Journalism News · Writing style
Ethics · Objectivity
Values · Attribution
Areas Arts · Business
Fashion · Medicine
Politics · Science
Sports · Technology
Trade · Traffic
Weather · World
Genres Advocacy · Analytic · Broadcast
Citizen · Civic
Collaborative · Community
Database · Gonzo
Investigative · Literary
Muckraking · Narrative
Online · Opinion
Peace · Photojournalism
Scientific · Visual · Watchdog
Social impact Fourth Estate
Freedom of the press
Infotainment · Media bias
News media Newspapers · Magazines
TV and radio
Roles Journalists (reporters)
Editor · Columnist
A reporter is a type of journalist who researchs, writes, and reports on information to be presented in mass media, including print media (newspapers and magazines), electronic media (television, radio, documentary film), and digital media (such as online journalism). Reporters cultivate sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called "reporting," in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interview people. Reporters may be assigned a specific beat or area of coverage.
Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, columnists, and visual journalists, such as photojournalists (journalists who use the medium of photography).
Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are often considered important, some types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint.
Salaries and job outlook
The Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia has conducted its Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Graduates since 1997. According to its 2009 survey, the median salary earned by holders of either bachelor's or master's degrees in journalism and mass communication from colleges and universities in the United States (including Puerto Rico) entering the full-time job market in 2009 with $30,000. This was the same amount as in 2006, 2007, and 2008.
According to the Occupational Outlook Handbook of the United States Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, "employment of news analysts, reporters, and correspondents is expected to decline 6 percent between 2008 and 2018." The Occupational Outlook Handbook report that the median annual wage for news analysts, reporters, and correspondents in the United States was $34,850 in May 2008, with the middle 50 percent earning between $25,760 and $52,160, and the bottom and top 10 percent earning less than $20,180 and more than $77,480, respectively. Median annual wages for reporters and correspondents were $33,430 in "newspaper, periodical, book, and directory publishing" and $37,710 in "radio and television broadcasting."
Journalists may expose themselves to danger, particularly when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press. Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that, 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder (71 percent), crossfire or combat (17 percent), or on dangerous assignment (12 percent). The "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq (151 deaths), Philippines (72), Algeria (60), Russia (52), Colombia (43), Pakistan (41), Somalia (35), India (27), Mexico (27), and Afghanistan (24).
The Committee to Protect Journalists also reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists are jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. The countries with the ten countries largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are China (34 imprisoned), Iran (34), Eritrea (17), Burma (13), Uzbekistan (six), Vietnam (five), Cuba (four), Ethiopia (four), Turkey (four), and Sudan (three).
- War correspondent
- 24-hour television news channels
- 24-hour news cycle
- Broadcast journalism
- Electronic field production (EFP)
- Electronic news-gathering (ENG)
- Local news
- News broadcasting
- News presenter
- News program
- Outside broadcasting
- Student newspaper
- ^ Lee B. Becker et al. "2009 Annual Survey of Journalism & Mass Communication Graduates" (August 4, 2010).
- ^ a b "News Analysts, Reporters, and Correspondents." Occupational Outlook Handbook (2010-11 ed.). United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.
- ^ "887 Journalists Killed since 1992." Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- ^ "Iran, China drive prison tally to 14-year high" (December 8, 2010). Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved November 18, 2011.
- Fowler, Nathaniel Clark. (1913). The Handbook of Journalism: All about Newspaper Work.--Facts and Information of Vital Moment to the Journalist and to All who Would Enter this Calling. New York: Sully and Kleinteich.
- Huffman, James L. (2003). A Yankee in Meiji Japan: The Crusading Journalist. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. 10-ISBN 0-742-52621-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-742-52621-1
- Randall, David. (2000). The Universal Journalist. Sterling Virginia: Pluto Press. 10-ISBN 0-745-31641-7; 13-ISBN 978-0-745-31641-3; OCLC 43481682
- Stone, Ejijah Melville. (1921) Fifty Years a Journalist. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company. OCLC 1520155
- Woods, Donald. (1981). Asking for Trouble: Autobiography of a Banned Journalist. New York: Atheneum. 10-ISBN 0689111592; 13-ISBN 978-0-689-11159-4; OCLC 6864121
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
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Journalist — Jour nal*ist, n. [Cf. F. journaliste.] 1. One who keeps a journal or diary; a diarist. [Obs.] Mickle. [1913 Webster] 2. One whose occupation is to write for any of the public news media, such as newspapers, magazines, radio, television, or… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Journalist — Journalist, 1) der Jour hat; 2) ein auf Diäten Gesetzter; 3) Redacteur od. Mitarbeiter einer Zeitschrift. Journalisticum, Leseverein für Zeitschriften … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
journalist — (n.) 1690s, one whose work is to write or edit public journals or newspapers, from JOURNAL (Cf. journal) + IST (Cf. ist). Meaning one who keeps a journal is from 1712. Related: Journalistic … Etymology dictionary
journalist — [n] person who writes about factual events for a living announcer, broadcaster, columnist, commentator, contributor, correspondent, cub, editor, hack, media person, newspaper person, newsperson, pencil pusher*, press, publicist, reporter, scribe … New thesaurus
Journalist — [Network (Rating 5600 9600)] Auch: • Journalistin Bsp.: • Sie ist Journalistin für die Zeitung … Deutsch Wörterbuch
journalist — ► NOUN ▪ a person who writes for newspapers or magazines or prepares news or features to be broadcast on radio or television. DERIVATIVES journalistic adjective … English terms dictionary
journalist — [jʉr′nəlist] n. 1. a person whose occupation is journalism; reporter, news editor, etc. 2. a person who keeps a journal or diary … English World dictionary
Journalist — Dieser Artikel oder Absatz stellt die Situation in Deutschland dar. Hilf mit, die Situation in anderen Ländern zu schildern. Ein Journalist [ʒʊrnaˈlɪst] ist gemäß dem Deutschen Journalisten Verband „hauptberuflich an der Verbreitung und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Journalist — Korrespondent; Berichterstatter; Medienvertreter (umgangssprachlich); Publizist; Reporter; Medienschaffender * * * Jour|na|list [ʒʊrna lɪst], der; en, en, Jour|na|lis|tin [ʒʊrna lɪstɪn], die; , nen: Person, die Artikel für Zeitungen schreibt: er… … Universal-Lexikon