- Domain (mathematics)
mathematics, the domain of a given functionis the set of " input" values for which the function is defined. [Paley, H. "Abstract Algebra", Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966 (p. 16).] For instance, the domain of cosinewould be all real numbers, while the domain of the square rootwould only be numbers greater than or equal to 0 (ignoring complex numbersin both cases). In a representation of a function in a "xy" Cartesian coordinate system, the domain is represented on the "x" axis (or abscissa).
Given a function "f":"X"→"Y", the set "X" of input values is the domain of "f"; the set "Y" is the
The range of "f" is the set of all output values of "f"; this is the set . [ Smith, William K. "Inverse Functions", MacMillan, 1966 (p. 8).] The range of "f" can be the same set as the codomain or it can be a proper subset of it. It is in general smaller than the codomain unless "f" is a
A well defined function must map every element of its domain to an element of its codomain. For example, the function "f" defined by: "f"("x") = 1/"x"has no value for "f"(0).Thus, the set of
real numbers, , cannot be its domain.In cases like this, the function is either defined on or the "gap is plugged" by explicitly defining "f"(0).If we extend the definition of "f" to: "f"("x") = 1/"x", for "x" ≠ 0: "f"(0) = 0,then "f" is defined for all real numbers, and its domain is .
Any function can be restricted to a
subsetof its domain.The restriction of "g" : "A" → "B" to "S", where "S" ⊆ "A", is written "g" |"S" : "S" → "B".
Domain of a partial function
There are two distinct meanings in current mathematical usage for the notion of the domain of a
partial function. Most mathematicians, including recursion theorists, use the term "domain of "f" for the set of all values "x" such that "f(x)" is defined. But some, particularly category theorists, consider the domain of a partial function "f":"X"→"Y" to be "X", irrespective of whether "f(x)" exists for every "x" in "X".
category theoryone deals with morphismsinstead of functions. Morphisms are arrows from one object to another. The domain of any morphism is the object from which an arrow starts. In this context, many set theoretic ideas about domains must be abandoned or at least formulated more abstractly. For example, the notion of restricting a morphism to a subset of its domain must be modified. See subobjectfor more.
Real and complex analysis
partial differential equations, a domain is an open connected subset of the euclidean spaceRn, where the problem is posed, i.e., where the unknown function(s) are defined.
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