- Kyma (sound design language)
Kyma is a visual programming language for sound design used by musicians, researchers, and sound designers. In Kyma, a user programs a multiprocessor DSP by graphically connecting modules on the screen of a
Macintoshor Windows computer.
Kyma has characteristics of both object-oriented and functional programming languages. The basic unit in Kyma is the "Sound" object, not the "note" of traditional music notation. A Sound is defined as:
i) a Sound atom ii) a unary transform T(s) where s is a Sound iii) an n-ary transform T(s1, s2,.., sn), where s1,s2,..sn are Sounds [cite conference
last = Scaletti | first = C.A. | coauthors =
Ralph Johnson| title = An Interactive Environment for Object-oriented Music Composition and Sound Synthesis | booktitle = OOPSLA'88 Proceedings | pages = 222-233 | publisher = Association for Computing Machinery| date = September 25-30, 1988 | location = San Diego | id = ACM 0-89791-284-5/88/0009/0222]
A Sound atom is a source of audio (like a microphone input or a noise generator), a unary transform modifies its argument (for example, a LowpassFilter might take a running average of its input), and an n-ary transform combines two or more Sounds (a Mixer, for example, is defined as the sum of its inputs).
The first version of Kyma, which computed digital audio samples on a
Macintosh 512Kwas written in the Smalltalkprogramming language in 1986 by Carla Scalettiin Champaign, Illinois. In May 1987, Scaletti had partitioned Kyma into graphics and sound generation engines and ported the sound generation code to a digital signal processor called the Platypus designed by Lippold Hakenand Kurt J. Hebelof the CERL Sound Group. [cite book | last = Chadabe | first = Joel | title = Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music | publisher = Prentice Hall| date = 1997 | | pages = 265-267 | id = ISBN 0-13-303231-0 ]
In 1987, Scaletti presented a paper on Kyma and demonstrated live digital sound generation on the Platypus at the International Computer Music Conference where it was identified by electronic synthesis pioneer Bob Moog as a technology to watch in his conference report for
"One new language that acknowledges no distinction between sound synthesis and composition is Kyma, a music composition language for the Macintosh that views all elements in a piece of music, from the structure of a single sound to the structure of the entire composition, as objects to be composed." [cite news | last = Moog | first = Robert | title = International Computer Music Conference: Platypus, Granules, Kyma, Daton, & the DSP56001 in Your Future | publisher =
Keyboard Magazine| date = 1987 | ]
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigneliminated the funding for the PLATO laboratory in 1989, Scaletti and Hebel formed Symbolic Sound Corporationin order to continue developing Kyma and digital audio signal processing hardware.
War of the Worlds (2005 Film)
Revenge of the Sith
Attack of the Clones
* "For additional films where Kyma has been used for sound design, please see the Eighth Nerve in external links below"
On An Island
Today (Junkie XL album)
Movement in Still Life
* [http://www.cdemusic.org/store/cde_search.cfm?keywords=tw20 Recombinant Art 01]
* [http://cdemusic.org/store/cde_search.cfm?keywords=USO%20PLACIDI%20%20MILANI&CFID=1392002&CFTOKEN=39366286 Unidentified Sound Object] "For additional albums and artists using Kyma, please see the Eighth Nerve in external links below"
* [http://www.symbolicsound.com Symbolic Sound Corporation]
* [http://www.symbolicsound.com/cgi-bin/bin/view/Community/WebHome The Eighth Nerve]
* [http://www.carlascaletti.com/Main/HomePage Carla Scaletti]
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