- Menteri Besar
Literally, "big minister" in Malay, a Menteri Besar is a Chief Executive of the state governments of
Perlis, Johor, Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Terengganuand Kelantanin Malaysia—that is, all states with royal rulers. In others states without a monarch, the title Ketua Menteri ( Chief Minister) is used. "Menteri Besar" is is often untranslated in the local English press.
In most states within Malaysia, the office was created by the British colonial government in
1948, in tandem with the creation of the Federation of Malaya. However, it was Johorwhich became the first state to create the "Menteri Besar" position as subject to " Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor" (Johor State Establishment Constitution) enforced by Sultan Abu Bakar which made Johor the first Malay state to adopt the constitutional monarchysystem. After the country achieved independence from the United Kingdomin 1957, the office became elective, with the leader of the biggest party in the state legislative assemblies assuming that post.
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