Thresher shark


Thresher shark

Taxobox
name = Thresher shark
fossil_range = Fossil range|56|0 Early Eocene to Present [cite journal
last = Sepkoski
first = Jack
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = A compendium of fossil marine animal genera (Chondrichthyes entry)
journal = Bulletins of American Paleontology
volume = 364
issue =
pages = p.560
publisher =
location =
date = 2002
url = http://strata.ummp.lsa.umich.edu/jack/showgenera.php?taxon=575&rank=class
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2008-01-09
]


image_width = 200px
image_caption = Pelagic thresher, "Alopias pelagicus"
status = VU
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Chondrichthyes
subclassis = Elasmobranchii
ordo = Lamniformes
familia = Alopiidae
familia_authority = Bonaparte, 1838
genus = "Alopias"
genus_authority = Rafinesque, 1810
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = For species see text.

Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the family Alopiidae. Found in all temperate and tropical oceans of the world, the family contains three species all within the genus "Alopias".

Naming

The genus and family name derive from the Greek word "alopex", meaning fox. Indeed the long-tailed thresher shark, "Alopias vulpinus", is named the fox shark by some authorities.

Distribution and habitat

Although occasionally sighted in shallow, inshore waters, thresher sharks are primarily pelagic; they prefer the open ocean, staying within the first 500 m of the water column. Common threshers tend to be more common in coastal waters over continental shelves. In the North Pacific, common thresher sharks are found along the continental shelves of North America and Asia. They are rare in the Central and Western Pacific. In the warmer waters of the Central & Western Pacific, bigeye and pelagic thresher sharks are more common.

Anatomy and appearance

[

Small purple colored thresher caught at Pacifica Pier, California.] Named for and easily recognised by their exceptionally long, thresher-like tail or "caudal fins" (which account for 1/3 of their total body length), thresher sharks are active predators; the tail is actually used as a weapon to stun prey. By far the largest of the three species is the Common thresher, "Alopias vulpinus", which may reach a length of 20 ft and a weight of over 500 kg. The Bigeye thresher, "Alopias superciliosus", is next in size, reaching a length of 4.9 m (16 ft); at just 3 m (10 ft), the Pelagic thresher, "Alopias pelagicus", is the smallest.

Thresher sharks are fairly slender, with small dorsal fins and large, recurved pectoral fins. With the exception of the Bigeye thresher, these sharks have relatively small eyes. Coloration ranges from brownish, bluish or purplish gray dorsally with lighter shades ventrally.The three species can be roughly distinguished by the main color of the dorsal surface of the body. Common threshers are dark green, Bigeye threshers are brown and Pelagic threshers are generally blue. Lighting conditions and water clarity can affect how any one shark appears to an observer, but the color test is generally supported when other features are examined.

Diet

Pelagic schooling fish (such as bluefish, juvenile tuna, and mackerel), squid and cuttlefish are the primary food items of the thresher sharks. They are known to follow large schools of fish into shallow waters. Crustaceans and the odd seabird are also taken.

Behavior

Thresher sharks are solitary creatures which keep to themselves. It is known that thresher populations of the Indian Ocean are separated by depth and space according to gender. All species are noted for their highly migratory or oceanodromous habits.

Thresher sharks are one of the few shark species known to jump fully out of the water making turns like dolphins, this behaviour is called breaching.

Reproduction

No distinct breeding season is observed by thresher sharks. Fertilization and embryonic development occur internally; this ovoviviparous or live-bearing mode of reproduction results in a small litter (usually 2 to 4) of large well-developed pups, up to 150 cm at birth in thintail threshers. The young fish exhaust their yolk sacs while still inside the mother, at which time they begin feeding on the mother's unfertilized eggs; this is known as oophagy.

Thresher sharks are slow to mature, males reaching sexual maturity between 7 and 13 years of age and females between 8 and 14 years in bigeye threshers. They may live for 20 years or more.

Conservation

All three thresher shark species have been recently listed as vulnerable to extinction by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). [cite press release |title=More oceanic sharks added to the IUCN Red List |publisher=IUCN |date=2007-02-22 |url=http://www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2007/02/22_pr_sharks.htm |format= |language= |accessdate=2007-02-25 |quote= ]

Importance to humans

Like all large sharks, threshers are slow growing and are therefore threatened by commercial fisheries. Other than for its meat, the sharks are hunted for their liver oil, skin (for leather), and their fins, for use in shark-fin soup.

They do not appear to be a threat to humans, although some divers have been hit with the upper tail lobe. There is an unconfirmed account of a fisherman being decapitated by a tail swipe as the shark breached. Dawkins, Richard. The Ancestor's Tale. Houghton Mifflin, New York: 2004.>] Thresher sharks are classified as prized gamefish in the United States and South Africa. Common thresher sharks are the target of a popular recreational fishery off Baja Mexico. Thresher sharks are managed in some areas for their value as both a recreational sport fish and commercial species.

Evolution

The Thresher Shark has traditionally been said to be closely related to other sharks such as the great white and the mackerel from the Lamnidae family. However recent research has identified them as having a closer ancestral connection with the ragged tooth sharks (odontaspididae), the megamouth (Megachasmidae), and the crocodile sharks (pseudocarchariidae) then with the Lamnidae sharks. Due to the similarity between the second dorsal fin, tail and anal fin of the thresher and megamouth sharks these species have been said to be very closely related and have not diverged much from their common ancestor.


=Homologous features= Two species of the thresher have been identified as having a modified circulatory system that acts as a counter-current heat exchanger, which allows them to retain metabolic heat. The mackerel sharks (Lamnidae family) have a similar homologous structure to this which is more extensively developed. This structure is a strip of red muscle along each of its flanks, which has a tight network of blood vessels that transfer metabolic heat inward towards the core of the shark allowing it to maintain and regulate its body heat.


=Analogous features= Thresher sharks like many sharks are always believed to look a lot like dolphins. Their stream line bodies and their fins look and act in similar ways, showing convergent evolution. This is due to them both being exposed to the same conditions, and over time due to natural selection, these features becoming prominent in both these species.

Species

* Genus Alopias
** Pelagic thresher, "Alopias pelagicus
** Bigeye thresher, "Alopias superciliosus
** Common thresher, "Alopias vulpinus

References

*

ee also

* List of sharks
* List of fish common names
* List of fish families
* Thresher for other meanings of the word

External links

* [http://filaman.uni-kiel.de/Summary/FamilySummary.cfm?ID=486 FishBase entry on Alopiidae]
* [http://marinebio.org/species.asp?id=284 MarineBio: Thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/cornwall/7106976.stm A Monster 16ft Shark ]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Thresher shark — Shark Shark, n. [Of uncertain origin; perhaps through OF. fr. carcharus a kind of dogfish, Gr. karchari as, so called from its sharp teeth, fr. ka rcharos having sharp or jagged teeth; or perhaps named from its rapacity (cf. {Shark}, v. t. & i.); …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • thresher shark — noun large pelagic shark of warm seas with a whiplike tail used to round up small fish on which to feed • Syn: ↑thresher, ↑thrasher, ↑fox shark, ↑Alopius vulpinus • Hypernyms: ↑shark • Member Holonyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • thresher shark — paprastoji jūrų lapė statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas taksono rangas rūšis atitikmenys: lot. Alopias vulpinus angl. fox shark; thresher shark; whip tailed shark rus. акула лисица; лисья акула ryšiai: platesnis terminas – rykliai jūrų lapės …   Žuvų pavadinimų žodynas

  • thresher shark — Any of five species (family Alopiidae) of sharks with a long, scythelike tail that may constitute almost half their total length. They are found in tropical and temperate seas worldwide. They eat squid and schooling fishes, attacking after… …   Universalium

  • thresher shark — noun Date: 1888 a large nearly cosmopolitan shark (Alopias vulpinus) that has a greatly elongated curved upper lobe of the tail which is often used to thresh the water to round up the schooling fish on which it feeds see shark illustration …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • thresher shark — noun Any of three species of sharks, in the genus Alopias …   Wiktionary

  • Long-tailed thresher shark — Taxobox name = Long tailed thresher shark status = VU status system = iucn3.1 status ref = cite press release |title=More oceanic sharks added to the IUCN Red List |publisher=IUCN |date=2007 02 22 |url=http://www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2007/02/2… …   Wikipedia

  • Thresher — may refer to:*Threshing machine (or thresher), a device that first separates the head of a stalk of grain from the straw, and then further separates the kernel from the rest of the head *Thresher shark, a type of shark with a distinctly scythe… …   Wikipedia

  • Shark — Shark, n. [Of uncertain origin; perhaps through OF. fr. carcharus a kind of dogfish, Gr. karchari as, so called from its sharp teeth, fr. ka rcharos having sharp or jagged teeth; or perhaps named from its rapacity (cf. {Shark}, v. t. & i.); cf.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Shark barrow — Shark Shark, n. [Of uncertain origin; perhaps through OF. fr. carcharus a kind of dogfish, Gr. karchari as, so called from its sharp teeth, fr. ka rcharos having sharp or jagged teeth; or perhaps named from its rapacity (cf. {Shark}, v. t. & i.); …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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