also codified Roman law(with his codification remaining in force in many areas of Europe until the 19th century) and built the largest and the most technically advanced edifice of the Early Middle Ages, the Hagia Sophia. A pandemic, the Plague of Justinian, however, marred Justinian's reign, infecting the Emperor, killing perhaps 40% of the people in Constantinople, and contributing to Europe's early medieval population decline.
Justinian's successors Maurice and
Heracliushad to confront invasions of the Avar, Bulgarand Slavic tribes. In 626 Constantinople, by far the largest city of early medieval Europe, withstood a combined siege by Avars and Persians. Within several decades, Heraclius completed a holy war against the Persians by taking their capital and having a Sassanidmonarch assassinated. Yet Heraclius lived to see his spectacular success undone by the Arab conquest of Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and North Africawhich was considerably facilitated by religious disunity and the proliferation of heretical movements (notably Monophysitismand Nestorianism) in the areas converted to Islam.
Although Heraclius's successors managed to salvage
Constantinoplefrom two Arab sieges (in 674-77 and 717), the empire of the 8th and early 9th century was rocked by the great Iconoclastic Controversy, punctuated by dynastic struggles between various factions at court. The Bulgarand Slavic tribes profited from these disorders and invaded Illyria, Thraceand even Greece(which they called Morea).
To counter these threats, a new system of administration was introduced. The regional civil and military administration were combined in the hands of a general, or strategos. A theme, which formerly denoted a subdivision of the Byzantine army, came to refer to a region governed by a strategos. The reform led to the emergence of great landed families which controlled the regional military and often pressed their claims to the throne (see
Bardas Phocasand Bardas Sklerusfor characteristic examples).
By the early eighth century, notwithstanding the shrinking territory of the empire, Constantinople remained the largest and the wealthiest city of the entire world, comparable only to Sassanid
Ctesiphon, and later Abassid Baghdad. The population of the imperial capital fluctuated between 300,000 and 400,000 as the emperors undertook measures to restrain its growth. The only other large Christian cities were Rome (50,000) and Salonika(30,000). [City populations from [http://www.etext.org/Politics/World.Systems/datasets/citypop/civilizations/citypops_2000BC-1988AD "Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census"] (1987, Edwin Mellon Press) by Tertius Chandler] Even before the eighth century was out, the Farmer's Law signalled the resurrection of agricultural technologies in the Greek Empire. As the 2006
The ascension of the
Macedonian dynastyin 867 marked the end of the period of political and religious turmoil and introduced a new golden age of the empire. While the talented generals such as Nicephorus Phocasexpanded the frontiers, the Macedonian emperors (such as Leo the Wiseand Constantine VII) presided over the cultural flowering in Constantinople, known as the Macedonian Renaissance. The enlightened Macedonian rulers scorned the rulers of Western Europe as illiterate barbarians and maintained a nominal claim to rule over the West. Although this fiction had been exploded with the coronation of Charlemagnein Rome (800), the Byzantine rulers did not treat their Western counterparts as equals. Generally, they had little interest in the political and economical developments in the barbarian (from their point of view) West.
Against this economic background, the culture and the imperial traditions of the Eastern Roman Empire attracted its northern neighbours — Slavs, Bulgars, and Khazars — to
Constantinople, in search of either pillage or enlightenment. The movement of the Germanic tribes to the south triggered the great migration of the Slavs, who occupied the vacated territories. In the seventh century, they moved westward to the Elbe, southward to the Danubeand eastward to the Dnieper. By the 9th century, the Slavs had expanded into sparsely inhabited territories to the south and east from these natural frontiers, peacefully assimilating the indigenous Illyrian and Finno-Ugricpopulations.
Rise of Islam (632-750)
Following the death of the
Islamic prophet Muhammad, Abū Bakr(r. 632-34) became the first "khalīfah" or caliphof a newly unified polity under the Islamic faith in the Arabian peninsula. The early Rashiduncaliphs were both head of state and supreme religious authority while the later caliphs came to be seen as the political leader of Muslims. The early caliphs were chosen by a shūrā, or council, in the same way that the head of an Arabian tribe or clan would be chosen. Abū Bakr launched a campaign in the " ridda wars" which brought central Arabiaunder Muslim control. (633)
Umar I(r.634-44), the second caliph, proclaimed himself "commander of the faithful" ("amīr al-mu 'minīn"). In the 630s, he brought Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Iraqunder Muslim control. Egyptwas taken from the Byzantines in 645 by ' Uthmān, the third caliph. Abū Bakr, 'Umar I, 'Uthmān, and his successor Alīare remembered as the "rightly guided caliphs" who presided over a golden age of pure Islam.
Alī's caliphate started amid political controversy over the murder of Uthman and sparked a power struggle and the
First Islamic civil warled by Mu'āwiyah, governor of Syria. When Alī, son-in-law of Muhammad, was killed while praying in Kufah, Iraq, Mu'āwiyah established the Ummayyaddynasty of caliphs (661–750) with Damascusas its capital. Those who supported 'Alī, his son Husayn(who led a revolt against the Ummayyads), and their descendants would eventually became the Shī'itesect. Under ' Abd al-Malik(r. 685–705), the Ummayyads reached their peak, conquering Central Asia, coastal North Africa, and Spain. Al-Malik also Arabized the state with Arabs replacing the Greek and Persian civil servants.
The conquest of Iberia commenced when the
Moors(mostly Berbers with some Arabs) invaded the ChristianVisigothic Iberia in the year 711, under their Berber leader Tariq ibn Ziyad. They landed at Gibraltaron 30 April and worked their way northward. Tariq's forces were joined the next year by those of his superior, Musa ibn Nusair. During the eight-year campaign most of the Iberian Peninsulawas brought under Muslimrule — save for small areas in the northwest ( Asturias) and largely Basque regions in the Pyrenees. This territory, under the Arab name Al-Andalus, became part of the expanding Umayyadempire.
The unsuccessful second siege of Constantinople (717) weakened the Umayyads and reduced their prestige. After their success in overrunning Iberia, the conquerors moved northeast across the Pyrenees, but were defeated by the Frankish leader
Charles Martelat the Battle of poitiersin 732. The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the ' Abbāsidsand most of the Umayyad clan massacred.
A surviving Umayyad prince,
Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty in the Emirate of Cordoba, (756). Charles Martel's son, Pippin the Shortretook Narbonne, and his grandson Charlemagne established the Marca Hispanicaacross the Pyrenees in part of what today is Catalonia, reconquering Gironain 785 and Barcelonain 801.
The unified Muslim caliphate disintegrated over the course of the ninth century as the
Idrisids and Aghlabids of North Africa and the Samanids of Persia gained independence. Eventually, the Shiite Fatimids set up a rival caliphate in Tunisia(920). The Umayyids in Spain soon proclaimed themselves caliphs as well (929). The Buwayhids (Persian Shiites) gained control of Baghdad in 934. In 972, the Fatimids conquered Egypt.
Resurgence of the Latin West (700-850)
Conditions in Western Europe began to improve after 700 as Europe experienced an agricultural boom that would continue until at least 1100. [Berglund, ibid.] A study of limestone deposited in the Mediterranean seabed concludes that there was a substantial increase in solar radiation received between 600 and 900. [Cini Castagnoli, G.C., Bonino, G., Taricco, C. and Bernasconi, S.M. 2002. [http://www.co2science.org/scripts/CO2ScienceB2C/articles/V6/N21/C2.jsp|"Solar radiation variability in the last 1400 years recorded in the carbon isotope ratio of a Mediterranean sea core"] , "Advances in Space Research" 29: 1989-1994.] The first signs of Europe's recovery on the battlefield are the defense of
Constantinoplein 717 and the victory of the Franks over the Arabs at the Battle of Poitiersin 732.
Between the fifth and eighth centuries a political and social infrastructure developed across the lands of the former empire, based upon powerful regional noble families, and the newly established kingdoms of the
Ostrogothsin Italy, Visigothsin Spain and Portugal, Franksand Burgundiansin Gauland western Germany. These lands remained Christian, and their Arian conquerors were converted (Visigoths and Lombards) or conquered (Ostrogoths and Vandals). The Franks converted directly from paganism to Catholic Christianity under Clovis I. The interaction between the culture of the newcomers, their warband loyalties, the remnants of classical culture, and Christian influences, produced a new model for society, based in part on feudal obligations. The centralized administrative systems of the Romans did not withstand the changes, and the institutional support for chattel slavery largely disappeared. The Anglo-Saxonsin England also started to convert from heathenism with the arrival of Christian missionaries around the year 600. Unlike that of the France, two major forms of Christianity existed in England, Roman Catholicism in the south and Celtic Christianity in the north. This came to a head at the Synod of Whitbyin 664 after which Roman practices proved to be dominant.
Lombards, who first entered Italy in 568 under Alboin, carved out a state in the north, with its capital at Pavia. At first, they were unable to conquer the Exarchate of Ravenna, the "Ducatus Romanus", and Calabriaand Apulia. The next two hundred years were occupied in trying to conquer these territories from the Byzantine Empire.
The Lombard state was truly barbarian in custom compared with the earlier Germanic states of Western Europe. It was highly decentralized at first, with the territorial dukes having practical sovereignty in their duchies, especially in the southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. For a decade following the death of
Clephin 575, the Lombards did not elect a king and the period is called the Rule of the Dukes. The first written legal code was composed in poor Latin in 643: the " Edictum Rothari". It was primarily the codification of the oral legal tradition of the people.
The Lombard state was well-organized and stabilized by the end of the long reign of Liutprand (717–744), but its collapse was sudden. Unsupported by the dukes, King
Desideriuswas defeated and forced to surrender his kingdom to Charlemagne in 774. The Lombard kingdom came to an end and a period of Frankish rule was initiated. The Frankish king Pepin the Shorthad, by the Donation of Pepin, given the pope the " Papal States" and the territory north of that swath of papally-governed land was ruled primarily by Lombard and Frankish vassals of the Holy Roman Emperoruntil the rise of the city-states in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
In the south, a period of anarchy began. The duchy of Benevento maintained its sovereignty in the face of the pretensions of both the Western and Eastern Empires. In the ninth century, the
Saracensconquered Sicilyand began settling in the peninsula. The coastal cities on the Tyrrhenian Seadeparted from Byzantine allegiance. Various states owing various nominal allegiances fought constantly over territory until events came to a head in the early eleventh century with the coming of the Normans, who conquered the whole of the south by the end of the century.
In the mid-5th century several tribes from modern Germany, Holland, and Denmark began sporadic and marginally successful invasions of Britain, at that point a neglected Roman province. Traditionally, two Jutish chieftains named
Hengestand Horsawere promised land by the powerful British king Vortigernin exchange for routing the warlike Picttribe. According to the " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle", after they defeated the Picts, "They sent to Angeln and called on them to send more forces, and to tell people about the worthlessness of the Britons and the merits of their land." This marked the beginning of decades of invasion and conquest of southern and central Britain, by such Germanic peoples as the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons. At least 50 percent of England's original Celtic inhabitants were killed off in the process. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/2076470.stm "English and Welsh are races apart"] , BBC.] The Anglo-Saxons eventually established several kingdoms of differing longevity and significance. King Alfred the Great(871-899) of Wessexled Anglo-Saxon resistance to the invading Danish forces. The unification of England was completed in 926 when Northumbriawas annexed by King Athelstan, a grandson of Alfred.
Merovingiansestablished themselves in the power vacuum of the former Roman provinces in Gaul, and Chlodwig Ifollowing his victory over the Alemanniat the Battle of Tolbiac(496) converted to Christianity, laying the foundation of the Frankish Empire, the dominant state of medieval Western Christendom.
Starting with the
Frankish realmsat the beginning of the ninth century, Charlemagneunited much of modern day France, western Germany and northern Italy into the Carolingian Empire. Scholarship and Classical learning flourished under Charlemagne leading to what twentieth-century historians called the " Carolingian Renaissance".
The 840s saw renewed disorder, with the breakup of the Frankish Empire and the beginning of a new cycle of barbarian raids, at first by the
Vikingsand later by the Magyars.
:main|ManoralismAround 800, there was a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the open field, or strip, system. A manor would have several fields each subdivided into one-acre strips of land. This was considered to be the amount of land an ox could plough before taking a rest, according to one theory. Another possibility is that the holdings were originally rectangular and were split into strips because of the way land was inheritedFact|date=March 2008. In the idealized form of the system, each family got thirty such strips of land. The three-field system of
crop rotationwas first developed in the ninth century: wheat or rye was planted in one field, the second field had a nitrogen-fixing crop (barley, oats, peas, or beans), and third was fallow. [ [http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1318.htm No. 1318: Three-Field Rotation ] ] Compared to the earlier two-field system, a three-field system allows for significantly more land to be put under cultivation. Even more important, the system allows for two harvests a year, reducing the risk that a single crop failure will lead to famine. Three-field agriculture creates a surplus of oats that can be used to feed horses. [This surplus would allow the replacement of the ox by the horse after the introduction of the padded horse collarin the 12th century.] Because the system required a major rearrangement of real estate and the social order, it took until the 11th century before it came into general use. The heavy wheeled plough was introduced in the late 10th century. It required greater animal power and promoted the use of teams of oxen. Illuminated manuscripts depict two-wheeled ploughs with both a mouldboard, or curved metal ploughshare, and a coulter, a vertical blade in front of the ploughshare. The Romans had used light, wheelless ploughs with flat iron shares that often proved unequal to the heavy soils of northern Europe.
The return to systemic agriculture coincided with the introduction of a new social system called
feudalism. This system featured a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations. Each man was bound to serve his superior in return for the latter's protection. This made for confusion of territorial sovereignty since allegiances were subject to change over time, and were sometimes mutually contradictory. Feudalism allowed the state to provide a degree of public safety despite the continued absence of bureaucracy and written records. Even land ownership disputes were decided based solely on oral testimony. Territoriality was reduced to a network of personal allegiances.
Viking Age (793-1066)
The Viking Age spans the period between AD 793 and 1066 in
Scandinaviaand Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age(and the Vendel Agein Sweden). During this period, the Vikings, Scandinavian warriors and traders, raided and explored most parts of Europe, south-western Asia, northern Africa and north-eastern North America. Apart from exploring Europe by way of its oceans and rivers with the aid of their advanced navigational skills and extending their trading routes across vast parts of the continent, they also engaged in warfare and looted and enslaved numerous Christian communities of Medieval Europe for centuries, contributing to the development of feudal systems in Europe.
Eastern Europe 600-1000
Prior to the rise of the Kievan Rus, the eastern frontier of Europe had been dominated by the
Khazars, a Turkic people who had gained independence from the Turkic Empire by the seventh century. Khazaria was a multiethnic commercial state which derived its well-being from control of river trade between Europe and the Orient. They also exacted tribute from the Alani, Magyars, various Slavic tribes, the Goths and Greeks of Crimea. Through a network of Jewish itinerant merchants, or Radhanites, they were in contact with the trade emporiums of India and Spain.
Once they found themselves confronted by Arab expansionism, the Khazars pragmatically allied themselves with Constantinople and clashed with the
Califate. Despite initial setbacks, they managed to recover Derbentand eventually penetrated as far south as Caucasian Iberia, Caucasian Albaniaand Armenia. In doing so, they effectively blocked the northward expansion of Islaminto Eastern Europeseveral decades before Charles Martelachieved the same in Western Europe. [Islam eventually penetrated into Eastern Europe in the 920s when Volga Bulgariaexploited the decline of Khazar power in the region to adopt Islam from the Baghdadmissionaries. The state religion of Khazaria, Judaism, disappeared as a political force with the fall of Khazaria, while Islam of Volga Bulgaria has survived in the region up to the present.]
In the seventh century, the northern littoral of the
Black Seawas hit with a fresh wave of nomadic attacks, led by the Bulgars, who established a powerful khanate of Great Bulgariaunder the leadership of Kubrat. The Khazars managed to oust the Bulgars from Southern Ukraine into the middle reaches of the Volga( Volga Bulgaria) and into the lower reaches of the Danube(Danube Bulgaria, or the First Bulgarian Empire). The Danube Bulgars were quickly Slavicized and, despite constant campaigning against Constantinople, accepted the Greek form of Christianity. Through the efforts of two local missionaries, Saint Cyriland Saint Methodius, the first Slavic alphabet came into being and a vernacular dialect, now known as Old Church Slavonic, was established as a language of books and liturgy.
To the north from the Byzantine periphery, the first attested Slavic polity was
Great Moravia, which emerged under the aegis of the Frankish Empire in the early 9th century. Until its defragmentation in consequence of the conflicts with the East Franksa century later, Moravia was a stage for confrontation between the Christian missionaries from Constantinople and from Rome. Although the West Slavs eventually acknowledged the Roman ecclesiastical authority, the clergy of Constantinople succeeded in converting into the Greek faith the largest state of contemporary Europe, Kievan Rus, towards 990. Led by a Varangiandynasty, the Kievan Rus controlled the routes connecting Northern Europe to Byzantium and the Orient.
Both before and after the Christianization, the Rus staged predatory raids against Constantinople, some of which resulted in the mutually beneficial trade treaties. The importance of Russo-Byzantine relations is highlighted by the fact that
Vladimir I of Kievwas the only foreigner who married a Byzantine princess of the Macedonian dynasty, a singular honour which many rulers of Western Europe sought in vain. The military campaigns of Vladimir's father, Svyatoslav I, had crushed the statehood of two strongest powers of Eastern Europe, namely the Bulgars and the Khazars.
In 681 the
Bulgariansfounded a powerful state which played a major role in Europe and specifically in South Eastern Europeuntil its fall under Turkish rule in 1396. In 718 the Bulgarians decisively defeated the Arabs near Constantinople, and their ruler Khan Tervelbecame known as "The Saviour of Europe". Bulgaria effectively stopped the barbarian tribes ( Pechenegs, Khazars) from migrating further to the west and in 806 destroyed the Avar Khanate. Under the first Emperor Simeon I(893-927), the state was the largest in Europe, threatening the existence of Byzantium.
After the adoption of
Christianityin 864, Bulgariabecame the cultural and spiritual centre of the Eastern OrthodoxSlavic world. The Cyrillic alphabetwas invented by the Bulgarian scholar Clement of Ohridin 885. Literature, art and architecture were thriving with the establishment of the Preslav and Ohrid Literary Schools,and the Preslav Ceramics School. In 927 the Bulgarian Orthodox Churchwas the first European national Church to gain independence with its own Patriarch.
Transmission of learning
With the end of the Western Roman Empire and urban centres in decline, literacy and learning decreased in the West. Education became the preserve of monasteries and cathedrals. A "Renaissance" of classical education would appear in Carolingian Empire in the 8th century. In the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium), learning (in the sense of formal education involving literature) was maintained at a higher level than in the West. Further to the east, Islam conquered many of the Eastern Patriarchates, and it outstripped Christian lands in science, philosophy, and other intellectual endeavors in a "golden age" of learning.
The classical education system, which would persist for hundreds of years, emphasized grammar, Latin, Greek, and rhetoric. Pupils read and reread classic works and wrote essays imitating their style. By the fourth century, this education system was Christianized. In "De Doctrina Christiana" (started 396, completed 426), Augustine explained how classical education fits into the Christian worldview. Christianity was a religion of the book, so Christians must be literate. Preaching required learning the classical principles of
rhetoric. Tertullianwas more sceptical of the value of classical learning, asking "What has Athens to do with Jerusalem?" But even he did not object to Christian enrollment in classical schools.
Decline in the West
De-urbanization reduced the scope of education and by the sixth century teaching and learning moved to monastic and cathedral schools, with the center of education being the study of the Bible. [Pierre Riché, "Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century", (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Pr., 1976), pp. 100-129).] Education of the laity survived modestly in Italy, Spain, and the southern part of Gaul, where Roman influences were most long-lasting. However, in the seventh century, learning began to emerge in Ireland and the Celtic lands, where Latin was a foreign language and Latin texts were eagerly studied and taught. [Pierre Riché, "Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century", (Columbia: Univ. of South Carolina Pr., 1976), pp. 307-323).]
In the ancient world, Greek was the primary language of science. Advanced scientific research and teaching was mainly carried on in the
Hellenisticside of the Roman empire, in Greek. Late Roman attempts to translate Greek writings into Latin had limited success. [ William Stahl, "Roman Science", (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Pr.) 1962, see esp. pp. 120-133.] As the knowledge of Greek declined, the Latin West found itself cut off from its Greek philosophical and scientific roots. Latin-speakers who wanted to learn about science had access to only a couple of books by Boethius(c. 470-524) (that summarized Greek handbooks by Nicomachus of Gerasa) and the works of other Latin encyclopedists.
The leading scholars of the early centuries were
clergyman for whom the study of naturewas but a small part of their interest. The study of nature was pursued more for practical reasons than as an abstract inquiry: the need to care for the sick led to the study of medicine and of ancient texts on drugs, [Linda E. Voigts, "Anglo-Saxon Plant Remedies and the Anglo-Saxons," "Isis", 70(1979):250-268; reprinted in M. H. Shank, ed., "The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages", (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000).] the need for monks to determine the proper time to pray led them to study the motion of the stars, [Stephen C. McCluskey, "Gregory of Tours, Monastic Timekeeping, and Early Christian Attitudes to Astronomy," "Isis", 81(1990):9-22; reprinted in M. H. Shank, ed., "The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages", (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 2000).] the need to compute the date of Easter led them to study and teach rudimentary mathematics and the motions of the Sun and Moon. [Stephen C. McCluskey, "Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe," (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1998), pp. 149-57.] Modern readers may find it disconcerting that sometimes the same works discuss both the technical details of natural phenomena and their symbolic significance. [Faith Wallis, "'Number Mystique' in Early Medieval Computus Texts," pp. 179-99 in T. Koetsier and L. Bergmans, eds. "Mathematics and the Divine: A Historical Study", (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005).]
Even though not much progress occurred in the Early Middle Ages, the period laid the foundations for important scientific developments in the High Middle Ages and beyond. [ Excerpt: "The period from the end of the Roman Empire to about AD 800 is often called the Dark Ages. There was not much progress made in Europe during this period. The foundations were laid, however, for important advances that were to follow in the later Middle Ages and the Renaissance.". From: cite encyclopedia
title = Science
url = http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-207743
format = html
encyclopedia = Encyclopædia Britannica
volume = online
publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
accessdate = 2007-07-13 ]
The modern stereotype of this Age as a time of backwardness is reflected in popular misconceptions related to the
history of science. Notions such as: "the rise of Christianity killed off ancient science", "the medieval Christian Church suppressed the growth of the natural sciences", "the medieval Christians thought that the world was flat", and "the Church prohibited autopsies and dissections during the Middle Ages", are all reported by Ronald Numbersand others as examples of widely popular myths that still pass as historical truth, even though they are not supported by historical research. [cite video | people= Ronald Numbers(Lecturer) | year=2006 | date=May 11 | url=http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/faraday/Lectures.php | title=Myths and Truths in Science and Religion: A historical perspective | medium=Video Lecture | location=University of Cambridge (Howard Building, Downing College) | publisher=The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion]
Around 800, there was renewed interest in
Classical Antiquityas part of the Carolingian Renaissance. Charles the Great carried out a reform in education. The English monk Alcuin of York elaborated a project of scholarly development aimed at resuscitating classical knowledge by establishing programmes of study based upon the seven liberal arts: the "trivium", or literary education ( grammar, rhetoricand dialectic) and the "quadrivium", or scientific education ( arithmetic, geometry, astronomyand music). From the year 787 on, decrees began to circulate recommending, in the whole empire, the restoration of old schools and the founding of new ones. Institutionally, these new schools were either under the responsibility of a monastery, a cathedralor a noble court. The real significance of these measures would only be felt centuries later. The teaching of dialectic (a discipline that corresponds to today's logic) was responsible for the rebirth of the interest in speculative inquiry; from this interest would follow the rise of the Scholastic tradition of Christian philosophy. In the 12th and 13th century, many of those schools founded under the auspices of Charles the Great, especially "cathedral" schools, would become universities.
Byzantium and its golden age
Byzantium's great intellectual achievement was the
Corpus Juris Civilis("Body of Civil Law"), a massive compilation of Roman lawmade under Justinian(r. 528-65). The work includes a section called the "Digesta" which abstracts the principles of Roman law in such a way that they can be applied to any situation. The level of literacy was considerably higher in the Byzantine Empire than in the Latin West. Elementary education was much more widely available, sometimes even in the countryside. Secondary schools still taught the " Iliad" and other classics. As for higher education, the Neoplatonic Academyin Athenswas closed in 526 for paganism. There was also a school in Alexandria which remained open until the Arab conquest (640). The University of Constantinople, originally founded by Emperor Theodosius II(425), may have dissolved around this time. It was refounded by Emperor Michael IIIin 849. Higher education in this period focused on rhetoric, although Aristotle's logic was covered in simple outline. Under the Macedonian dynasty (867–1025), Byzantium enjoyed a golden age and a revival of classical learning. There was little original research, but many lexicons, anthologies, encyclopaedias, and commentaries.
Contributions of Islam
Under the Umayyads (661–750), Islamic scholarship focused on Koranic matters. But the ‘Abbasid dynasty which followed promoted Hellenistic and humanistic learning in accordance with the doctrines of the officially favoured
Mu'tazilischool of Islamic interpretation. This school was founded in Basra by Wasil ibn Ata(700–748) and held that the Koran is a created work and that god desires only the best for man, views rejected by the Ash'ariyyahand Athariyyah("Textualist") schools now considered orthodox.
Thus the "gates of
ijtihad" were opened, allowing discussion and debate within Islam, supposedly among 135 schools of thought. In 800, Baghdadwas the largest Muslim city in the world, the first to have a population of over 1 million. Its "House of Wisdom" ("Dār al-Ḥikma") was the intellectual hub of the Muslim world. Philosophers such as al-Kindī(801–873) and al-Fārābī(870–950) translated the works of Aristotleand applied his thinking to Islam. Al-Khwārizmī (790-840) wrote the "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing," the first book on algebra. (The word "algebra" come from the Arabic title of the book. The word "algorithm" comes from al-Khwārizmī's name.) He also wrote "The Image of the Earth," an updated version of Ptolemy's "Geography", and participated in a project to determine the circumference of the Earth by measuring the length of a degree of meridian on a plain in Iraq.
Opponents of ijtihad began proclaiming the "closing of the gates of ijtihad" in the tenth century. Discussion of humanism and other philosophical issues continued, but became increasingly restricted. Muslim learning depended on the whim and patronage of the ruler and Islam did not develop a university system or other permanent institution to honour and promote non-Koranic scholarship.
In the course of the 11th century, Islam's scientific knowledge began to reach Western Europe. The
astrolabe, invented in classical times, was reintroduced to Europe and the works of Euclidand Archimedes, lost in the West, were translated from Arabic to Latin in Spain. The modern Hindu- Arabic numerals, including a notation for zero, was developed by Hindu mathematicians in the fifth and sixth centuries. Muslim mathematicians learned of it in the seventh century and added a notation for decimal factions in the ninth and tenth centuries. Around 1000, Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) made an abacus with counters engraved with Hindu-Arabic numbers. A treatise by Al-Khwārizmī on how to perform calculations with these numerals was translated into Latin in Spain in the 12th century.
Christianity West and East
early Christians, early medieval Christians inherited a church united by major creeds, a stable Biblical canon, and a well-developed philosophical tradition.
During the early Middle Ages, the divide between Eastern and Western Christianity widened, paving the way for the
East-West Schismin the 11th century. In the West, the power of the Bishop of Romeexpanded. In 607, Boniface IIIbecame the first Bishop of Rome to use the title Pope. Pope Gregory the Greatused his office as a temporal power, expanded Rome's missionary efforts to the British Isles, and laid the foundations for the expansion of monastic orders.
In the East, the conquests of Islam reduced the power of the Greek-speaking
patriarchates. Celtic Christianitycomprised a separate Christian tradition in the British Isles.
Christianization of the West
Book of Kells," c. 800] The Roman Catholic Church, the only centralized institution to survive the fall of the Western Roman Empire intact, was the sole unifying cultural influence in the West, selectively preserving some Latin learning, maintaining the art of writing, and preserving a centralized administration through its network of bishops ordained in succession. The Early Middle Ages are characterized by the urban control of bishops and the territorial control exercised by dukes and counts. The rise of urban communes marked the beginning of the High Middle Ages.
The Christianization of Germanic tribes began in the fourth century with the Goths, and continued throughout the Early Middle Ages, in the sixth to seventh centuries led by the
Hiberno-Scottish mission, replaced in the eighth to ninth centuries by the Anglo-Saxon mission, with Anglo-Saxons like Alcuinplaying an important role in the Carolingian renaissance. By AD 1000, even Icelandbecame Christian, leaving only more remote parts of Europe ( Scandinavia, the Baltic and Finno-Ugriclands) to be Christianized during the High Middle Ages.
Historical urban community sizes."
Tertius Chandlerhas made a survey of city sizes through history. [Chandler, Tertius, "Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census" (1987, Edwin Mellon Press)] For the period considered here, the largest cities in the world were: Constantinople (340-570), Ctesiphonof the Sassanids (570-637), Changan in China (637-775), Baghdad(775-935), and Cordoba (935-1013). [http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa011201a.htm]
These are Chandler's estimates for the largest cities in the Europe and Middle East (in units of one thousand inhabitants):
*AD 361 Constantinople (300), Ctesiphon (250), Rome (150), Antioch (150), Alexandria (125).
*AD 500 Constantinople (400), Ctesiphon (400), Antioch (150), Carthage (100), Rome (100).
*AD 622 Ctesiphon (500), Constantinople (350), Alexandria (94),
*AD 800 Baghdad (700), Constantinople (250), Cordoba (160),
Basra(100), Fostat(100) — cf. Rome (50), Paris (25).
*AD 900 Baghdad (900), Constantinople (300), Cordoba (200), Alexandria (175), Fostat (150) — cf. Rome (40).
*AD 1000 Cordoba (450), Constantinople (300),
Cairo(135), Baghdad (125), Nishapur(125) — cf. Rome (35), Paris (20).
Chandler’s default assumption is 10,000 inhabitants/km². Muslim cities are thought to have had higher population densities. A city is defined as a continuously inhabited area.
Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire (10th century)
Listless and often ill, Carolingian Emperor
Charles the Fatprovoked an uprising led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthiawhich resulted in the division of the empire into the kingdoms of France, Germany, and (northern) Italy (887). Taking advantage of the weakness of the German government, the Magyars had established themselves in the Alföld, or Hungarian grasslands, and began raiding across Germany, Italy, and even France. The German nobles elected Henry the Fowler, duke of Saxony, their king at a Reichstag, or national assembly, in Fritzlar in 919. Henry's power was only marginally greater than that of the other leaders of the stem duchies, which were the feudal expression of the former German tribes. Henry's son King Otto I (r. 936-973) was able to defeat a revolt of the dukes supported by French King Louis IV (939). In 951, Otto marched into Italy and married the widowed Queen Adelaide, named himself king of the Lombards, and received homage from Berengar of Ivrea, king of Italy (r. 950-52). Otto named his relatives the new leaders of the stem duchies, but this approach didn't completely solve the problem of disloyalty. His son Liudolf, duke of Swabia, revolted and welcomed the Magyars into Germany (953). At Lechfeld, near Augsburg in Bavaria, Otto caught up the Magyars while they were enjoying a razzia and achieved a signal victory (955). After this, the Magyars ceased to be a nation that lived on plunder and their leaders created a Christian kingdom called Hungary (1000). Otto, his prestige greatly enhanced, marched into Italy again and was crowned emperor ("imperator augustus") by Pope John XIIin Rome (962). Historians count this event as the founding of the Holy Roman Empire, although the term was not used until much later. The Ottonian state is also considered the first "Reich," or German Empire. Otto used the imperial title without attaching it to any territory. He and later emperors thought of themselves as part of a continuous line of emperors that begins with Charlemagne. (Several of these "emperors" were simply local Italian magnates who bullied the pope into coronating them.) Otto deposed John XII for conspiring with Berengar against him and named Pope Leo VIIIto replace him (963). Berengar was captured and taken to Germany. John was able to reverse the deposition after Otto left, but died in the arms of his mistress soon afterwards.
Aside from founding the German Empire, Otto's achievements include the creation "Ottonian church system," in which the clergy (the only literate section of the population) assumed the duties of an imperial civil service. He raised the papacy out of the muck of Rome's local gangster politics, assured that the position was competently filled, and gave it a dignity that allowed it to assume leadership of an international church.
Europe in AD 1000
Speculation that the world would end in the year 1000 was confined to a few uneasy French monks. [Cantor, 1993 "Europe in 1050" p 235.] Ordinary clerks used
regnal years, i.e. the 4th year of the reign of Robert II (the Pious) of France. The use of the modern "anno domini" system of dating was confined to the Venerable Bedeand other chroniclers of universal history.
Europe remained a backwater compared to Islam, with its vast network of caravan trade, or China, at this time the world's most populous empire under the
Song Dynasty. Constantinople had a population of about 300,000, but Rome had a mere 35,000 and Paris 20,000. [http://www.irows.ucr.edu/research/citemp/estcit/estcit.htm] [http://sumbur.n-t.org/sg/ua/ddk.htm] In contrast, Islam had over a dozen major cities stretching from Córdoba, Spain, at this time the world's largest city with 450,000 inhabitants, to central Asia. The Vikingshad a trade network in northern Europe, including a route connecting the Baltic to Constantinople through Russia. But it was modest affair compared to the caravan routes that connected the great Muslim cities of Cordoba, Alexandria, Cairo, Baghdad, Basra, and Mecca.
With nearly the entire nation freshly ravaged by the Vikings, England was in a desperate state. The long-suffering English later responded with a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002, leading to a round of reprisals and finally to Danish rule (1013). But Christianization made rapid progress and proved itself the long-term solution to the problem of barbarian raiding. Scandinavia had been recently Christianized and the kingdoms of
Norway, Sweden, and Denmarkestablished. Kievan Rus, recently converted to Orthodox Christianity, flourished as the largest state in Europe. Icelandand Hungarywere both declared Christian about AD 1000.
In Europe, a more formalised institution of marriage was established among the nobility. [The proscribed degree was the seventh degree of consanguinity, which made virtually all marriages annullable by application to the Pope. huh] Fact|date=May 2008 North of Italy, where masonry construction was never extinguished, stone construction was replacing timber in important structures. Deforestation of the densely wooded continent was under way. The tenth century marked a return of urban life, with the Italian cities doubling in population.
London, abandoned for many centuries, was by 1000 once again England's main economic centre. By 1000, Brugesand Ghentheld regular trade fairs behind castle walls, a tentative return of economic life to western Europe.
This time also marks the disintegration of the Muslim Caliphate, an imposing and united rival only a century before. Muslim unity was hobbled by the divisions between
Shiiteand Sunniconflicts as well as ArabPersian ones. At this time, there were three caliphs, an Umayyid caliph in Spain, an Abbasid caliph in Baghdad, and a Shiite (Fatimid) caliph in Egypt. The population of Baghdad, the Abbasid capital, had shrunk to 125,000 (compared to 900,000 in AD 900). [Chandler, Tertius, ibid.] The Umayyids were still strong and assertive in 1000, but declined rapidly after 1002 and disappeared entirely by 1031.
In the culture of Europe, several features surfaced soon after 1000 that mark the end of the Early Middle Ages: the rise of the
medieval communes, the reawakening of city life, and the appearance of the burgher class, the founding of the first universities, the rediscovery of Roman law, and the beginnings of vernacular literature.
In 1000, the papacy was firmly under the control of German Emperor
Otto III, or "emperor of the world" as he styled himself. But later church reforms enhanced its independence and prestige: the Cluniac movement, the building of the first great Transalpine stone cathedrals and the collation of the mass of accumulated decretals into a formulated canon law.
* 496 —
Battle of Tolbiac, Clovisconverts to Catholicism
* 507 —
Battle of Vouillé
* 527-565 —
* 535-552 — Gothic Wars
* 547 — death of
Benedict of Nursia
* c. 570 — birth of
Pope Gregory I
* 597 — death of
* 602-629 — Last great Roman-Persian War
* 615 — death of
* 626 — Joint Persian-Avar-Slav Siege of Constantinople
* 627 — Byzantine Emperor
Heracliusinvites the Serbsto settle in the Balkans
* 632 — death of
* 634-644 — Caliph
* 636 — death of
Isidore of Seville
* 644-656 — Caliph
Uthman Ibn Affan
* 656-661 — Caliph
* 674-678 — First Arab siege of Constantinople
* 681 —
First Bulgarian Empireestablished
* 7th century —
* 711-718 —
Umayyad conquest of Hispania
* 717 — Second Arab siege of Constantinople
* 721 — death of
Ardo, last king of the Visigoths
* 730 — Byzantine Iconoclasm
* 732 —
Battle of Poitiers
* 735 — death of
Bede, British historian
* 746 —
Blood court at Cannstatt
* 751 —
Pepin the Shortfounds the Carolingian dynasty
* 754 — death of
* 768-814 —
* 778 —
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
* 782 —
Bloody Verdict of Verden
* 793 — first
* 796-804 —
Alcuininitiates the Carolingian Renaissance
* 815 — Byzantine Iconoclasm
* 843 —
Treaty of Verdun
* 871-899 —
Alfred the Great
* 872-930 —
Harald I of Norway
* 880 —
* 911 —
Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte( Normandy)
* 955 —
Battle of Lechfeld
* 962 —
Otto Icrowned Holy Roman Emperor
* 969 —
Kievan Rus'subjugates Khazars
* 987-996 —
* 991 —
Battle of Maldon
* 1003 — death of
Pope Sylvester II
* 1027 — the Salian
Conrad IIsucceeds the last Ottonian Henry II the Saint
* 1054 —
*"Cambridge Economic History of Europe", vol. I 1966. Michael M. Postan, et al, editors.
*Norman F. Cantor, "The Medieval World 300 to 1300"
Georges Duby, 1974. "The Early Growth of the European Economy: Warriors and Peasants from the Seventh to the Twelfth Centuries" (New York: Cornell University Press) Howard B. Clark, translator.
*Georges Duby, editor, 1988. "A History of Private Life II: Revelations of the Medieval World" (Harvard University Press)
Heinrich Fichtenau, (1957) 1978. "The Carolingian Empire" (University of Toronto) Peter Munz, translator.
Richard Hodges, 1982. "Dark Age Economics: The Origins of Towns and Trade AD 600-1000" (New York: St Martin's Press)
David Knowles, (1962) 1988. "The Evolution of Medieval Thought"
Richard Krautheimer, 1980. "Rome: Profile of a City 312-1308" (Princeton University Press)
Robin Lane Fox, 1986. "Pagans and Christians" (New York: Knopf)
*John Marenbon (1983) 1988."Early Medieval Philosophy (480-1150): An Introduction" ((London: Routledge)
*Rosamond McKittrick, 1983 "The Frankish Church Under the Carolingians" (London: Longmans, Green)
*Karl Frederick Morrison, 1969. "Tradition and Authority in the Western Church, 300-1140" (Princeton University Press)
*Pierre Riché, (1978) 1988. "Daily Life in the Age of Charlemagne"
Richard Southern, 1953. "The Making of the Middle Ages" (Yale University Press)
Early Medieval literature
Early medieval European dress
Sassanid Empire, Indo-Sassanid(Early Medieval Persia and India)
Yamato period, Nara period, Heian period(Early Mediaeval Japan)
Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui Dynasty, Tang Dynasty(Early Medieval China)
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