Sisyrinchium


Sisyrinchium

Taxobox
name = "Sisyrinchium"



image_width = 250px
image_caption = Eastern Blue-eyed Grass ("Sisyrinchium angustifolium")
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Liliopsida
ordo = Asparagales
familia = Iridaceae
subfamilia = Iridoideae
tribus = Sisyrinchieae
genus = "Sisyrinchium"
genus_authority = Eckl.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text

The Blue-eyed Grasses, genus "Sisyrinchium", are a substantial group of flowering plants of the iris family, Iridaceae. There are between 70 to 150 species (according to different authors), all native to the New World. Several Eastern U. S. species are threatened or endangered.

The taxonomy of this genus is rather perplexing and confusing, as several of these species, such as "Sisyrinchium angustifolium", form complexes with many variants named as species. More genetic research and cladistic analysis need to be performed to sort out the relationships between the species. Some species, notably "S. douglasii", have been transferred to the separate genus "Olsynium".

The name "Sisyrinchium" is derived from the Greek words "sys" (pig) and "rhynchos" (nose), referring to the habit of pigs grubbing the roots.

These are not true grasses, but many species are low-growing, and the leaves of some appear to be grass-like; and they do often grow on grasslands. Many species resemble irises, to which they are more closely related. Most species grow as perennial plants, from a rhizome, though some are short-lived (e.g. S. striatum), and some are annuals (e.g. "S. iridifolium").

The flowers are relatively simple and often grow in clusters.

Many species, particularly the South American ones, are not blue, despite the common name. Flower colours in the genus includes white, yellow, and purple, as well as blue, often with a contrasting centre. Of the species in the United States, the Western Blue-eyed Grass, "Sisyrinchium bellum", is sometimes found with white flowers, while the California Golden-eyed Grass, "Sisyrinchium californicum", has yellow flowers.

Species

* "Sisyrinchium abietum" McVaugh
* "Sisyrinchium acaule"
* "Sisyrinchium acre" Mann
* "Sisyrinchium alatum" Hook.
* "Sisyrinchium albidum" Raf. : White Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium altissimum" Ten.
* "Sisyrinchium amoenum" E. Bickn.
* "Sisyrinchium anceps" Cav.
* "Sisyrinchium angustifolium" P. Mill. : Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium angustissimum" (B. Robinson & Greenman) Greenman & C. Thompson
* "Sisyrinchium arenarium" Poeppig
* "Sisyrinchium arizonicum" Rothrock: Arizona Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium atlanticum" Bickn. : Eastern Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium azureum" Philippi
* "Sisyrinchium bellum" S. Wats. : Western Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium bermudianum" - Blue-eyed-grass
* "Sisyrinchium biforme" Bickn.: Wiry Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium brachypus" (C. Bicknell) J. K. Henry
* "Sisyrinchium bracteatum" Greenman
* "Sisyrinchium brayii"
* "Sisyrinchium brevipes" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium bushii"
* "Sisyrinchium caespitificum" Kraenzl.
* "Sisyrinchium californicum" (Ker-Gawl. ex Sims) Ait. : Golden Blue-eyed Grass, Yellow-eyed-grass
* "Sisyrinchium campestre" Bickn. : Prairie Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium capillare" Bickn.
* "Sisyrinchium cernuum" (Bickn.) Kearney : Nodding Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium chilense" Hook : Swordleaf Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium chiricanum" Woodson
* "Sisyrinchium claritae"
* "Sisyrinchium commutatum" Klatt
* "Sisyrinchium convolutum" Nocca
* "Sisyrinchium convolutuna" Nocca
* "Sisyrinchium cryptocarpum" Rusby
* "Sisyrinchium cuspidatum" Poeppig
* "Sisyrinchium demissum" Greene : Stiff Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium dichotomum" Bickn. : Wishbone Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium elmeri" Greene : Douglas' Grass Widow
* "Sisyrinchium ensignum" Becker
* "Sisyrinchium exalatum" B. Robinson & Greenman
* "Sisyrinchium farwellii" Bickn. : Farwell's Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium fasciculatum" Klatt
* "Sisyrinchium flaccidum"
* "Sisyrinchium flexile"
* "Sisyrinchium foliosum" I. M. Johnston
* "Sisyrinchium funereum" Bickn. : Funeral Mountain Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium fuscatum" Bickn.: Coastalplain Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium galapagense" Ravenna
* "Sisyrinchium gilberti"
* "Sisyrinchium gramineum" Lam.
* "Sisyrinchium graminifolium" Lindley
* "Sisyrinchium grande" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium groenlandicum" Böcher:
* "Sisyrinchium guatemalense" (Baker) Standley & Steyerm
* "Sisyrinchium halophilum" Greene : Nevada Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium hasslerianum" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium hitchcockii" D. Henderson : Hitchcock's Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium idahoense" Bickn. : Idaho Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium implicatum" Bickn. : Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium iridifolioides" Henrich & Goldblatt : Spreading Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium iridifolium" Kunth
* "Sisyrinchium jamesonii" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium johnstonii" Standl.
* "Sisyrinchium junceum" E. Mey. ex Presl.
* "Sisyrinchium junciforme" Poeppig
* "Sisyrinchium laxum" Otto : Veined Yellow-eyed-grass
* "Sisyrinchium langloisii" Greene : Roadside Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium leptocaulon"
* "Sisyrinchium leucanthum" Colla
* "Sisyrinchium lineatum"
* "Sisyrinchium littorale" Greene : Alaska Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium longifolium"
* "Sisyrinchium longipes" (Bickn.) Kearney & Peebles: Timberland Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium longispathum" Conz.
* "Sisyrinchium luzula" Klotzsch ex Klatt
* "Sisyrinchium macrocarpon" Bickn. : Willow Spring Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium macrocarpum" Hieron.
* "Sisyrinchium macrocephalum" Graham
* "Sisyrinchium macrophyllum" Greenman
* "Sisyrinchium mandonii" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium marchio" (Vell. Conc.) Steudel
* "Sisyrinchium maritimum"
* "Sisyrinchium miamiense" Bickn. : Miami Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium micranthemum" Pers.
* "Sisyrinchium microbracteatum"
* "Sisyrinchium minus" Engelm. & Gray : Dwarf Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium minutiflorum" Klatt
* "Sisyrinchium montanum" Greene : Strict Blue-eyed Grass, American Blue-eyed-grass
* "Sisyrinchium mucronatum" Michx. : Needletip Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium nanum"
* "Sisyrinchium nashii" Bickn. : Nash's Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium pachyrhizum" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium pallidum" Cholewa & D. Henderson : Pale Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium palmeri" Greenman
* "Sisyrinchium palmifolium" L.
* "Sisyrinchium palustre" Diels
* "Sisyrinchium paramorum" Ravenna
* "Sisyrinchium parvifolium"
* "Sisyrinchium patagonicum" Phil. ex Baker
* "Sisyrinchium platense" I. M. Johnston
* "Sisyrinchium platyphyllum"
* "Sisyrinchium polycladon" B. Robinson & Greenman
* "Sisyrinchium polycladum"
* "Sisyrinchium porphyreum" Kraenzl.
* "Sisyrinchium praealtum" Kranzl.
* "Sisyrinchium pringlei" Robinson & Greenman
* "Sisyrinchium pusillum" Kunth
* "Sisyrinchium radicatum" Bickn. : Bigroot Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium recurvatum"
* "Sisyrinchium restioides" Spreng.
* "Sisyrinchium rigidifolium" Baker
* "Sisyrinchium rosulatum" Bickn. : Annual Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium rosutatum"
* "Sisyrinchium sagittiferum" Bickn. : Spearbract Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium sarmentosum" Suksdorf ex Greene : Mountain Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium scariosum" I. M. Johnston
* "Sisyrinchium schaffneri"
* "Sisyrinchium scirpoideum" Poeppig
* "Sisyrinchium scoparium"
* "Sisyrinchium secundiflorum"
* "Sisyrinchium sellowianum" Klatt
* "Sisyrinchium septentrionale" Bickn. : Northern Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium soboliferum"
* "Sisyrinchium striatum" Sm. - Pale Yellow-eyed-grass
* "Sisyrinchium subalpinum" Henrich & Goldblatt
* "Sisyrinchium subcernuum" (E. Bickn.) Henrich & Goldblatt
* "Sisyrinchium tenellum"
* "Sisyrinchium tenuifolium" Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
* "Sisyrinchium texanum"
* "Sisyrinchium tinctorium" Kunth
* "Sisyrinchium tracyi" Bickn.: Blue-eyed Grass
* "Sisyrinchium trinerva" C. F. Baker
* "Sisyrinchium unispathaceum" Klatt
* "Sisyrinchium vaginatum" Spreng.
* "Sisyrinchium violaceum"
* "Sisyrinchium weberbauerianum" Kraenzl.
* "Sisyrinchium wettsteinii" Handel-Mazzetti
* "Sisyrinchium xerophyllum" Greene : Jeweled Blue-eyed Grass

References

Rudall, P. J., A. Y. Kenton, and T. J. Lawrence. 1986 - An anatomical and chromosomal investigation of Sisyrinchium and allied genera. Bot. Gaz. 147: 466–477

External links

* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=130515 "Flora of North America" treatment of the genus]
* [http://users.easystreet.com/ldk/KarstRancho.html Subgeneric Division of Sisyrinchium]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Sisyrinchium — Sisyrinchium …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sisyrinchĭum — (S. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Irideae, Monadelphie, Triandrie L.; Arten, Zierpflanzen: S. bermudiana, auf den Bermüden, mit blaßblauen Blumen; S. anceps, in Nordamerika, mit dunkelblauen od. purpurrothen Blumen; S. elegans, mit… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Sisyrinchĭum — Hffg. (Rüsselschwertel), Gattung der Iridazeen, kleine Zwiebelgewächse mit schmalen, schwertförmigen Blättern und kleinen, lebhaft gefärbten Blüten. Etwa 50 Arten in Amerika, besonders im tropischen und subtropischen. S. anceps L. mit fast… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Sisyrinchium — Sisyrinchĭum Hffg., Grasäugelchen, Pflanzengattg. der Iridazeen, kleine amerik. Zwiebelgewächse. Als Zierpflanzen werden kultiviert S. anceps mit blauen Blumen, sowie S. Bermudiāna L., grandiflōra Dougl. aus Mexiko und striātum Smth. aus Chile …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Sisyrinchium — Sisyrinchium …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sisyrinchium —   Sisyrinchium …   Wikipedia Español

  • Sisyrinchium — ID 78635 Symbol Key SISYR Common Name blue eyed grass Family Iridaceae Category Monocot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity N/A US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD,… …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Sisyrinchium — noun chiefly North American grasslike herbs • Syn: ↑genus Sisyrinchium • Hypernyms: ↑liliid monocot genus • Member Holonyms: ↑Iridaceae, ↑family Iridaceae, ↑iris family …   Useful english dictionary

  • Sisyrinchium L. — Symbol SISYR Common Name blue eyed grass Botanical Family Iridaceae …   Scientific plant list

  • sisyrinchium — sis·y·rin·chi·um …   English syllables


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