Marathon


Marathon
Competitors during the 2007 Berlin Marathon
Competitors during the 1990 London Marathon

The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometres (26 miles and 385 yards),[1] that is usually run as a road race. The event was instituted in commemoration of the fabled run of the Greek soldier Pheidippides, a messenger from the Battle of Marathon (the namesake of the race) to Athens.

The marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not become standardized until 1921. More than 500 marathons are contested throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes. Larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants.[2]

Contents

History

Origin

Luc-Olivier Merson's painting depicting Pheidippides giving word of victory at the Battle of Marathon to the people of Athens

The name Marathon comes from the legend of Pheidippides, a Greek messenger. The legend states that he was sent from the battlefield of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon (in which he had just fought),[3] which took place in August or September, 490 BC.[4] It is said that he ran the entire distance without stopping and burst into the assembly, exclaiming "Νενικήκαμεν" (Nenikékamen, 'We have won.') before collapsing and dying.[5] The account of the run from Marathon to Athens first appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD which quotes from Heraclides Ponticus's lost work, giving the runner's name as either Thersipus of Erchius or Eucles.[6] Lucian of Samosata (2nd century AD) also gives the story but names the runner Philippides (not Pheidippides).[7]

There is debate about the historical accuracy of this legend.[8][9] The Greek historian Herodotus, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars, mentions Pheidippides as the messenger who ran from Athens to Sparta asking for help, and then ran back, a distance of over 240 kilometres (150 mi)[10] each way.[11] In some Herodotus manuscripts the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta is given as Philippides. Herodotus makes no mention of a messenger sent from Marathon to Athens, and relates that the main part of the Athenian army, having already fought and won the grueling battle, and fearing a naval raid by the Persian fleet against an undefended Athens, marched quickly back from the battle to Athens, arriving the same day.

In 1879, Robert Browning wrote the poem Pheidippides. Browning's poem, his composite story, became part of late-19th century popular culture and was accepted as a historic legend.[citation needed]

Mount Penteli stands between Marathon and Athens, which means that, if Pheidippides actually made his famous run after the battle, he had to run around the mountain, either from the north or from the south. The latter and more obvious route matches almost exactly the modern Marathon-Athens highway, which follows the lay of the land southwards from Marathon Bay and along the coast, then a gentle but protracted uphill westwards towards the eastern approach to Athens, between the foothills of Mounts Hymettus and Penteli, and then mildly downhill to Athens proper. This route, as it existed when the Olympics were revived in 1896, was approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi), but was later extended to the current standard marathon distance of 42.195 kilometres (26 miles 385 yards, approximately 26.22 miles). However there have been suggestions that Pheidippides might have followed another route: a westward climb along the eastern and northern slopes of Mount Penteli to the pass of Dionysos, and then a straight southward downhill path to Athens. This route is considerably shorter, some 35 kilometres (22 mi), but features a very steep initial climb of more than 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).

Modern Olympics marathon

1896 Olympic marathon

When the idea of a modern Olympics became a reality at the end of the 19th century, the initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, recalling the ancient glory of Greece. The idea of organizing a marathon race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted the event to feature in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was heavily supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, as well as the Greeks. The Greeks staged a selection race for the Olympic marathon on 10 March 1896 that was won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes (with the future winner of the introductory Olympic Games marathon coming in fifth). The winner of the first Olympic Marathon, on 10 April 1896 (a male-only race), was Spyridon "Spyros" Louis, a Greek water-carrier. He won at the Olympics in 2 hours 58 minutes and 50 seconds.

The women's marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics (Los Angeles, USA) and was won by Joan Benoit of the United States with a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds.[12]

Since the modern games were founded, it has become a tradition for the men's Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, with a finish inside the Olympic stadium, often within hours of, or even incorporated into, the closing ceremonies. The marathon of the 2004 Summer Olympics revived the traditional route from Marathon to Athens, ending at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics.

The Olympic men's record is 2:06:32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya.[13] The Olympic women's record is 2:23:14, set at the 2000 Summer Olympics by Naoko Takahashi of Japan.[14]

Marathon mania

Johnny Hayes' victory at the 1908 Summer Olympics contributed to the early growth of long-distance running and marathoning in the United States.[15][16] Later that year, races around the holiday season including the Empire City Marathon held on New Year's Day 1909 in Yonkers, New York, marked the early running craze referred to as "marathon mania".[17] Following the 1908 Olympics, the first five amateur marathons in New York City were held on days that held special meanings to ethnic communities: Thanksgiving Day, the day after Christmas, New Year's Day, Washington's Birthday, and Lincoln's Birthday.[18]

Frank Shorter's victory in the marathon at the 1972 Summer Olympics would spur national enthusiasm for the sport more intense than that which followed Hayes' win 64 years earlier.[16] By 2009, an estimated 467,000 runners completed a marathon within the United States.[19] This can be compared to 143,000 in 1980. Nowadays, various marathons are held all around the world on a nearly weekly basis.[20]

Inclusion of women

Long after the re-establishment of the marathon in the Olympics, distance races such as the marathon did not include female participants. Although a few women had run the marathon distance, they were not included in any official results.[21] Marie-Louise Ledru has been credited as the first woman to race a marathon.[22][23][24] Violet Piercy has been credited as the first woman to be officially timed in a marathon.[21] For challenging the long-held tradition of all-male marathon running in the Boston Marathon, in 1967, Kathrine Switzer is regarded as the first woman to run a marathon as a numbered entry, but did so unofficially, due to a fluke in the entry process.[25] Bobbi Gibb had completed the Boston race unofficially the previous year,[26] and was later recognized by the race organizers as the women’s winner for that year, as well as 1967 and 1968.[27]

Distance

Olympic marathon distances

Year Distance
(km)
Distance
(miles)
1896 40 24.85
1900 40.26 25.02
1904 40 24.85
1906 41.86 26.01
1908 42.195 26.22
1912 40.2 24.98
1920 42.75 26.56
1924 onward 42.195 26.22

The length of a marathon was not fixed at first, since the only important factor was that all athletes competed on the same course. The marathon races in the first few Olympic Games were not of a set length, but were approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi),[28] roughly the distance from Marathon to Athens by the longer, flatter route. The exact length of the Olympic marathon varied depending on the route established for each venue.

1908 Olympics

The standard distance for the marathon race was set by the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) in May 1921[29][30] at a distance of 42.195 kilometres (26 miles 385 yards). Rule 240 of their Competition Rules specifies the metric version of this distance.[31] This seemingly arbitrary distance was that adopted for the marathon at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. At a meeting of the International Olympic Committee in The Hague in May 1907 it was agreed with the British Olympic Association that the 1908 Olympics would include a marathon of about 25 miles or 40 kilometres.[32] In November 1907 a route of about that distance was published in the newspapers, starting at Windsor Castle and finishing at the Olympic Stadium, the Great White City Stadium in Shepherd's Bush in London.[33] There were protests about the final few miles because of tram-lines and cobbles, so the route was revised to cross the rough ground of Wormwood Scrubs. This lengthened the route, as did plans to make the start 700 yards (640 m) from Queen Victoria's statue by Windsor Castle, and it was decided to fix the distance at 26 miles (42 km) to the stadium, plus a lap of the track (586 yards, 2 feet),[33] using the Royal Entrance as the marathon tunnel, and finishing in front of the Royal Box. For the official Trial Marathon on 25 April 1908, organized by the Polytechnic Harriers, the start was on ‘The Long Walk’ – a magnificent avenue leading up to Windsor Castle in the grounds of Windsor Great Park. For the Olympic Marathon itself the start was on the private East Terrace of Windsor Castle, with the permission of King Edward VII, so that the public would not interfere with the start.[33] The Princess of Wales and her children drove from their home at Frogmore on the far side of Windsor Great Park to watch the start of the race.[33][34] Shortly before the Games opened it was realized that the Royal Entrance could not be used as the marathon entrance—it was raised to permit easy descent by the royal party from their carriages, and did not open onto the track—so an alternative entrance was chosen, diagonally opposite the Royal Box. A special path was made just outside the Franco British Exhibition ground so that the distance to the stadium remained 26 miles. The finishing line was left unchanged, but in order that the spectators, including Queen Alexandra, could have the best view of the final yards, the direction of running was changed to "right-hand inside" (i.e. clockwise). This meant the distance in the stadium was shortened to 385 yards, and the total distance became 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km).[33]

For the next Olympics in 1912, the length was changed to 40.2 kilometres (25.0 mi), and changed again to 42.75 kilometres (26.56 mi) for the 1920 Olympics, until it was fixed at the 1908 distance for the 1924 Olympics.[35] In fact, of the first seven Olympic Games, there were six different marathon distances between 40 and 42.75 kilometres or between 24.85 and 26.56 miles (40 km being used twice).

Depiction of Dorando Pietri staggering across the finish line of the 1908 Olympic marathon

However, the dramatic finish of the 1908 Olympic marathon led to worldwide marathon fever. In a postcard sent at the time, an American spectator said he had "just seen the greatest race of the century."[36] The huge crowd, including Queen Alexandra, watched as the little Italian, Dorando Pietri, staggered round the final 385 yards (352 m), falling several times, and eventually being propelled by officials over the line as Irish-American Johnny Hayes got ever closer. Pietri was disqualified and Hayes was awarded the Gold Medal. However, Queen Alexandra was so moved by his plight that the very next day she presented Pietri with a silver-gilt cup.

Pietri and Hayes both turned professional and there were several re-matches, which had to be over the 26 miles 385 yards. Many other marathons were also held at that distance, including the important Polytechnic Marathon. The IAAF minutes are reportedly silent as to the reason the 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) was chosen in 1921,[37] so any conclusion must be speculative, but emotional attachment to the distance of the "race of the century" was clearly strong.

IAAF and world records

An official IAAF marathon course must be at least 42.195 km and can be up to 42 m longer.[38] Course officials add a short course prevention factor of up to one metre per kilometre to their measurements to reduce the risk of a measuring error producing a length below the minimum distance.

For events governed by IAAF rules, it is mandatory that the route be marked such that all competitors can see the distance covered in kilometres.[1] The rules make no mention regarding the use of miles. The IAAF will only recognise world records that are established at events that are run under IAAF rules. For major events, it is customary to publish competitors' timings at the midway mark and also at 5 km splits; marathon runners can be credited with world records for lesser distances recognised by the IAAF (such as 20 km, 30 km and so on) if such records are established while the runner is running a marathon and completed the marathon course.[39]

Marathon races

Annually, more than 500 marathons are organized worldwide.[2] Some of these belong to the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races (AIMS) which has grown since its foundation in 1982 to embrace over 300 member events in 83 countries and territories.[40] Five of the largest and most prestigious races, Boston, New York City, Chicago, London, and Berlin, form the biennial World Marathon Majors series, awarding $500,000 annually to the best overall male and female performers in the series.

In 2006, the editors of Runner's World selected a "World's Top 10 Marathons",[41] in which the Amsterdam, Honolulu, Paris, Rotterdam, and Stockholm marathons were featured along with the five mentioned above. Other notable large marathons include United States Marine Corps Marathon, Los Angeles, and Rome. The Boston Marathon is the world's oldest annual marathon, inspired by the success of the 1896 Olympic marathon and held since 1897. The oldest annual marathon in Europe is the Košice Peace Marathon, held since 1924 in Košice, Slovakia. The historic Polytechnic Marathon was discontinued in 1996.

One of the more unusual marathons is the Midnight Sun Marathon held in Tromsø, Norway at 70 degrees north. Using unofficial and temporary courses, measured by GPS, races of marathon distance are now held at the North Pole, in Antarctica and over desert terrain. Among other unusual marathons to mention are: The Great Wall Marathon on The Great Wall of China, The Big Five Marathon among the safari wildlife of South Africa, The Great Tibetan Marathon – a marathon in an atmosphere of Tibetan Buddhism at an altitude of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft), and The Polar circle marathon on the permanent ice cap of Greenland in −15 degrees Celsius/+5 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures.

Some of the most scenic marathon routes are: Steamboat Marathon, Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Mayor's Marathon, Anchorage, Alaska; Kona Marathon, Keauhou/Kona, Hawaii; San Francisco Marathon, San Francisco, California.[42]

The Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon is the only marathon where participants run over two continents, Europe and Asia, during the course of a single event. In the Detroit Free Press Marathon, participants cross the US/Canadian border twice.[43] The Niagara Falls International Marathon includes one international border crossing, via the Peace Bridge from Buffalo, New York, USA to Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada.

Wheelchair division

A pack of Wheelchair Division participants in the 2009 Boston Marathon

Many marathons feature a wheelchair division. Typically, those in the wheelchair racing division start their races earlier than their running counterparts.

The first wheelchair marathon was in 1974 in Toledo, Ohio, won by Bob Hall in 2:54.[44][45] Hall competed in the 1975 Boston Marathon and finished in 2:58, inaugurating the introduction of wheelchair divisions into the Boston Marathon.[46][47] From 1977 the race was declared the US National Wheelchair championship.[48] The Boston Marathon awards $10,000 to the winning push-rim athlete.[49] Ernst van Dyk has won the Boston Marathon wheelchair division nine times and holds the world record at 1:18:27, set in Boston in 2004.[50] Jean Driscoll won eight times (seven consecutively) and holds the women's world record at 1:34:22.[51]

The New York City Marathon banned wheelchair entrants in 1977, citing safety concerns, but then voluntarily allowed Bob Hall to compete after the state Division of Human Rights ordered the marathon to show cause.[52][53] The Division ruled in 1979 that the New York City Marathon and New York Road Runners club had to allow wheelchair athletes to compete, and confirmed this at appeal in 1980,[54] but the State Supreme Court ruled in 1981 that a ban on wheelchair racers was not discriminatory as the marathon was historically a foot race.[55] However, by 1986 14 wheelchair athletes were competing,[56] and an official wheelchair division was added to the marathon in 2000.[49]

Statistics

World records and world's best

See also Marathon world record progression, Marathon year rankings and ARRS.

Patrick Makau is recognized by the International Association of Athletics Federations as the current holder of the men's world record

World records were not officially recognized by the IAAF until 1 January 2004; previously, the best times for the marathon were referred to as the 'world best'. Courses must conform to IAAF standards for a record to be recognized. However, marathon routes still vary greatly in elevation, course, and surface, making exact comparisons impossible. Typically, the fastest times are set over relatively flat courses near sea level, during good weather conditions and with the assistance of pacesetters.[citation needed]

The current world record time for men over the distance is 2 hours 3 minutes and 38 seconds, set in the Berlin Marathon by Patrick Makau of Kenya on 25 September 2011, an improvement of 21 seconds over the previous record also set in the Berlin Marathon by Haile Gebrselassie of Ethiopia on 28 September 2008.[57][58] The world best (downgraded by the IAAF from World's Record status)[59] for women was set by Paula Radcliffe of Great Britain in the London Marathon on 13 April 2003, in 2 hours 15 minutes and 25 seconds. The reason for the downgrade is because this time was set using male pacesetters; the fastest time by a woman without using a male pacesetter ("woman-only") was also set by Paula Radcliffe, again during the London Marathon, with a time of 2 hours 17 minutes and 42 seconds, on 17 April 2005.[60]

On 18 April 2011, Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya ran the fastest marathon ever in a time of 2 hours 3 minutes 2 seconds at the 2011 Boston Marathon, but the mark will not be recognized as a world record since the Boston course fails the IAAF criteria for world record eligibility.[61][62][63]

World all-time top ten lists

According to IAAF statistics, the following men and women are among the top ten fastest at the marathon distance.[64][65] Although not yet noted in the IAAF's official statistics, Liliya Shobukhova's victory at the 2011 Chicago Marathon in a time of 2 hours 18 minutes 20 seconds makes her the second fastest woman marathoner.[66]

Men
Time Athlete Country Date Location
2h03:38 Patrick Makau  Kenya 25 September 2011 Berlin
2h03:42 Wilson Kipsang  Kenya 30 October 2011 Frankfurt
2h03:59 Haile Gebrselassie  Ethiopia 28 September 2008 Berlin
2h04:27 Duncan Kibet  Kenya 5 April 2009 Rotterdam
2h04:27 James Kwambai  Kenya 5 April 2009 Rotterdam
2h04:40 Emmanuel Mutai  Kenya 17 April 2011 London
2h04:55 Paul Tergat  Kenya 28 September 2003 Berlin
2h04:55 Geoffrey Mutai  Kenya 11 April 2010 Rotterdam
2h04:56 Sammy Korir  Kenya 28 September 2003 Berlin
2h05:04 Abel Kirui  Kenya 5 April 2009 Rotterdam
Holder of the women's marathon world record, Paula Radcliffe
Women
Time Athlete Country Date Location
2h15:25 Paula Radcliffe  United Kingdom 13 April 2003 London
2h18:20 Liliya Shobukhova  Russia 9 October 2011 Chicago
2h18:47 Catherine Ndereba  Kenya 7 October 2001 Chicago
2h19:12 Mizuki Noguchi  Japan 25 September 2005 Berlin
2h19:19 Mary Keitany  Kenya 17 April 2011 London
2h19:19 Irina Mikitenko  Germany 28 September 2008 Berlin
2h19:36 Deena Kastor  United States 23 April 2006 London
2h19:39 Sun Yingjie  China 19 October 2003 Beijing
2h19:41 Yoko Shibui  Japan 26 September 2004 Berlin
2h19:44 Florence Kiplagat  Kenya 25 September 2011 Berlin

Oldest marathoner

Fauja Singh, 100, finished the Toronto Waterfront Marathon, becoming the first centenarian ever to complete a run of that distance. Singh, a British citizen, finished the race on 16 October 2011 with a time of 8:11:5.9, making him the oldest marathoner.[67]

Gladys Burrill, a 92-year-old British woman and part-time resident of Hawaii, previously held the Guinness World Records title of oldest person to complete a marathon with her 9 hours 53 minutes performance at the 2010 Honolulu Marathon.[68][69] The records of the Association of Road Racing Statisticians, at that time, however, suggested that Singh was overall the oldest marathoner, completing the 2004 London Marathon at the age of 93 years and 17 days, and that Burrill is the oldest female marathoner, completing the 2010 Honolulu Marathon at the age of 92 years and 19 days.[70] Singh's age was also reported to be 93 by other sources.[71][72]

Participation

In 2010, there were approximately 500,000 marathon finishers in the United States.[73]

Multiple marathons

Catherine Ndereba was the fastest female marathon runner on record from 2001 to 2002.

As marathon running has become more popular, some athletes have undertaken to setting goals involving the running of a series of marathons.

Over 350 individuals have completed a marathon in each state of the United States plus Washington, D.C. and some have done it as many as eight times.[74] Beverly Paquin, a 22-year old nurse from Iowa, was the youngest woman to run a marathon in all 50 states.[75] A few weeks later, Morgan Cummings (also 22) became the youngest woman to complete a marathon in all 50 states and DC.[76] In 2004, Chuck Bryant of Miami, Florida, who lost his right leg below the knee, became the first amputee to finish this circuit.[77] Bryant has completed a total of 59 marathons on his prosthesis. Twenty-seven people have run a marathon on each of the seven continents, and 31 people have run a marathon in each of the Canadian provinces. In 1980, in what was termed the Marathon of Hope, Terry Fox, who had lost a leg to cancer and so ran with one artificial leg, attained 5,373 kilometres (3,339 mi) of his proposed cross-Canada cancer fundraising run, thus maintaining an average of over 37 kilometres (23 mi), close to the planned marathon distance, for each of 143 consecutive days.[78]

On 25 September 2011, Patrick Finney of Grapevine, Texas became the first person with multiple sclerosis to have finished a marathon in each state of the United States. In 2004, "the disease had left him unable to walk. But unwilling to endure a life of infirmity, Finney managed to regain his ability to balance on two feet, to walk – and eventually to run – through extensive rehabilitation therapy and new medications."[79]

In 2003 British adventurer Sir Ranulph Fiennes completed seven marathons on seven continents in seven days.[80] He completed this feat despite suffering from a heart attack and undergoing a double heart bypass operation just four months before.[81]

On 14 December 2008, 64-year old Larry Macon set a record by running 105 marathons in a single calendar year.[82]

In Europe a goal among some people is to run the greatest number of marathon races overall in one's lifetime. There is something called the 100-club, for example.[83] To qualify one must have run 100 races.

Other goals are to attempt to run marathons on a series of consecutive weekends (Richard Worley on 159 weekends),[84] or to run the most marathons during a particular year or the most in a lifetime. A pioneer in running multiple marathons was Sy Mah of Toledo, Ohio, who ran 524 before he died in 1988.[85] As of 30 June 2007, Horst Preisler of Germany had successfully completed 1214 marathons plus 347 ultramarathons, a total of 1561 events at marathon distance or longer.[86] Sigrid Eichner, Christian Hottas and Hans-Joachim Meyer have also all completed over 1000 marathons each.[87] Norm Frank of the United States is credited with 945 marathons.[88]

In 2010, Stefaan Engels, a Belgian, set out to run the marathon distance every day of the year. Because of an injury he had to resort to a handbike near the end of January 2010. However, on 5 February he was fully recovered and decided to reset the counter back to zero.[89] On 30 March he broke the existing record of Ricardo Abad Martínez, from Spain, who completed 150 marathons in 150 consecutive days in 2009. As of 5 February 2011, Engels had run 365 marathon distances in as many days.[90]

Some runners compete to run the same marathons for the most consecutive years. For example, Johnny Kelley completed 61 Boston Marathons.[91] Four runners, dubbed the "ground pounders" (Will Brown, Matthew Jaffe, Alfred Richmond, and Mel Williams), have completed all 35 US Marine Corps Marathons.[92]

On 31 Dec. 2010, Martin Parnell, 55, a semi-retired mining engineer from Cochrane, Alberta, Canada, completed 250 marathons over a period of one year, covering about 10,550 km in the process. During his record breaking attempt, he went through 22 pairs of running shoes, and endured temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F).[93]

Running

Start of the 2009 Stockholm Marathon

Most participants do not run a marathon to win. More important for most runners is their personal finish time and their placement within their specific gender and age group, though some runners just want to finish. Strategies for completing a marathon include running the whole distance[94] and a run-walk strategy.[3] In 2005, the average marathon time in the U.S. was 4 hours 32 minutes 8 seconds for men, 5 hours 6 minutes 8 seconds for women.[95]

A goal many runners aim for is to break certain time barriers. For example, recreational first-timers often try to run the marathon under four hours; more competitive runners may attempt to finish under three hours.[96] Other benchmarks are the qualifying times for major marathons. The Boston Marathon, the oldest marathon in the United States, requires a qualifying time for all non-professional runners.[97] The New York City Marathon also requires a qualifying time for guaranteed entry, at a pace slightly faster than Boston's.[98]

Typically, there is a maximum allowed time of about six hours after which the marathon route is closed, although some larger marathons keep the course open considerably longer (eight hours or more). Many marathons around the world have such time limits by which all runners must have crossed the finish line. Anyone slower than the limit will be picked up by a sweeper bus. In many cases the marathon organizers are required to reopen the roads to the public so that traffic can return to normal.

With the growth in popularity of marathoning, many marathons across the United States and the world have been filling to capacity faster than ever before. When the Boston Marathon opened up registration for its 2011 running, the field capacity was filled within eight hours.[99]

Training

MoonWalk is a nocturnal charity marathon to raise money for breast cancer research

The long run is an important element in marathon training.[100] Recreational runners commonly try to reach a maximum of about 20 miles (32 km) in their longest weekly run and a total of about 40 miles (64 km) a week when training for the marathon, but wide variability exists in practice and in recommendations. More experienced marathoners may run a longer distance during the week. Greater weekly training mileages can offer greater results in terms of distance and endurance, but also carry a greater risk of training injury.[101] Most male elite marathon runners will have weekly mileages of over 100 miles (160 km).[101]

Samuel Wanjiru raises his hand in acknowledgment of the crowd as he runs to a gold medal in the 2008 Olympic marathon

Many training programs last a minimum of five or six months, with a gradual increase in the distance run and finally, for recovery, a period of tapering in the weeks preceding the race. For beginners wishing to merely finish a marathon, a minimum of four months of running four days a week is recommended.[102] Many trainers recommend a weekly increase in mileage of no more than 10%. It is also often advised to maintain a consistent running program for six weeks or so before beginning a marathon training program, to allow the body to adapt to the new stresses.[103] The marathon training program itself would suppose variation between hard and easy training, with a periodization of the general plan.[104]

Training programs can be found at the websites of Runner's World,[105] Hal Higdon,[94] Jeff Galloway,[3] and the Boston Athletic Association,[106] and in numerous other published sources, including the websites of specific marathons.

The last long training run might be undertaken up to two weeks prior to the event. Many marathon runners also "carbo-load" (increase carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant) during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen.

Glycogen and "the wall"

A competitor collapses just prior to the finish line of the 2006 Melbourne Marathon

Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy. Runners can store about 8 MJ or 2,000 kcal worth of glycogen in their bodies, enough for about 30 km/18–20 miles of running. Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point.[107] When glycogen runs low, the body must then obtain energy by burning stored fat, which does not burn as readily. When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue and is said to "hit the wall". The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches,[108] is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic. This is accomplished in part by utilizing a higher percentage of energy from burned fat even during the early phase of the race, thus conserving glycogen.

Carbohydrate-based "energy gels" are used by runners to avoid or reduce the effect of "hitting the wall", as they provide easy to digest energy during the run. Energy gels usually contain varying amounts of sodium and potassium and some also contain caffeine. They need to be consumed with a certain amount of water. Recommendations for how often to take an energy gel during the race range widely.[108]

A runner getting encouragement at Mile 25 of the Boston Marathon

Alternatives to gels include various forms of concentrated sugars, and foods high in simple carbohydrates that can be digested easily. Many runners experiment with consuming energy supplements during training runs to determine what works best for them. Consumption of food while running sometimes makes the runner sick. Runners are advised not to ingest a new food or medicine just prior to or during a race. It is also important to refrain from taking any of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory class of pain relievers (NSAIDS, e.g., aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen), as these drugs change the way the kidneys regulate their blood flow and may lead to serious kidney problems, especially in cases involving moderate to severe dehydration.[108]

After a marathon

Marathon participation may result in various medical, musculoskeletal, and dermatological complaints.[109] Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common condition affecting runners during the first week following a marathon.[110] Various types of mild exercise or massage have been recommended to alleviate pain secondary to DOMS.[110] Dermatological issues frequently include "jogger's nipple", "jogger's toe", and blisters.[111]

The immune system is reportedly suppressed for a short time. Changes to the blood chemistry may lead physicians to mistakenly diagnose heart malfunction.

After long training runs and the marathon itself, consuming carbohydrates to replace glycogen stores and protein to aid muscle recovery is commonly recommended. In addition, soaking the lower half of the body for 20 minutes or so in cold or ice water may force blood through the leg muscles to speed recovery.[112]

Health risks

The nature of marathon running has various health risks.[113] Training and the races themselves put runners under stress. While rare, even death is a possibility during a race.

Common health risks fall under injury such as tendonitis, fatigue, knee or ankle sprain, extreme dehydration (electrolyte imbalance), and other conditions. Many fall under overuse injuries.

Cardiac health

A study published in 1996[114] found that the risk of having a fatal heart attack during, or in the period 24 hours after a marathon, was approximately 1 in 50,000 over an athlete's racing career[115]—which the authors characterised as an "extremely small" risk. The paper went on to say that since the risk was so small, cardiac screening programs for marathons were not warranted. However, this study was not an attempt to assess the overall benefit or risk to cardiac health of marathon running.

In 2006, a study of 60 non-elite marathon participants tested runners for certain proteins (see Troponin) which indicate heart damage or dysfunction after they had completed the marathon, and gave them ultrasound scans before and after the race. The study revealed that, in that sample of 60 people, runners who had done less than 35 miles (56 km) per week of training before the race were most likely to show some heart damage or dysfunction, while runners who had done more than 45 miles (72 km) per week of training beforehand showed few or no heart problems.[116]

According to a study presented in 2010, running a marathon can result in decreased function of more than half the segments in the heart's main pumping chamber, but other parts of the heart will take over. Full recovery is reached within three months or less. The fitter the runner the less the effect.[117]

Water consumption dangers

A volunteer hands out fluids at a marathon water stop

The most significant concern associated with water consumption during marathons is its overconsumption. Drinking excessive amounts of fluid during a race can lead to dilution of sodium in the blood, a condition called hyponatremia, which may result in vomiting, seizures, coma and even death.[118] Dr. Lewis G. Maharam, medical director for the New York City Marathon, has stated, "There are no reported cases of dehydration causing death in the history of world running, but there are plenty of cases of people dying of hyponatremia."[119] Consumption of water during a race has not been demonstrated to enhance performance and may even impair it.[120] Because hyponatremia is caused by excessive water retention, not merely loss of sodium, consumption of sports drinks or salty foods will not prevent it.[121] The International Marathon Medical Directors Association issued a warning in 2001 that urged runners only to drink when they are thirsty, rather than "drinking ahead of their thirst."

Women are more prone to hyponatremia than men. A study in the New England Journal of Medicine found that 13% of runners completing the 2002 Boston Marathon had hyponatremia.[122]

Fluid can be drunk at a rate of about 500 ml/h.[123] A patient suffering hyponatremia can be given a small volume of a concentrated salt solution intravenously to raise sodium concentrations in the blood. Some runners weigh themselves before running and write the results on their bibs. If anything goes wrong, first aid workers can use the weight information to tell if the patient had consumed too much water.

Charity involvement

Particularly for marathons, it is common to find charities associated with various races. Marathon organizers allotted their limited spacing and entry slots for charity organizations. Runners are given the option to sign up to run particular races, especially when open marathon entries are no longer available.

See also

Marathon articles

References

  1. ^ a b "IAAF Competition Rules for Road Races". International Association of Athletics Federations. International Association of Athletics Federations. 2009. http://www.bcathletics.org/main/rr_iaaf.htm. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  2. ^ a b the Marathon race directory. Marathon-world.com (1 December 2006). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  3. ^ a b c "Retreats — Athens". Jeffgalloway.com. http://www.jeffgalloway.com/retreats/athens.html. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  4. ^ "The Moon and the Marathon", Sky & Telescope Sept. 2004
  5. ^ "Ancient Olympics FAQ 10". Perseus.tufts.edu. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics/faq10.html. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  6. ^ Moralia 347C
  7. ^ A slip of the tongue in Salutation, Chapter 3
  8. ^ "Prologue: The Legend". Marathonguide.com. http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/prologue.cfm. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  9. ^ Persian Fire by Tom Holland
  10. ^ SPARTATHLON ::: International Spartathlon Association[dead link]
  11. ^ "The Great Marathon Myth". Coolrunning.co.nz. http://www.coolrunning.co.nz/articles/2002a007.html#appendix. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  12. ^ "Olympic Champion Joan Benoit Samuelson To Be Guest of Honor at Manchester Marathon — Registration Closed". Cool Running. http://www.coolrunning.com/engine/3/3_1/olympic-champion-joan-ben.shtml. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  13. ^ Wanjiru and Gharib break OR in Men's Marathon
  14. ^ "Olympic Games Records – Women". International Association of Athletics Federations. http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/recbycat/location=O/recordtype=CR/event=OLY/age=N/area=0/sex=W/records.html. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  15. ^ "Track and Field Athletics" The World 1910 Almanac and Encyclopedia New York: Press Publishing Company 1909 pp. 384–385 http://books.google.com/books?id=cGA3AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA384#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 9 February 2011 
  16. ^ a b Whorton, James C. (1992) ""Athlete's Heart": The Medical Debate over Athleticism, 1870–1920" in Berryman, Jack W.; Park, Robert J. Sport and Exercise Science: Essays in the History of Sports Medicine University of Illinois Press p. 127 ISBN 0252062426, 9780252062421 http://books.google.com/books?id=TVklQ4FX76wC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA109#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 10 February 2011 
  17. ^ Robinson, Roger (January/February 2009) "Footsteps: 'Tis the (Racing) Season; 100 Years of Holiday Running" Running Times Magazine http://runningtimes.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=15263. Retrieved 10 February 2011 
  18. ^ Cooper, Pamela (1999) "New York City Marathon Culture" The American Marathon Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press pp. 27–48 ISBN 0815605730, 9780815605737 http://books.google.com/books?id=cSPF71aP0qsC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false 
  19. ^ "Running USA's Annual Marathon Report". RunningUSA. RunningUSA.org. http://www.runningusa.org/node/57770#57771. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  20. ^ "Marathon Guide: International Marathons Report". MarathonGuide. MarathonGuide. http://www.marathonguide.com/races/races.cfm?place=intl. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  21. ^ a b "Olympic Marathon (excerpt)". Charlie Lovett. Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.. 1997. http://www.marathonguide.com/history/olympicmarathons/chapter25.cfm. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  22. ^ "World Best Progressions- Road". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. http://www.arrs.net/RecProg/RP_wwR.htm. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  23. ^ Fast Tracks: The History of Distance Running Since 884 B.C. by Raymond Krise, Bill Squires. (1982). Page 43.
  24. ^ Endurance by Albert C. Gross. (1986)
  25. ^ "Marathon Woman". Kathrine Switzer. http://www.katherineswitzer.com/. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  26. ^ B.A.A.: Boston Marathon History
  27. ^ B.A.A.: Boston Marathon Past Champions—Women's Open
  28. ^ J.Bryant, 100 Years and Still Running, Marathon News (2007)
  29. ^ "The Marathon journey to reach 42.195km". european-athletics.org. 25 April 2008. http://www.european-athletics.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6235&Itemid=2. Retrieved 23 July 2009. 
  30. ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (May 2000). The Olympic Marathon. Human Kinetics Publishers. p. 113. ISBN 978-0880119696. 
  31. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2008" (PDF). IAAF. p. 195. http://www.iaaf.org/mm/Document/imported/42192.pdf. Retrieved 20 April 2009. 
  32. ^ British Olympic Council Minutes
  33. ^ a b c d e . Bob Wilcock, The 1908 Olympic Marathon, Journal of Olympic History, Volume 16 Issue 1, March 2008
  34. ^ The Princess of Wales' private diary and press reports
  35. ^ Milroy, Andy "The origins of the marathon" Association of Road Racing Statisticians http://www.arrs.net/article_marathonorigins.php. Retrieved 29 July 2010 
  36. ^ Bob Wilcock, "The 1908 Olympic Games, the Great Stadium and the Marathon, a Pictorial Record" (2008 ISBN 978-0-9558236-0-2)[page needed]
  37. ^ Martin & Gynn, "The Olympic Marathon" (2000 ISBN 0880119691)[page needed]
  38. ^ IAAF Competition Rules 2009 – Rule 240
  39. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2010–2011" (PDF). IAAF. pp. 230–235. http://www.iaaf.org/mm/Document/Competitions/TechnicalArea/05/47/81/20091027115916_httppostedfile_CompRules2010_web_26Oct09_17166.pdf. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 
  40. ^ AIMS – About AIMS. Aimsworldrunning.org (30 March 2007). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  41. ^ Runner's World Top 10 Marathons
  42. ^ [1][dead link]
  43. ^ Detroit Free Press Marathon
  44. ^ Sports medicine, training, and rehabilitation. 3. 1991. p. 95. 
  45. ^ Patrick, Dwyne R.; Bignall, John E. (1987). "Creating the competent self: The case of the wheelchair runner". In Joseph A. Kotarba, Andrea Fontana. The Existential Self in Society. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226451410. 
  46. ^ Davis, Alison (1996). "The History of Wheelchair Racing at the Boston Marathon". Against the Wind. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. http://www.will.uiuc.edu/tv/documentaries/atw/atwwind1.html. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  47. ^ Davis, Alison (1996). "Interview with Bob Hall". Against the Wind. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. http://www.will.uiuc.edu/tv/documentaries/atw/atwhall.html. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  48. ^ Couch, Aaron (18 April 2011). "Boston Marathon: five historic moments". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/2011/0418/Boston-Marathon-five-historic-moments/First-wheelchair-competitor-1975. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  49. ^ a b Dicker, Ron (5 November 2000). "New York City Marathon; New Equipment Stirs Division Within Wheelchair Ranks". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/05/sports/new-york-city-marathon-new-equipment-stirs-division-within-wheelchair-ranks.html. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  50. ^ Vega, Michael (19 April 2010). "Ernst Van Dyk wins record 9th wheelchair title". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/sports/marathon/blog/2010/04/ernst_van_dyk_wins_record_9th.html. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  51. ^ Cooper, Rory A.; Boninger, Michael L.; Rice, Ian; Sean D. Shimada, Rosemarie Cooper (1996). "Elite athletes with impairments". In Walter R. Frontera, David M. Slovik, David Michael Dawson. Exercise in rehabilitation medicine. Human Kinetics. p. 333. ISBN 073605541X. http://books.google.com/books?id=VE8UJZrp6NIC&pg=PA333. 
  52. ^ "Wheelchair entrants axed from marathon". Calgary Herald. 17 October 1977. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=oXFkAAAAIBAJ&sjid=330NAAAAIBAJ&pg=1025,3843410. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  53. ^ Association Press (22 October 1977). "Marathon entry on wheels". Lakeland Ledger. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=71xNAAAAIBAJ&sjid=0voDAAAAIBAJ&pg=4637,5757021. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  54. ^ "Wheelchair athletes win marathon appeal". Tri City Herald. 26 October 1980. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=FmAtAAAAIBAJ&sjid=H4gFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4776,7425548. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  55. ^ United Press International (11 April 1981). "Marathon Wins Wheelchair Ban". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1981/04/11/sports/marathon-wins-wheelchair-ban.html. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  56. ^ "Fast Forward In Reverse". New York Times. 11 November 1986. http://www.nytimes.com/1986/11/11/sports/scouting-fast-forward-in-reverse.html. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  57. ^ "Kenyan Sets World Record in Winning Berlin Marathon". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/26/sports/patrick-makau-sets-world-record-in-berlin.html. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  58. ^ "All-time men's best marathon times under 2h 10'30". Alltime-athletics.com. http://www.alltime-athletics.com/mmaraok.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  59. ^ [2]
  60. ^ "All-time women's best marathon times under 2h 30'00". Alltime-athletics.com. http://www.alltime-athletics.com/wmaraok.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  61. ^ Monti, David (18 April 2011) "Strong winds and ideal conditions propel Mutai to fastest Marathon ever – Boston Marathon report" iaaf.org International Association of Athletics Federations http://www.iaaf.org/LRR11/news/newsid=59806.html. Retrieved 18 April 2011 
  62. ^ "Mutai wins Boston in world-record time: Kilel edges American in women’s race". Boston Herald. Associated Press. 18 April 2011. http://news.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view/20110418kenyas_geoffrey_mutai_wins_mens_race_in_boston_marathon/. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  63. ^ May, Peter (18 April 2011). "Kenya’s Mutai Wins Boston in 2:03:02". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/19/sports/19marathon.html. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  64. ^ 0 Toplists mar m – o. iaaf.org. Retrieved on 9 October 2011.
  65. ^ http://www.iaaf.org/statistics/toplists/inout=o/age=n/season=0/sex=W/all=y/legal=A/disc=MAR/detail.html iaaf.org. Retrieved on 9 October 2011.
  66. ^ Yaccino, Steven (9 October 2011). "Shobukhova and Mosop Win Chicago Marathon". The New York Times (New York). http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/10/sports/shobukhova-and-mosop-win-chicago-marathon.html?_r=1. 
  67. ^ 100-year-old sets record with marathon finish Retrieved 17 October 2011
  68. ^ 'Gladyator' aged 92 breaks marathon record. Telegraph (6 April 2011). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  69. ^ Brit woman, 92, breaks world record after finishing Honolulu Marathon. Dailyindia.com. Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  70. ^ "World Single Age Records- Marathon". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. 20 January 2011. http://arrs.net/SA_Mara.htm. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 
  71. ^ Fenton, Ben. (19 April 2004) Everything you wanted to know about the marathon but were too exhausted to ask. Telegraph. Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  72. ^ London Marathon: 25 reasons to celebrate the London Marathon – More Sports, Sport. The Independent (16 April 2005). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  73. ^ Running USA's Annual Marathon Report 2010. Time-to-run.us (17 March 2011). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  74. ^ 50&DC Marathon Group U.S.A.. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  75. ^ Mile posts: And now the rest of the story with Beverly Paquin | Des Moines Register Staff Blogs. Blogs.desmoinesregister.com (20 October 2010). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  76. ^ Alumna Runs Marathons in 50 States and D.C., Sets Record! « Slice of MIT by the Alumni Association. Alum.mit.edu (16 November 2010). Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  77. ^ "Accolades". 50anddcmarathongroupusa.com. http://www.50anddcmarathongroupusa.com/accolades.cfm. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  78. ^ "CBC Archives: television and radio spots on Terry Fox". Archives.cbc.ca. http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-69-71/life_society/terry_fox/. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  79. ^ Richter, Marice (26 September 2011). "Multiple sclerosis patient finishes 50th marathon". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/26/us-multiple-sclerosis-marathon-idUSTRE78P4HN20110926. Retrieved 26 September 2011. 
  80. ^ "Fiennes relishes marathon feat". BBC News. 3 November 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3234479.stm. 
  81. ^ Interview with Guardian 5 October 2007
  82. ^ Neil, Martha (17 December 2008). "BigLaw Partner Sets World Record By Running 105th Marathon in a Year". ABA Journal. http://www.abajournal.com/weekly/biglaw_partner_sets_world_record_by_running_105th_marathon_in_a_year_. Retrieved 21 December 2008. 
  83. ^ "100 Marathon Club". 100 Marathon Club. http://www.100marathonclub.org.uk/. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  84. ^ Orton, Kathy (27 October 2004). "Texan's Weekend Job Provides Great Benefits". The Washington Post: pp. D4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A407-2004Oct26.html. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  85. ^ "Retrieved 12 November 2008". Edm.ouser.org. http://edm.ouser.org/02/statue/n14se98d-symahstory.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  86. ^ 100 Marathon Club site (in German)
  87. ^ 100 Marathon Club site (in German)
  88. ^ 50 States & D.C. Marathon Group site. Retrieved 28 November 2007.
  89. ^ Bates, Claire. "Marathon Man: Meet the asthma sufferer who is on track to finish 365 races in as many days". Daily Mail (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1316865/Marathon-Man-Stefaan-Engels-track-finish-365-races-days.html. 
  90. ^ "Belgian Stefaan Engels completes record 365th marathon". BBC. 5 February 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12375646. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 
  91. ^ Litsky, Frank (8 October 2004) John A. Kelley, Marathoner, Dies at 97. The New York Times. Retrieved on 6 December 2009.
  92. ^ Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  93. ^ Alberta man, 55, runs 250 marathons for charity The Globe and Mail, 31 December 2010
  94. ^ a b "Training programs". Hal Higdon. http://www.halhigdon.com/. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  95. ^ "2005 Total USA Marathon Finishers". Marathonguide.com. http://www.marathonguide.com/features/Articles/2005RecapOverview.cfm. Retrieved 24 April 2008. 
  96. ^ "Running a sub 3 hour marathon | allaboutrunning.net". allaboutrunning.net<!. http://www.allaboutrunning.net/sri-chinmoy-racesblog/running-sub-3-hour-marathon. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  97. ^ "Boston Athletic Association". Bostonmarathon.org. http://www.bostonmarathon.org/BostonMarathon/Qualifying.asp. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  98. ^ The ING New York City Marathon[dead link]
  99. ^ Online, sprinters win race: Marathon fills its field in a record 8 hours
  100. ^ [3][dead link]
  101. ^ a b Daniels, J. PhD (2005). Daniels' Running Formula, 2nd Ed.. Human Kinetics Publishing. ISBN 0-7360-5492-8. [page needed]
  102. ^ Whitsett et al. (1998) The Non-Runner's Marathon Trainer. Master's Press.
  103. ^ Burfoot, A. Ed (1999). Runner's World Complete Book of Running : Everything You Need to Know to Run for Fun, Fitness and Competition. Rodale Books. ISBN 1-57954-186-0. [page needed]
  104. ^ Marius Bakken. "Training For A Marathon". Marius Bakken's Marathon Training Schedule. http://www.marathon-training-schedule.com/training-for-a-marathon.html. Retrieved 17 April 2009. 
  105. ^ "Marathon Training at Runner's World". Runnersworld.com. 15 February 2008. http://www.runnersworld.com/subtopic/0,7123,s6-238-244-255-0,00.html. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  106. ^ "Boston Athletic Association". Bostonmarathon.org. http://www.baa.org/programs/training-programs/marathon-training.aspx. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  107. ^ "Hitting the wall for marathon runners". Half-marathon-running.com. http://www.half-marathon-running.com/HittingTheWall. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  108. ^ a b c Lesser-known Dangers Associated with Running a Marathon Retrieved 9/7/2009
  109. ^ Jaworski CA (June 2005). "Medical concerns of marathons". Current Sports Medicine Reports 4 (3): 137–43. PMID 15907265. 
  110. ^ a b Pete Pfitzinger – Lab Reports – Recovering From a Marathon, Part One. Pfitzinger.com. Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  111. ^ Mailler EA, Adams BB (August 2004). "The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day". British Journal of Sports Medicine 38 (4): 498–501. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.011874. PMC 1724877. PMID 15273194. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1724877. 
  112. ^ Stouffer Drenth, Tere (2003). Marathon Training for Dummies. United States: Wiley Publishing Inc.. ISBN 0-76452-510-7. [page needed]
  113. ^ Keener, Candace. (27 February 2008) HowStuffWorks "The Health Risks of the Marathon". Entertainment.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved on 19 April 2011.
  114. ^ Risk for sudden cardiac death associated with marathon running. Retrieved 13 December 2008.
  115. ^ "American Family Physician: Sudden death in young athletes: screening for the needle in a haystack". Aafp.org. http://www.aafp.org/afp/980600ap/oconnor.html. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  116. ^ "Banking Miles: marathons dangerous for your heart?". Bankingmiles.blogspot.com. http://bankingmiles.blogspot.com/2006/11/marathons-dangerous-for-your-heart.html. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  117. ^ Running a marathon can impact heart for months
  118. ^ Merck Manual: Hyponatremia
  119. ^ Gina Kolata: Marathoners Warned About Too Much Water (NYTimes, 20 Oct. 2005)
  120. ^ Inverse relationship between percentage body weight change and finishing time in 643 forty-two-kilometre marathon runners
  121. ^ Marathon Dilemma: How Much Water is Too Much?
  122. ^ Almond CS, Shin AY, Fortescue EB, et al. (April 2005). "Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon". The New England Journal of Medicine 352 (15): 1550–6. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043901. PMID 15829535. 
  123. ^ http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/hsl_pdf/2005/hsl0529.pdf

Bibliography

  • Hans-Joachim Gehrke, "From Athenian identity to European ethnicity: The cultural biography of the myth of Marathon," in Ton Derks, Nico Roymans (ed.), Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition (Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press, 2009) (Amsterdam Archaeological Studies, 13), 85-100.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • marathon — [ maratɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1896; de Marathon, ville grecque d où courut, jusqu à Athènes, le soldat portant la nouvelle de la victoire 1 ♦ Course à pied de grand fond (42 km 195) sur route. Le vainqueur du marathon aux Jeux olympiques. 2 ♦ Fig. Épreuve… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Marathon ∞ — Marathon Infinity Marathon infinity Éditeur Bungie Software Développeur Bungie Software Concepteur   Date de sortie 1996 Genre jeu de tir subjectif Mode de jeu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Marathon 2 — Marathon 2: Durandal Marathon 2: Durandal Éditeur Bungie Software Développeur Bungie Software Concepteur   Date de sortie 1995 Genre jeu de tir subjectif Mode …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Marathon — Marathon, NY U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 1063 Housing Units (2000): 439 Land area (2000): 1.129180 sq. miles (2.924563 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.129180 sq. miles (2.924563 …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • marathon — n. 1. A footrace of 26 miles 385 yards. [WordNet sense 2] [WordNet 1.5] 2. Hence: Any long and arduous undertaking, straining the endurance of the participants. [WordNet sense 1] Syn: endurance contest. [WordNet 1.5] 3. (Capitalized)a battle in… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Marathon, FL — U.S. city in Florida Population (2000): 10255 Housing Units (2000): 6791 Land area (2000): 8.646210 sq. miles (22.393581 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.997177 sq. miles (2.582676 sq. km) Total area (2000): 9.643387 sq. miles (24.976257 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Marathon, IA — U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 302 Housing Units (2000): 162 Land area (2000): 0.731810 sq. miles (1.895378 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.731810 sq. miles (1.895378 sq. km) FIPS code:… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Marathon, NY — U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 1063 Housing Units (2000): 439 Land area (2000): 1.129180 sq. miles (2.924563 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.129180 sq. miles (2.924563 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Marathon, TX — U.S. Census Designated Place in Texas Population (2000): 455 Housing Units (2000): 287 Land area (2000): 5.254798 sq. miles (13.609865 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.254798 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • marathon — (n.) 1896, marathon race, from story of Gk. hero Pheidippides, who in 490 B.C.E. ran the 26 miles and 385 yards to Athens from the Plains of Marathon to tell of the allied Greek victory there over Persian army. The original story (Herodotus) is… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Marathon — MARĂTHON, ónis, Gr. Μαραθὼν, ῶνος, des Epopeus Sohn, gieng den Unbilligkeiten seines Vaters aus dem Wege und machte sich mit einer Colonie seiner Leute nach Attica. Da er aber hörete, daß sein Vater gestorben war, so kehrete er wieder in den… …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.