: "This article is about the region in what is now Southern Romania. There are other regions called Wallachia, such as the
Moravian Wallachiaand the Thessaly Wallachia; See: Vlachs."Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Wallachia" ("Ţara Românească")
conventional_long_name = Principality of Wallachia
common_name = Wallachia
continent = Europe
year_start = 1317
year_end = 1859
Basarab Iunifies the small voivodships in Wallachia
event_end = "De Jure" Union of the
s1 = Romanian Principalities
flag_s1 = Flag of the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (1859 - 1862).svg
image_map_caption = Map of Romania with Wallachia in red
Câmpulung, Curtea de Argeş, Târgovişte, Bucureşti
common_languages = Romanian (commonly used, later official), Church Slavonic (in early official use)
government_type = Principality
title_leader = Princes of Wallachia (
Basarab I- the first
year_leader1 = 1310-1352
Alexander John Cuza- the last
year_leader2 = 1859-1862
Wallachia (also spelled Walachia; _ro. Ţara Românească or "The Romanian Land") is a historical and geographical region of
Romania. It is situated north of the Danubeand south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is sometimes referred to as " Muntenia", through identification with the larger of its two traditional sections; the smaller being Oltenia.
Wallachia was founded as a
principalityin the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary. In 1415, Wallachia accepted the suzeraintyof the Ottoman Empire; this lasted until the 19th century, albeit with brief periods of Russian occupation between 1768 and 1854. In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia(the other Danubian Principality), to form the state of Romania.
The name "Wallachia", generally not used by
Romaniansthemselves (but present in some contexts as "Valahia" or "Vlahia"), is derived from the Valachs - a word of German origin also present as the Slavic "Vlachs" - used by foreigners in reference to Romanians ("see also: History of the term Vlach").
In the early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name of "Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi" ("Hungaro-Wallachian Land") was also used. The term, translated in Romanian as "Ungrovalahia", remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia. [
Dinu C. Giurescu, "Istoria ilustrată a românilor", Editura Sport-Turism, Bucharest, 1981, p.236] Official designations of the state were "Muntenia" ("see also Muntenia") and "Ţeara Rumânească" (Romanian Land).
For long periods before the 14th century, Wallachia was referred to as "Vlaško" by Bulgarian sources (and "Vlaška" by Serbian sources), "Walachei" or "Walachey" by German (Transylvanian Saxon) sources. The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is "Havasalföld", or literally "Snowy Lowlands" (the older form is "Havaselve", which means "Land beyond the snowy mountains"). In Ottoman Turkish and Turkish, "Eflak", a word derived from "Vlach", is used.
Wallachia is situated north of the
Danube(and of present-day Serbiaand Bulgaria) and south of the Southern Carpathians, and is traditionally divided between Munteniain the east (as the political center, Muntenia is often understood as being synonymous with Wallachia), and Oltenia(a former banat) in the west. The division line between the two is the Olt River.
Wallachia's traditional border with
Moldaviacoincided with the Milcov River for most of its length. To the east, over the Danube north-south bend, Wallachia neighbours Dobruja( Northern Dobruja). Over the Carpathians, Wallachia shared a border with Transylvania; Wallachian princes have for long held possession of areas north of the this line ( Amlaş, Ciceu, Făgăraş, and Haţeg), which are generally not considered part of Wallachia-proper.
The capital city changed over time, from
Câmpulungto Curtea de Argeş, then to Târgovişteand, after the late 1500s, to Bucharest.
From Roman rule to the state's establishment
In the Second Dacian War (105 AD) western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the
Moesia Inferiorprovince. The Roman " limes" was initially built along the Olt River (119), before being moved slightly to the east in the 2nd century — during which time it stretched from the Danubeup to Rucărin the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245, and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region.
The area was subject to Romanization sometime during the
Migration Period, when most of present-day Romania was also subject to the presence of Gothsand Sarmatianpeoples known as the Mureş-Cerneahov culture, followed by waves of other nomadic peoples. In 328, the Romans built a bridge between Sucidava ( Celei) and Oescus(near Gigen) which indicates that there was a significant trade with the peoples north of the Danube (a short period of Roman rule in the area is attested under Emperor Constantine I). [Giurescu, p.37; Ştefănescu, p.155] The Goths attacked the Roman Empire south of the Danube in 332, settling north of the Danube, then later to the south. The period of Goth rule ended when the Hunsarrived in the Pannonian Plain, and, under Attila, attacked and destroyed some 170 settlements on both sides of the Danube.
Byzantine influence is evident during the 5th to 6th century, such as the site at
Ipoteşti-Cândeşti, but from the second half of the 6th century and in the 7th century Slavic peoplescrossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube. [Giurescu, p.38] In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs, Avars and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area; Flavius Mauricius Tiberius, who ordered his army to be deployed north of the Danube, encountered his troops' strong opposition. [Warren Treadgold, "A Concise History of Byzantium", New York, St Martin's Press, 2001]
Wallachia was under the control of the
First Bulgarian Empirefrom its establishment in 681, until approximately the Magyar conquest of Transylvaniaat the end of the 10th century. With the decline and subsequent fall of the Bulgarian state to Byzantium (in the second half of the 10th century up to 1018), Wallachia came under the control of the Pechenegs(a Turkic people) who extended their rule west through the 10th and 11th century, until defeated around 1091, when the Cumansof southern Russia took control of the lands of Moldavia and Wallachia. [Giurescu, p.39-40] Beginning with the 10th century, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and later Western sources mention the existence of small polities, possibly peopled by, among others, Vlachs/ Romaniansled by " knyazes" and " voivodes" - at first in Transylvania, then in the 12th-13th centuries in the territories east and south of the Carpathians.
In 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Cuman domination was ended - a direct Mongol rule over Wallachia was not attested, but it remains probable. [Giurescu, p.39] Part of Wallachia was probably briefly disputed by the
Hungarian Kingdomand Bulgariansin the following period, [Giurescu, p.39] but it appears that the severe weakening of Hungarian authority during the Mongol attacks contributed to the establishment of the new and stronger polities attested in Wallachia for the following decades. [Ştefănescu, p.111]
: "Main article:
Foundation of Wallachia"One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi(1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Făgăraşin Transylvania), and refused to pay tributeto the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV. His successor was his brother Bărbat(1285-1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285-1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynastyopened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to independence from Hungarian rule.
Wallachia's creation, held by local traditions to have been the work of one "
Radu Negru", is historically connected with Basarab I(1310-1352), who rebelled against Charles I of Hungaryand took up rule on either side of the Olt River, establishing his residence in Câmpulungas the first ruler in the House of Basarab. Basarab refused to grant Hungary the lands of Făgăraş, Amlaşand the Banat of Severin, defeated Charles in the Battle of Posada(1330), and extended his lands to the east, to comprise lands as far as Kilia(in the Bujak, as the origin of " Bessarabia"); [Ştefănescu, p.114] rule over the latter was not preserved by following princes, as Kilia fell to the Nogaisca.1334. [Ştefănescu, p.119]
Basarab was succeeded by
Nicolae Alexandru, followed by Vladislav I. Vladislav attacked Transylvania after Louis I occupied lands south of the Danube, conceded to recognize him as overlordin 1368, but rebelled again in the same year; his rule also witnessed the first confrontation between Wallachia and the Ottoman Turks(a battle in which Vladislav was allied with Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria). [Ştefănescu, p.93-94] Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary. [Ştefănescu, p.94]
Mircea the Elder to Radu the Great
As the entire
Balkan Peninsulabecome an integral part of the emerging Ottoman Empire(a process which concluded with the fall of Constantinopleto Sultan Mehmed IIin 1453), Wallachia became engaged in frequent confrontations and, in the final years of Mircea the Elder's reign, became an Ottoman tributary state. Mircea (reigned 1386-1418), initially defeated the Ottomans in several battles (including that of Rovine in 1394), driving them away from Dobrujaand briefly extending his rule to the Danube Delta, Dobruja and Silistra(ca.1400-1404). [Ştefănescu, p.139Verify credibility|date=July 2007] He oscillated between alliances with Sigismund of Hungary and Jagiellon Poland (taking part in the Battle of Nicopolis), [Ştefănescu, p.97] and accepted a peace treaty with the Ottomans in 1415, after Mehmed Itook control of Turnu and Giurgiu— the two ports remained part of the Ottoman state, with brief interruptions, until 1829. In 1418-1420, Mihail I defeated the Ottomans in Severin, only to be killed in battle by the counter-offensive; in 1422, the danger was averted for a short while when Dan II inflicted a defeat on Murad IIwith the help of Pippo Spano. [Ştefănescu, p.105]
The peace signed in 1428 inaugurated a period of internal crisis, as Dan had to defend himself against Radu Prasnaglava, who led the first in a series of
boyarcoalitions against established princes (in time, these became overtly pro-Ottoman in answer to repression). [Ştefănescu, p.105-106] Victorious in 1431 (the year when the boyar-backed Alexandru I Aldeatook the throne), boyars were dealt successive blows by Vlad II Dracul(1436-1442; 1443-1447), who nevertheless attempted to compromise between the Porteand the Holy Roman Empire. [Ştefănescu, p.106]
The following decade was marked by the conflict between the rival houses of
Dăneştiand Drăculeşti, the influence of John Hunyadi, Regentof the Kingdom of Hungary, and, after the neutral reign of Vladislav II, [Ştefănescu, p.110] by the rise of Vlad III Dracula. Vlad, during whose rule Bucharestwas first mentioned as a princely residence, exercised terror on rebellious boyars, cut off all links with the Ottomans, and, in 1462, defeated Mehmed II's offensive during The Night Attackbefore being forced to retreat to Târgovişteand accepting to pay an increased tribute. [Ştefănescu, p.115-118] His parallel conflicts with the pretenders Radu cel Frumosand Laiotă Basarabbrought occupations of Wallachia by the troops of Matthias Corvinus of Hungaryand the Moldavian prince Stephen III (1473; 1476-1477). [Ştefănescu, p.117-118; 125] Radu the Great (1495-1508) reached several compromises with the boyars, ensuring a period of internal stability that contrasted his clash with Bogdan the Blind of Moldavia. [Ştefănescu, p.146]
Mihnea cel Rău to Petru Cercel
The late 1400s saw the ascension of the powerful
Craioveştifamily, virtually independent rulers of the Oltenian banat, who sought Ottoman support in their rivalry with Mihnea cel Rău(1508-1510) and replaced him with Vlăduţ; after the latter proved to be hostile to the bans, the House of Basarab formally ended with the rise of Neagoe Basarab, a Craioveşti. [Ştefănescu, p.140-141] Neagoe's peaceful rule (1512-1521), noted for its cultural aspects (the building of the Curtea de Argeş Cathedraland Renaissanceinfluences), also saw an increase in influence for the Saxon merchands in Braşovand Sibiu, and Wallachia's alliance with Louis II of Hungary. [Ştefănescu, p.141-144] Under Teodosie, the country was again under a four-month-long Ottoman occupation, a military administration which seemed to be an attempt to create a Wallachian "Pashaluk". [Ştefănescu, p.144-145] This danger rallied all boyars in support of Radu de la Afumaţi(four rules between 1522 and 1529), who lost the battle after an agreement between the Craioveşti and Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent; Prince Radu eventually confirmed Süleyman's position as suzerain, and agreed to pay an even higher tribute. [Ştefănescu, p.144-145]
Ottoman suzerainty remained virtually unchallenged throughout the following 90 years.
Radu Paisie, who was deposed by Süleyman in 1545, ceded the port of Brăilato Ottoman administration in the same year; his successor Mircea Ciobanul(1545-1554; 1558-1559), a prince without any claim to noble heritage, was imposed on the throne and consequently agreed to a decrease in autonomy (increasing taxes and carrying out an armed intervention in Transylvania — supporting the pro-Turkish John Zápolya). [Ştefănescu, p.162] Conflicts between boyar families became stringent after the rule of Pătraşcu cel Bun, and boyar ascendancy over rulers was obvious under Petru the Younger (1559-1568; a reign dominated by Doamna Chiajnaand marked by huge increases in taxes), Mihnea Turcitul, and Petru Cercel. [Ştefănescu, p.163-164] The Ottoman Empire increasingly relied on Wallachia and Moldavia for the supply and maintenance of its military forces; the local army, however, soon disappeared due to the increased costs and the much more obvious efficiency of mercenarytroops. [Berza; Djuvara, p.24-26]
Initially profiting from Ottoman support,
Michael the Braveascended to the throne in 1593, and attacked the troops of Murad IIInorth and south of the Danube in an alliance with Transylvania's Sigismund Báthoryand Moldavia's Aron Vodă("see Battle of Călugăreni"). He soon placed himself under the suzerainty of Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor, and, in 1599-1600, intervened in Transylvania against Poland's king Sigismund III Vasa, placing the region under his authority; his brief rule also extended to Moldavia later in the following year. [Ştefănescu, p.169-180] Following Michael's downfall, Wallachia was occupied by the Polish-Moldavian army of Simion Movilă("see Moldavian Magnate Wars"), who held the region until 1602, and was subject to Nogai attacks in the same year. [Giurescu, p.65, 68]
The last stage in the
Growth of the Ottoman Empirebrought increased pressures on Wallachia: political control was accompanied by Ottoman economical hegemony, the discarding of the capital in Târgoviştein favour of Bucharest(closer to the Ottoman border, and a rapidly-growing trade center), the establishment of serfdomunder Michael the Brave as a measure to increase manorial revenues, and the decrease in importance of low-ranking boyars (threatened with extinction, they took part in the " seimeni" rebellion of 1655). [Giurescu, p.68-69, 73-75] Furthermore, the growing importance of appointment to high office in front of land ownership brought about an influx of Greek and Levantine families, a process already resented by locals during the rules of Radu Mihneain the early 1600s. [Giurescu, p.68-69, 78, 268] Matei Basarab, a boyar appointee, brought a long period of relative peace (1632-1654), with the noted exception of the 1653 Battle of Finta, fought between Wallachians and the troops of Moldavian prince Vasile Lupu— ending in disaster for the latter, who was replaced with Prince Matei's favourite, Gheorghe Ştefan, on the throne in Iaşi. A close alliance between Gheorghe Ştefan and Matei's successor Constantin Şerbanwas maintained by Transylvania's George II Rákóczi, but their designs for independence from Ottoman rule were crushed by the troops of Mehmed IVin 1658-1659. [Giurescu, p.74] The reigns of Gheorghe Ghicaand Grigore I Ghica, the sultan's favourites, signified attempts to prevent such incidents; however, they were also the onset of a violent clash between the Băleanu and Cantacuzino boyar families, which was to mark Wallachia's history until the 1680s. [Giurescu, p.78] The Cantacuzinos, threatened by the alliance between the Băleanus and the Ghicas, backed their own choice of princes ( Antonie Vodă din Popeştiand George Ducas) [Giurescu, p.78-79] before promoting themselves — with the ascension of Şerban Cantacuzino(1678-1688).
Russo-Turkish Wars and the Phanariotes
Wallachia became a target for Habsburg incursions during the last stages of the
Great Turkish Warca.1690, when the ruler Constantin Brâncoveanusecretly and unsuccessfully negotatied an anti-Ottoman coalition. Brâncoveanu's reign (1688-1714), noted for its late Renaissancecultural achievements ("see Brâncovenesc style"), also coincided with the rise of Imperial Russiaunder Emperor Peter the Great — he was approached by the latter during the Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1711, and lost his throne and life sometime after sultan Ahmed IIIcaught news of the negotiations. [Djuvara, p.31, 157, 336] Despite his denounciation of Brâncoveanu's policies, Ştefan Cantacuzinoattached himself to Habsburg projects and opened the country to the armies of Prince Eugene of Savoy; he was himself deposed and executed in 1716. [Djuvara, p.31, 336]
Immediately following the deposition of Prince Ştefan, the Ottomans renounced the purely nominal elective system (which had by then already witnessed the decrease in importance of the Boyar Divan over the sultan's decision), and princes of the two
Danubian Principalitieswere appointed from the Phanariotesof Istanbul. Inaugurated by Nicholas Mavrocordatosin Moldavia after Dimitrie Cantemir, Phanariote rule was brought to Wallachia in 1715 by the very same ruler. [Djuvara, p.31-32] The tense relations between boyars and princes brought a decrease in the number of taxed people (as a privilegegained by the former), a subsequent increase in total taxes, [Djuvara, p.67-70] and the enlarged powers of a boyar circle in the Divan. [Djuvara, p.124]
In parallel, Wallachia became the battleground in a succession of wars between the Ottomans on one side and Russia or the Habsburg Monarchy on the other. Mavrocordatos himself was deposed by a boyar rebellion, and arrested by Habsburg troops during the
Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18, as the Ottomans had to concede Olteniato Charles VI of Austria (the Treaty of Passarowitz). [Djuvara, p.48, 92; Giurescu, p.94-96] The region, subject to an enlightened absolutist rule that soon disenchanted local boyars, was returned to Wallachia in 1739 (the Treaty of Belgrade, upon the close of the Austro-Turkish War of 1737-39). Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos, who oversaw the new change in borders, was also responsible for the effective abolition of serfdomin 1746 (which put a stop to the exodus of peasants into Transylvania); [Djuvara, p.48, 68, 91-92, 227-228, 254-256; Giurescu, p.93] during this period, the ban of Oltenia moved his residence from Craiovato Bucharest, signalling, alongside Mavrocordatos' order to merge his personal treasurywith that of the country, a move towards centralism. [Djuvara, p.59, 71; Giurescu, p.93]
In 1768, during the Fifth Russo-Turkish War, Wallachia was placed under its first Russian occupation (helped along by the rebellion of
Pârvu Cantacuzino). [Djuvara, p.285; Giurescu, p.98-99] The Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca(1774) allowed Russia to intervene in favour of Eastern Orthodox Ottoman subjects, curtailing Ottoman pressures — including the decrease in sums owed as tribute[Berza] — and, in time, relatively increasing internal stability while opening Wallachia to more Russian interventions. [Djuvara, p.76] Habsburg troops, under Prince Josias of Coburg, again entered the country during the Russo-Turkish-Austrian War, deposing Nicholas Mavrogenis in 1789. [Giurescu, p.105-106] A period of crisis followed the Ottoman recovery: Oltenia was devastated by the expeditions of Osman Pazvantoğlu, a powerful rebellious pashawhose raids even caused prince Constantine Hangerlito lose his life on suspicion of treason (1799), and Alexander Mourousisto renounce his throne (1801). [Djuvara, p.17-19, 282; Giurescu, p.107] In 1806, the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 was partly instigated by the Porte's deposition of Constantine Ypsilantisin Bucharest — in tune with the Napoleonic Wars, it was instigated by the French Empire, and also showed the impact of the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca (with its permissive attitude towards Russian political influence in the Danubian Principalities); the war brought the invasion of Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich. [Djuvara, p.284-286; Giurescu, p.107-109]
After the Peace of Bucharest, the rule of
Jean Georges Caradja, although remembered for a major plague epidemic, was notable for its cultural and industrial ventures. [Djuvara, p.165, 168-169; Giurescu, p.252] During the period, Wallachia increased its strategic importance for most European states interested in supervising Russian expansion; consulates were opened in Bucharest, having an indirect but major impact on Wallachian economy through the protection they extended to " sudiţi" traders (who soon competed successfully against local guilds). [Djuvara, p.184-187; Giurescu, p.114, 115, 288]
From Wallachia to Romania
The death of prince Alexander Soutzos in 1821, coinciding with the outbreak of the
Greek War of Independence, established a boyar regency which attempted to block the arrival of Scarlat Callimachito his throne in Bucharest. The parallel uprising in Oltenia, carried out by the Pandur leader Tudor Vladimirescu, although aimed at overthrowing the ascendancy of Greeks, [Djuvara, p.89, 299] compromised with the Greek revolutionaries in the Filiki Eteriaand allied itself with the regents, [Djuvara, p.297] while seeking Russian support [Giurescu, p.115] ("see also: Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire").
On March 21, 1821, Vladimirescu entered Bucharest. For the following weeks, relations between him and his allies worsened, especially after he sought an agreement with the Ottomans; [Djuvara, p.298] Eteria's leader Alexander Ypsilantis, who had established himself in Moldavia and, after May, in northern Wallachia, viewed the alliance as broken — he had Vladimirescu executed, and faced the Ottoman intervention without Pandur or Russian backing, suffering major defeats in Bucharest and
Drăgăşani(before retreating to Austrian custody in Transylvania). [Djuvara, p.301; Giurescu, p.116-117] These violent events, which had seen the majority of Phanariotes siding with Ypsilantis, made Sultan Mahmud IIplace the Principalities under its occupation (evicted by a request of several European powers), [Djuvara, p.307] and sanction the end of Phanariote rules: in Wallachia, the first prince to be considered a local one after 1715 was Grigore IV Ghica. Although the new system was confirmed for the rest of Wallachia's existence as a state, Ghica's rule was abruptly ended by the devastating Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. [Djuvara, p.321]
Treaty of Adrianople, without overturning Ottoman suzerainty, placed Wallachia and Moldavia under Russian military rule, awarding them the first common institutions and the semblance of a constitution("see Regulamentul Organic"). Wallachia was returned ownership of Brăila, Giurgiu(both of which soon developed into major trading cities on the Danube), and Turnu Măgurele. [Giurescu, p.122, 127] The treaty also allowed Moldavia and Wallachia to freely trade with countries other than the Ottoman Empire, which signalled substantial economic and urban growth, as well as improving the peasant situation. [Djuvara, p.262, 324; Giurescu, p.127, 266] Many of the provisions had been specified by the 1826 Akkerman Convention between Russia and the Ottomans (it had never been fully implemented in the three-year interval). [Djuvara, p.323] The duty of overseeing of the Principalities was left to Russian general Pavel Kiselyov; this interval was marked by a series of major changes, including the reestablishment of a Wallachian Army(1831), a tax reform(which nonetheless confirmed tax exemptions for the privileged), as well as major urban works in Bucharest and other cities. [Djuvara, p.323-324; Giurescu, p.122-127] In 1834, Wallachia's throne was occupied by Alexandru II Ghica— a move in contradiction with the Adrianople treaty, as he had not been elected by the new Legislative Assembly; removed by the suzerains in 1842, he was replaced with an elected prince, Gheorghe Bibescu. [Djuvara, p.325]
Opposition to Ghica's arbitrary and highly conservative rule, together with the rise of liberal and radical currents, was first felt with the protests voiced by
Ion Câmpineanu(quickly repressed); [Djuvara, p.329; Giurescu, p.134] subsequently, it became increasingly conspiratorial, and centered on those secret societies created by young officers such as Nicolae Bălcescuand Mitică Filipescu. [Djuvara, p.330; Giurescu, p.132-133]
"Frăţia", a clandestine movement created in 1843, began planning a revolution to overthrow Bibescu and repeal "Regulamentul Organic" in 1848 (inspired by the European rebellions of the same year). Their pan-Wallachian "
coup d'état" was initially successful only near Turnu Măgurele, where crowds cheered the " Islaz Proclamation" (June 21); among others, the document called for political freedoms, independence, land reform, and the creation of a national guard. [Djuvara, p.331; Giurescu, p.133-134] On June 11-12, the movement was successful in deposing Bibescu and establishing a Provisional Government. Although sympathetic to the anti-Russian goals of the revolution, the Ottomans were pressured by Russia into repressing it: Ottoman troops entered Bucharest on September 13. [Djuvara, p.331; Giurescu, p.136-137] Russian and Turkish troops, present until 1851, brought Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbeito the throne, during which interval most participants in the revolution were sent into exile.
Briefly under renewed Russian occupation during the
Crimean War, Wallachia and Moldavia were given a new status with a neutral Austrian administration (1854-1856) and the Treaty of Paris: a tutelage shared by Ottomans and a Congress of Great Powers (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the Austrian Empire, Prussia, and, albeit never again fully, Russia), with a " kaymakam"-led internal administration. The emerging movement for a union of the Danubian Principalities(a demand first voiced in 1848, and a cause cemented by the return of revolutionary exiles) was advocated by the French and their Sardinian allies, supported by Russia and Prussia, but was rejected or suspicioned by all other overseers. [Giurescu, p.139-141]
After an intense campaign, a formal union was ultimately granted: nevertheless, elections for the "
ad-hoc divans" of 1859 profited from a legal ambiguity (the text of the final agreement specified two thrones, but did not prevent any single person from simultaneously taking part in and winning elections in both Bucharest and Iaşi). Alexander John Cuza, who ran for the unionist " Partida Naţională", won the elections in Moldavia on January 5; Wallachia, which was expected by the unionists to carry the same vote, returned a majority of anti-unionists to its "divan". [Giurescu, p.142]
Those elected changed their allegiance after a mass protest of Bucharest crowds, [Giurescu, p.142] and Cuza was voted prince of Wallachia on February 5 (January 24 Old Style), consequently confirmed as "
Domnitor" of the "United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia" ("of Romania" from 1861). Internationally recognized only for the duration of his reign, the union was irreversible after the ascension of Carol I in 1866 (coinciding with the Austro-Prussian War, it came at a time when Austria, the main opponent of the decision, was not in a position to intervene).
Flag and coat of arms of Wallachia
History of Bucharest
List of Wallachian rulers
*Mihai Berza, "Haraciul Moldovei şi al Ţării Româneşti în sec. XV–XIX", in "Studii şi Materiale de Istorie Medie", II, 1957, p.7–47
Neagu Djuvara, "Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne", Humanitas, Bucharest, 1995
Constantin C. Giurescu, "Istoria Bucureştilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre", Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1966
*Ştefan Ştefănescu, "Istoria medie a României", Vol. I, Bucharest, 1991
* [http://www.patzinakia.ro/ The Romanian Group for an Alternative History Website] - provides monument information, original documents, books, studies and other info concerning the Romanian Middle Ages
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Wallachia — Allgemeine Informationen Genre(s) Extreme Metal, Symphonic Metal Gründung 1992 Website … Deutsch Wikipedia
Wallachia — [wä lā′kē ə] alt. sp. of WALACHIA … English World dictionary
Wallachia — Region north ofthe Danube (q.v.) in modern Romania. The principality of Wallachia, founded ca. 1290, established close relations with Serbia and Bulgaria (qq.v.) in the 14th century. Wallachia s support of attempts to oppose the Ottomans… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Wallachia — A province of Romania. The first record of Gypsies in Wallachia dates from around 1360 when a document records the transfer of slaves. Gypsies were among those who later suffered the cruelties of Vlad IV, Prince of Wallachia, better known… … Historical dictionary of the Gypsies
Wallachia — geographical name see Walachia … New Collegiate Dictionary
Wallachia — Wallachian, adj., n. /wo lay kee euh/, n. a former principality in SE Europe: united with Moldavia (Moldova) to form Rumania in 1861. 29,569 sq. mi. (76,585 sq. km). Cap.: Bucharest. Also, Walachia. * * * … Universalium
Wallachia — noun /wɒlˈeɪ.kiː.ə/ a) A former principality in Eastern Europe, now part of South Romania. b) A historical part of north east Moravia … Wiktionary
Wallachia — n. former principality in southeastern Europe (united with Moldavia in 1859 to form Romania) … English contemporary dictionary
Wallachia — Wal•la•chi•a or Walachia [[t]wɒˈleɪ ki ə[/t]] n. geg a former principality in SE Europe: united with Moldavia to form Romania in 1861 Wal•la′chi•an, adj. n … From formal English to slang
Wallachia — /wɒˈleɪkiə/ (say wo laykeeuh) noun a former principality in south eastern Europe; it united with Moldavia to form Romania, 1861. Capital: Bucharest. Also, Walachia. –Wallachian, adjective, noun … Australian English dictionary