- Robert Morris (artist)
Robert Morris (b.
February 9, 1931 Kansas City, Missouri) is an American sculptor, conceptual artist and writer. He is regarded as one of the most prominent theorists of Minimalismalong with Donald Juddbut he has also made important contributions to the development of performance art, land art, the Process Artmovement and installation art.
Morris studied at the
University of Kansas, Kansas City Art Institute, and Reed College[http://www.vdb.org/nonframes/smackn.acgi$artistdetail?MORRISR] . Initially a painter Morris’ work of the 1950s while studying and living in San Francisco was influenced by Abstract Expressionismand particularly Jackson Pollock. In California Morris also came into contact with the work of La Monte Youngand John Cage. The idea that art making was a record of a performance by the artist (drawn from Hans Namuth’s photos of Pollock at work) in the studio led to an interest in dance and choreography. Morris moved to New York in 1960 where he staged a performance based on the exploration of bodies in space in which an upright square column after a few minutes on stage falls over. Morris developed the same idea into his first Minimal Sculptures "Two Columns" shown in 1961, and "L Beams" (1965).
In New York, Morris began to explore the work of Marcel Duchamp making pieces that directly responded to Duchamp’s ("
Box with the Sound of its Own Making" (1961), "Fountain" (1963). In 1963 he had an exhibition of Minimal sculptures at the Green Gallery in New York that was written about by Donald Judd. In 1964 Morris devised and performed two celebrated performance artworks "21.3" in which he lip syncs to a reading of an essay by Erwin Panofskyand "Site" with Carolee Schneemann. Morris enrolled at Hunter Collegein New York (his masters thesis was on the work of Brancusi) and in 1966 published a series of influential essays "Notes on Sculpture" in Artforum. He exhibited two "L Beams" in the seminal 1966 exhibit, "Primary Structures" at the Jewish Museum in New York.
In 1967 Morris created "Steam" an early piece of Land Art. By the late 1960s Morris was being featured in Museum shows in America but his work and writings drew criticism from
Clement Greenberg. His work became larger scale taking up the majority of the gallery space with series of modular units or piles of earth and felt. In 1971 Morris designed an exhibition for the Tate Gallerythat took up the whole central sculpture gallery with ramps and cubes. He published a photo of himself dressed in S&Mgear in an advertisement in " Artforum", similar to one by Lynda Benglis, with whom Morris had collaborated on several videos.cite book|title=Contemporary Art: Art Since 1970|isbn=0131181742 |year=2005 |publisher= Prentice Hall|last = Taylor |first=Brandon |pages=30 |location= London]
He created the Robert Morris Observatory in the Netherlands, a "modern Stonehenge", which identifies the
solstices and the equinoxes. It is at coordinates 52°32'58"N 5°33'57"E (This from http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observatorium_Robert_Morris)
During the later 1970s Morris switched to figurative work, a move that surprised many of his supporters. Themes of the work were often fear of
Nuclear War. During the 1990s returned to his early work supervising reconstructions and installations of lost pieces. Morris currently lives and works in New York.
In 1974, Robert Morris advertised his display at the
Castelli Gallerywith a poster showing him bare-chested in sadomasochisticgarb. Critic Amelia Jonesasserts that the body art poster challenged and reinforced his masculinity. [cite book|last = Jones |first = Amelia |authorlink = Amelia Jones |pages=pp. 114-115 |title = Body Art/Performing the Subject |publisher = University of MinnesotaPress | year = 1998] Through the poster, Morris equated the power of art with that of a physical force, specifically violence.cite book |editor = Holliday T. Day |last = Chave |first = Anne C. |chapter = Minimalism and the Rhetoric of Power |year = 1991 |title = Power: Its Myths and Mores in American Art, 1961-1991 |pages = p. 134 ]
"Robert Morris's work is fundamentally theatrical. (...) his theater is one of negation: negation of the avant-gardist concept of originality, negation of logic and reason, negation of the desire to assign uniform cultural meanings to diverse phenomena; negation of a worldview that distrusts the unfamiliar and the unconventional." (
Maurice Berger, "Labyrinths: Robert Morris, Minimalism, and the 1960s", p. 3.)
*Berger, Maurice. "Labyrinths: Robert Morris, Minimalism, and the 1960s," New York: Harper & Row, 1989
*Busch, Julia M., [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/wcpa/ow/4ed0b0bd878eaf2a.html "A Decade of Sculpture: the New Media in the 1960s"] (The Art Alliance Press: Philadelphia; [http://www.aupresses.com/ Associated University Presses] :
London, 1974) ISBN 0-87982-007-1
* [http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_bio_115.html Guggenheim Robert Morris bio]
* [http://www.mcah.columbia.edu/cgi-bin/dbcourses/publicportfolio?portfolioid=209&x=19&y=18 Robert Morris, Publicportfolio at columbia.edu]
* [http://www.vdb.org/smackn.acgi$artistdetail?MORRISR Robert Morris] in the [http://www.vdb.org/ Video Data Bank]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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