- Hugh Dalton
The Right Honourable
name=The Lord Dalton
honorific-suffix = PC
Chancellor of the Exchequer
27 July 1945
13 November 1947
predecessor =John Anderson
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
31 May 1948
28 February 1950
predecessor2 = The Rt. Hon. The Lord Pakenham
successor2 = The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Alexander of Hillsborough
order3 = Minister of Town and Country Planning
order4 = Minister of Local Government and Planning
birth_date = birth date|1887|8|26|df=y
death_date =death date and age|1962|2|13|1887|8|26|df=y
Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton PC , generally known as Hugh Dalton (
26 August 1887– 13 February 1962) was a British Labour Partypolitician, and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1945 to 1947. He was implicated in a political scandal involving budget leaks.
He was born in
Neathin Wales: his father, Canon John Neale Daltonwas chaplain to Queen Victoria and tutor to the future King George V of the United Kingdom.
Hugh was educated at
Eton College, where he was head of his house, but was disappointed not to be elected to "Pop". After leaving school he went up to King's College, Cambridge, where his socialist views, then very rare amongst undergraduates, earned him the nickname "Comrade Hugh". He made three unsuccessful attempts at the Secretaryship of the Cambridge Union (the only office generally then contested).
He went on to further study at the
London School of Economicsand the Middle Temple. During World War I, he was called up into the Army Service Corps, later transferring to the Royal Artillery. He served as a Lieutenanton the French and Italian Fronts and later wrote a memoir of the war called "With British Guns in Italy". He then returned to the LSE and the University of LondonFact|date=September 2008 as a lecturer.
Dalton stood unsuccessfully for Parliament four times: at the
Cambridge by-election, 1922, in Maidstone at the 1922 general election, in Cardiff East at the 1923 general election, and the Holland with Boston by-election, 1924, before entering Parliament for Peckham at the 1924 general election.
At the 1929 general election, he succeeded his wife as Labour MP for Bishop Auckland in 1929 and became a junior
Foreign Officeminister in the second Labour Government. As with most other Labour MPs, he lost his seat in 1931, though he was re-elected in 1935. During the World War IIcoalition, Winston Churchillappointed him Minister of Economic Warfarefrom 1940 and he established the Special Operations Executive, and was later a member of the executive committee of the Political Warfare Executive. He became President of the Board of Tradein 1942; the future Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell, drafted into the Civil Service during the war, was his Principal Private Secretary.
Although a Labour politician Dalton was a strong supporter of Churchill during the crisis of May, 1940, when Lord Halifax and other Conservative supporters of
appeasementin the war cabinet urged a compromise peace.
After the Labour victory in the 1945 general election, Dalton had been expected to become Foreign Secretary, but instead the job was given to
Ernest Bevin. Dalton became Chancellor of the Exchequerand nationalised the Bank of Englandin 1946. Alongside Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Herbert Morrisonand Stafford CrippsDalton was initially seen as one of the "Big Five" of the Labour Government.
During this time Britain, whose overseas investments had been sold to pay for the war (thus losing Britain their income), was suffering severe balance of payments problems to pay for the effort of maintaining a global military presence. The American loan negotiated by
John Maynard Keynesin 1946 was soon exhausted, and by 1947 rationing had to be tightened and the convertibility of the pound suspended. In the atmosphere of crisis Herbert Morrisonand Stafford Crippsintrigued to replace Clement Attleewith Ernest Bevinas Prime Minister; Bevin refused to play along and Attlee bought off Cripps by giving him Morrison's responsibilities for economic planning. Ironically, of the "Big Five" it was to be Dalton who ultimately fell victim to the events of that year.
Dalton was under great strain. Walking into the House of Commons to give the autumn 1947 Budget speech, he made an off-the-cuff remark to a journalist, telling him of some of the tax changes in the budget, which was printed in the early edition of the evening papers before he had completed his speech, and whilst the stock market was still open. This led to his resignation for leaking a Budget secret; he was succeeded by
Stafford Cripps. Though initially implicated in the allegations that led to the Lynskey tribunalin 1948, he was ultimately exonerated.
In 1948 he returned to the Cabinet as
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, then became Minister of Town and Country Planning in 1950, renamed as Minister of Local Government and Planning in 1951. He still had the ear of the Prime Minister, and enjoyed promoting the careers of candidates with potential, but was no longer a major political player as he had been until 1947. He left government after the 1951 General Election.
He was president of the
Ramblers' Associationfrom 1948 to 1950 and Master of the Drapers' Companyin 1958-59. He was made a life peeras Baron Dalton, of Forest and Friton in the County Palatine of Durhamin 1960.
Although Dalton was married and had a daughter who died in infancy in the early 1920s, his biographer
Ben Pimlottsuggested that he was a repressed homosexual. As a young man, Dalton was close to the poet Rupert Brooke, who died of disease during the Gallipoli campaign, and in later years, he acted as a mentor to various handsome young men - who were almost uniformly heterosexual. One notable beneficiary of Dalton's support was Anthony Crosland, whom Dalton talent-spotted at the Oxford Union in 1946 and whose selection for a winnable seat for the 1950 General Election Dalton later helped to arrange. Another was James Callaghan. [Citations needed] .
His papers, including his diaries, are held at the [http://archives.lse.ac.uk/dserve.exe?dsqServer=lib-4.lse.ac.uk&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqCmd=Overview.tcl&dsqSearch=(RefNo='dalton') London School of Economics] .
Contributions in Economics
Dalton substantially expanded
Max Otto Lorenz's work in the measurement of income inequality, offering both an expanded array of techniques but also a set of principles by which to comprehend shifts in an income distribution, thereby providing a more compelling theoretical basis for understanding relationships between incomes (1920). Following a suggestion by Pigou (1912, p. 24), Dalton proposed the condition that a transfer of income from a richer to a poorer person, so long as that transfer does not reverse the ranking of the two, will result in greater equity (Dalton, p. 351). This principle has come to be known as the Pigou-Dalton principle (see, e.g., Amartya Sen, 1973). Dalton offered a theoretical proposition of a positive functional relationship between income and economic welfare, stating that economic welfare increases at an exponentially decreasing rate with increased income, leading to the conclusion that maximum social welfare is achievable only when all incomes are equal (Rogers, 2004).
*Dalton, H. "The measurement of the inequality of incomes", Economic Journal, 30 (1920), pp. 348-461.
* [http://archives.lse.ac.uk/dserve.exe?dsqServer=lib-4.lse.ac.uk&dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqDb=Catalog&dsqCmd=Overview.tcl&dsqSearch=(RefNo='dalton') Hugh Dalton's papers at LSE Archives]
NAME = Dalton, Edward Hugh John Neale
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Dalton, Hugh; Baron Dalton; Dalton, Rt. Hon. Edward Hugh John Neale
SHORT DESCRIPTION =
DATE OF BIRTH = 1887-8-26
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Neath, Wales, UK
DATE OF DEATH = 1962-2-13
PLACE OF DEATH =
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hugh Dalton — Hugh Dalton. Edward Hugh John Neale Dalton, Baron Dalton (* 26. August 1887 bei Neath, Glamorgan; † 13. Februar 1962 in London) war ein britischer Politiker. Dalton war Labour Mitglied und gehörte seit 1924 dem britischen Unterhaus an. 1940 wurd … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hugh Dalton — [Hugh Dalton] (1887–1962) a British ↑Labour politician who became ↑Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1945. He had to ↑resign in 1947 because he had given some information to a journalist before he had told the ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Hugh Dalton — ➡ Dalton * * * … Universalium
Dalton (Begriffsklärung) — Dalton bezeichnet: Orte in Großbritannien: Dalton (Dumfries and Galloway) Dalton (Hexham, Northumberland) Dalton (Lancashire) Dalton (Ponteland, Northumberland) Dalton (Richmond, North Yorkshire) Dalton (South Yorkshire) Dalton (Sowerby, North… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Dalton (Familienname) — Dalton ist ein Familienname. Bekannte Namensträger Abby Dalton (* 1935), US amerikanische Schauspielerin Andy Dalton (* 1951), neuseeländischer Rugbyspieler Audrey Dalton (* 1934), irische Schauspielerin Charles Dalton (1850–1933), kanadischer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hugh Gaitskell — Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 de abril de 1906 18 de enero de 1963) fue un político laborista británico, quien se desempeñó en varios cargos ministeriales en distintos gobiernos, y fue el líder del Partido del Trabajo y líder de la oposición… … Wikipedia Español
Dalton-Index — Der Dalton Index ist ein Ungleichheitsmaß (zur Messung der relativen Konzentration), das nach dem britischen Politiker Baron E. Hugh J. N. Dalton benannt ist. Definition Dalton nimmt für jedes Individuum an, dass die marginale Wohlfahrt… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Dalton (surname) — Contents 1 Academics and literature 2 Entertainment 3 Politics and government … Wikipedia
Hugh Gaitskell — Infobox Politician honorific prefix = The Right Honourable name = Hugh Gaitskell imagesize=225px birth date = birth date|1906|4|9|df=y birth place = London, United Kingdom death place = London, United Kingdom death date = death date and… … Wikipedia
Hugh Moffatt — (born November 3, 1948 in Fort Worth, Texas) is an American country singer and songwriter. In the 1970s and 1980s several artists made hits out of his songs. He has also released critically acclaimed albums of his own.BeginningsIn his youth,… … Wikipedia