- Bunker gear
Common turnout coat and turnout pants (dark with reflective safety stripes on the left)
hazmat suit(yellow in the middle) fire proximity suit(silver on the right)]
Turnout gear or "bunker gear" are terms used by many
firefightersto refer to their system of outer protective clothing. "Bunker gear" and "turnout gear" can refer, depending on the context, to just the trousers and boots, and jacket, or the entire combination of personal protective equipmentand personal protective clothing. The terms are derived from the fact that the pants and boots are traditionally kept by the firefighter's bunkat the fire stationto be readily available for use.
Historically, firefighters did not have the same level of protective clothing used today. Because of this most fires were fought from the outside of burning buildings, and structures were rarely entered. Early in the history of firefighting, a firefighters outer clothing were more for warmth and dryness then for protection from fire. In the early 1800s, felt caps were worn, which did not provide any protection against flame or
head injurybut did keep water off the firefighter's face. The forerunner of the modern fire helmetwas developed in 1830 by a firefighter named Henry Gratacap. This helmet is immediately recognizable today as little has changed in its general shape. Gratacap, a luggage maker by trade and a volunteer firefighter, created a helmet with a peaked front (used to break windows), ribbed eight section dome (for added rigidity) and a long rear brim that channeled water away from the wearer's neck.
The early use of long
trench coats, made of leather or canvas and later made of rubber, was the forerunner of modern turnout jackets. Early coats had felt or wool liners to provide warmth in the winter. These liners later developed in basic thermal protection liners found in todays modern coats. Earlier rubber coats were much longer than today's modern turnout jackets, reaching down to a firefighters mid thigh and were worn with long rubber boots called "three-quarter boots" which came above the firefighter's knees. This interface of boot and coat left a large gap of protection against fire. This system has since been replaced by the modern combination of a jacket, pants with suspenders, and shorter rubber or leather boots, although some departments still wear the traditional old style of gear.
The combination of modern triple-layer turnout gear with
self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA), PASS device, and modern communications equipment made it more feasible and survivable to enter burning buildings. Modern turnout jackets and pants are made of fire resistant fabrics (mainly Aramidssuch as Nomexand Kevlar) or polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers . The standard that the National Fire Protection Associationhas designated to firefighter protective clothing, NFPA 1971: Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, which specifies "the minimum design, performance, safety, testing, and certification requirements for structural fire fighting protective ensembles and ensemble elements that include coats, trousers, coveralls, helmets, gloves, footwear, and interface components. [NFPA 1971: Standard on Protective Ensembles for Structural Fire Fighting and Proximity Fire Fighting, 2007 Edition. National Fire Prevention Association: Boston, Massachusetts. 2007 ]
The first component of firefighting equipment that a firefighter will wear is their station uniform. It’s purpose is to provide, at a minimum, “a standard of work wear” [Sneed, Marsha, Essentials of Fire Fighting. IV. IFSTA, 2001. ] which will not contribute to
injuryduring a fire, or become an obstruction when a firefighter is required to don his turnout gear. Naturally, turnout gear is to be worn over the station garments during firefighting operations. Another aspect of the station uniform is the station safety shoes, commonly referred to as work boots. These shoes are required to be fitted with safety toes and puncture-resistant soles in most countries.
The United States follows NFPA 1975, Standard on Station/Work Uniforms for Fire Fighters. NFPA 1975s main purpose is that no part of the uniform garment “ignite, melt, drip, or separate” [ibid, 2001] when exposed to a heat of 500°F for 5 minutes.
Turnout clothing can consist of a combination of pants and jacket or an overall. Both systems have their advantages. Most fire departments seem to use a pant-jacket combination. The advantage of this combination is the ability to take off the jacket in situations where the jacket is not necessary. Since bunker gear insulates the body from the outside air the body heats up rapidly, taking off a jacket helps considerably in keeping cool.On the other hand an overall-type of turnout gear protects the body better against hot gasses because there is no gap between the top and the bottom.
According to NFPA 1971 and similar standards in other countries, all turnout clothing must be comprised of three components: an outer shell, a moisture barrier, and a thermal barrier. In between these layers are pockets of air referred to as "dead zones". These layers of air along with the three protective layers help to further insulate the wearer from the extreme environments of fires. Usually turnout pants are outfitted with reinforced knees and leather cuffs.
The materials used for the three layers in turnout pants and coats may vary but will very often include a Nomex/Kevlar combination of material. As an example, the materials used by the Los Angeles City Fire Department, as found in their 2005 recruit handout are as follows:
* Outer Shell: Southern Mills, Advanced,
Nomex/ Kevlarblend in a "Rip stop Weave", with water repellentfinish.
* Thermal Insulated Layer: Southern Mills Caldura Batten Quilt Material.
* Thermal and Moisture barriers are sewn together for removal for cleaning, repair and replacement from Outer shell.
* Moisture Barrier: Breathe-Tex material combined with Nomex/Kevlar blend laminated cloth.
NFPA 1500 (Primary Guidelines for the Fire Service) and similar standards mandate features such as protective collars and sleeves to protect the fire fighter from exposure to heat, (hot or polluted) water and debris;
Once the need arises for actual firefighting protective equipment to be worn, also known as turnouts, a firefighter must properly wear protective equipment required. Turnout pants will be the first article of clothing that a firefighter will usually wear.
Suspendersworn with the turnout pants should be the heavy duty type in order to stand up against such heavy weights and rigorous activities they will face. Most experienced interior firefighters (Firefighters that enter the structure in an emergency) will carry, in their turnout pant pockets, various tools and equipment as well as rope they may need during an emergency. You can expect to find a multipurpose tool in the cargo pocket of a firefighter.Fact|date=September 2008 The turnout pants, when not in use, are usually stored scrunched down around the boots for efficient and fast access when they are needed. The firefighter may then step into each boot and pull up the pants and suspenders.
A turnout coat is the type of jacket typically worn by firefighters. Oversized pockets to allow for carrying tools and equipment, and reflective safety stripes to ensure that firefighters remain visible to each other. Protective coats will usually have
Velcroor zipper functions which will enable a firefighter to properly and efficiently don this piece of gear. There is also a storm flap which covers this closure area and protects it against damage and loosening and as an extra measure to the fire fighter as these areas can be exposed to fire and heat. Wristlets, 4 inch (according to NFPA 1500) 100% Nomex coverings along the distal end of the coat arms in with the thumb joint will slip through, fit around the firefighters hand and provide redundant protection where the skin may show between the glove and coat. They are designed to prevent burns to the wrist, while preventing bunching and remaining flexible.
The overalls that are available are of the same materials and specifications. Usually an overall has a cord built in around the waist to make it fit better. Because of its size it's more difficult to scrunch up the overall around the boots.
Usually pre-fitted inside the legs of the trousers are the
firefighting boots, which can be made of either rubber or leather. When the trousers and boots are not being actively used, the trousers will fold down and out around the shins of the boots, ready for quick access for the firefighter. Due to the enormous amounts of potential hazards at a fire scene to the feet, turnout boots are required to be able to handle a variety of different burns and blows. All boots are required to be outfitted with safety toes and a puncture resistant midsole plate to prevent puncture from sharp objects that may be stepped on. Such emphasis on the midsole plate is made that IFSTA has deemed that “if there is doubt about midsole protection, [one should go as far as to] x-ray the boot.” [ibid, 2001]
Flash hood/Nomex hood and other parts of the garments
When helmets do not provide built-in protection for the ears, neck and part of the face a protective firefighting hood is worn by firefighters. These are fitted and designed to protect the firefighter’s ears, neck, and the parts of his face which are not protected by the SCBA mask.
They are designed to the guidelines set by NFPA 1975. Cal/OSHA Title #8 also has regulations in the state of California. They are made of Nomex Knit Fabric which weighs 6 oz./ Sq. Yrd.; they are most often double ply with only one seam running from the top center of the face opening, over the top and down the bottom of the bib. The Nomex Knit, which is standard, is why they are commonly referred to as Nomex hoods. First, the hood is tucked into the collar. The SCBA mask is then donned, and the hood pulled over the face seal to cover any exposed skin.
. Goggles or a visor are used to protect the firefighters' eyes during rescue and extraction operations. In some countrieswhere, firefighting helmets are designed for identification purposes through coloring and numbering systems. Fire helmets are constructed of various materials including non conductive materials for protection against electrical currents, carbon fiber and plastic combination for a lightweight design for comfort, and a Kevlar lining for strength and protection.
The design of helmets vary from fire service to fire service and depends on the brigade's or department's requirements. Some helmets are fitted with a face guard or shield to protect the firefighters face against heat, dust, water and debris when working on a rescue or extraction call as well as when preforming fire exposure protection. In the case of exposure protection the shield works better for it keeps more heat from the firefighters face, but the goggles give more eye protection in extraction and rescue ops.
There are four basic components to firefighting helmets:
* Helmet shell: Well balanced, lightweight, and designed to provide maximum protection. Contains a Front Brim (provides protection to "eyes and facial" area), Rear Brim (Protection to "neck" from debris and water run-off), and Raised Top (Provides stability from impact from above).
* Impact ring: 3/8" thick sponge rubber Impact Ring to absorb impact energy
* Helmet liner: High Density plastic liner, made of fire retardant cotton and nomex; completely adjustable; "NAPE Strap" adjusts to firmly cradle the occipital portion of head.
* Chin strap: 3/4" wide, black nylon w/ Velcro on one end, leather backed "postman" side buckle. The leather helps protect the skin of the cheek from the metal buckle. Previous types of helmets had been constructed of a steel outer shell with a ribbed construction for extra strength and compressed cork with a lacquer applied to the outer face of it. The design and shape of the helmet is intended to redirect water and debris from the head and neck area. It also prevents head or neck injury to the firefighter in the event of falling debris.
Helmet identification will vary from department to department. The Color and Numbering system as used by LAFD (Los Angeles City Fire Department) is as follows:
* White: Chief Officer
* Orange: Captain
* Yellow: Firefighter
* Red: Arson
* Blue: Emergency Medical Services/ Paramedics
* Black: Explorers
In Europe and some Europe-oriented countries around the world the helmet designs vary from the U.S. designs in that they mostly don't have brims. Instead the neck is protected by a nomex (or similar material) flap. In most designs the nomex fabric also protects the area around a SCBA facepiece and the front of the neck. A commonly used helmet is the
F1 helmetalthough several other designs like the Dräger HPS Helmetare in use.
EN 443:1997 (Helmets for firefighters) specifies the properties that are demanded for protection, comfort and durability. There are optional specifications to cater for national requirements.
There are many types of hand protection which are available to firefighters today, the most common being the work glove and the structural firefighting glove.
Work gloves are a must for all fire departments. They are used when gloves are required, but actual firefighting gloves are not. They allow better mobility to perform various types of functions from relaying hose beds to vehicle maintenance. Work gloves are usually made of leather or a leatherlike material.
Extrication gloves are similar in design and appearance to auto mechanic's gloves but are made of a heavier rip-proof and puncture-resistant material such as Kevlar while still lightweight enough to allow the manual dexterity to operate rescue equipment and sometimes enough to take a victim's
pulse. These are used in urban search and rescue, vehicle extricationand related applications, but are not rated for firefighting.
For an actual working fire, structural firefighting gloves must be worn. Structural gloves tend to be the last piece of protective equipment to be donned; usually because the free dexterity of the fingers are required to perform functions such as properly placing an SCBA mask on and accurately tightening a helmet strap. The gloves will fit over the wristlets and under the distal part of the coat sleeve, ensuring full enclosure of the latter arm. Gloves are designed to protect from extreme heat, various penetrating objects, and to allow dexterity. Usually the latter is sacrificed in order to give adequate protection to heat and sharp objects. Newer gloves are more lightweight and don't lose their dexterity when they dry after becoming wet such as leather gloves do.
There are several other related types of protective clothing worn by firefighters, which are not usually called turnout gear:
Proximity gear or a
fire proximity suitis turnout gear with an outer layer of heat-reflecting metallicmaterial, used in firefighting applications of extreme heat such as aircraftfires and some chemicalfires.
Hazmat suits are designed to prevent the wearer from coming into contact with hazardous materials. The suits come in two variations; gastight (called Level A in the US) and splash protection (Levels B or C in the US).
Wildland fire suppression
Protective clothing worn for
forest fireand other wildland fire suppressionuse is made of a single layer of lightweight Nomex material and worn with leather logging boots and an industrial hard hat. A tent-like fire shelteris carried for emergency use in case of a blowup. In the U.S. the standard color scheme for wildland fire PPE since the 1970s is yellow for shirts, green for pants. Steel toed or rubber boots cannot be worn due to the heat conditions on the fireline. U.S. standards for wildland gear are covered in NFPA 1977.
Self contained breathing apparatus
References & notes
* NFPA 1971, "Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Firefighting"
* NFPA 1975, "Standard on Station/Work Uniforms for Fire Fighters"
* [http://www.nafeco.com - NAFECO Firefighting Equipment]
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