Exothermic reaction


Exothermic reaction

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases heat. It is the opposite of an endothermic reaction. Expressed in a chemical equation:

:reactants → products + energy

Overview

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction accompanied by the release of heat. In other words, the energy needed for the reaction to occur is less than the total energy released. As a result of this, the extra energy is released, usually in the form of heat.

When using a calorimeter, the change in heat of the calorimeter is equal to the opposite of the change in heat of the system. This means that when the medium in which the reaction is taking place gains heat, the reaction is exothermic.

The absolute amount of energy in a chemical system is extremely difficult to measure or calculate. The enthalpy change, ΔH, of a chemical reaction is much easier to measure and calculate. A bomb calorimeter is very suitable for measuring the energy change, ΔH, of a combustion reaction. Measured and calculated ΔH values are related to bond energies by:

:ΔH = energy used in bond breaking reactions − energy released in bond making products

by definition the enthalpy change has a negative value:

:ΔH < 0

For an exothermic reaction, this gives a negative value for ΔH, since a larger value (the energy released in the reaction) is subtracted from a smaller value (the energy used for the reaction). For example, when hydrogen burns:

:2H2 + O2 → 2H2O:ΔH = −483.6 kJ/mol of O2

Examples of exothermic reactions

* Combustion reactions of fuels
* Neutralization reactions such as direct reaction of acid and base
* Adding concentrated acid to water
* Adding water to anhydrous copper(II) sulfate
* The Thermite reaction
* Reactions taking place in a self-heating can based on lime and aluminium
* The setting of cement and concrete
* Many corrosion reactions such as oxidation of metals
* Most polymerisation reactions
* The Haber-Bosch process of ammonia production

Key points

* The concept and its opposite number endothermic relate to the enthalpy change in any process not just chemical reaction.
* In endergonic reactions and exergonic reactions it is the sign of the Gibbs free energy that count and not enthalpy. the related concepts endergonic and exergonic apply to all physical processes.
* the conceptually related endotherm and exotherm are concepts in Animal physiology.
* In quantum numbers, when any exited energy level goes down to its original level for example: when n=4 fall to n=2, energy is released so, it is exothermic.

Measurement

Heat production or absorption in either a physical process or chemical reaction are measured using calorimetry. One common laboratory instrument is the Differential scanning calorimeter or DSC, where a small sample is slowly heated in a controlled way and the heat flow into or from the sample chamber is monitored. The technique can be used to follow chemical reactions as well as physical processes, such as melting and boiling (both of which are endothermic). Crystallization and condensation, the reverse processes, are both exothermic.

See also

*Chemical thermodynamics
*Differential scanning calorimetry
*Endergonic
*Exergonic
*Endergonic reaction
*Exergonic reaction
*Exothermic
*Endothermic reaction
*Endotherm
*Exotherm

External links

* [http://www.gcsescience.com/rc24.htm GCSE Science: Reactions]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Exothermic reaction — Exothermic reaction. См. Экзотермическая реакция. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • exothermic reaction — egzoterminė reakcija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. exothermal reaction; exothermic reaction vok. exotherme Reaktion, f; wärmeabgebende Reaktion, f; wärmegebende Reaktion, f rus. экзотермическая реакция, f pranc. réaction… …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • exothermic reaction — egzoterminė reakcija statusas T sritis Energetika apibrėžtis Cheminė reakcija, kuriai vykstant į aplinką išsiskiria šiluma. Tai kuro deginimas, cheminių junginių susidarymo reakcijos. atitikmenys: angl. exothermic reaction vok. exotherme Reaktion …   Aiškinamasis šiluminės ir branduolinės technikos terminų žodynas

  • exothermic reaction — egzoterminė reakcija statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Reakcija, kurios metu išsiskiria šiluma. atitikmenys: angl. exothermic reaction rus. экзотермическая реакция …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • exothermic reaction —    A chemical reaction which evolves heat. Combustion reaction are exothermic …   Forensic science glossary

  • exothermic reaction — noun a chemical reaction accompanied by the evolution of heat • Hypernyms: ↑chemical reaction, ↑reaction …   Useful english dictionary

  • Exothermic — Ex o*ther mic, a. [Pref. exo + thermic.] (Chem.) Characterized by, or formed with, evolution of heat; as, an exothermic reaction; opposed to {endothermic}. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • exothermic — UK [ˈeksəʊˌθɜː(r)mɪk] / US [ˈeksoʊˌθɜrmɪk] adjective chemistry an exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction in which heat is produced, not absorbed See: endothermic …   English dictionary

  • réaction exothermique — egzoterminė reakcija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. exothermal reaction; exothermic reaction vok. exotherme Reaktion, f; wärmeabgebende Reaktion, f; wärmegebende Reaktion, f rus. экзотермическая реакция, f pranc. réaction… …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • réaction exothermique — egzoterminė reakcija statusas T sritis Energetika apibrėžtis Cheminė reakcija, kuriai vykstant į aplinką išsiskiria šiluma. Tai kuro deginimas, cheminių junginių susidarymo reakcijos. atitikmenys: angl. exothermic reaction vok. exotherme Reaktion …   Aiškinamasis šiluminės ir branduolinės technikos terminų žodynas


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.