- Ferrari 360
The Ferrari 360 is a mid-engine two-seater
sports carproduced from late 1999 until 2005. The 360 replaced the Ferrari F355and was itself replaced by the fairly similar Ferrari F430. For the 360, Ferraripartnered with Alcoato produce an entirely new all-aluminum space-frame chassis that was 40% stiffer than the 355, yet 28% lighter despite a 10% increase in overall dimensions. Along with the new frame was a new Pininfarinabody styling that broke ranks with the last decade's sharp angles and flip-up headlights, replacing them with a rounded appearance that harkened to the 1960s. The new V8 engine, common to all versions, was only slightly larger and more powerful than the 355's at 3.6 litres and 300 kW (400 bhp) of power, but the lighter frame and added stiffness improved performance; the 0 to 100 km/h acceleration performance improved from 4.6 to 4.4 seconds, and in the Challenge versions it was as low as 4.0 s. An engine replacement resulted in the current V8 road model, the F430 (internally referred to as the "evoluzione" or "evo") which came out in 2004.
Seven versions of the basic 360 were produced, three road models, three race versions & a one-off wedding present to Ferrari president
Luca di Montezemolo:
*Ferrari 360 Modena, a fixed roof two-door luxury sports coupe, available with a 6-speed manual or F1 electrohydraulic shift
*Ferrari 360 Spider, a convertible variant of the Modena
*Ferrari Challenge Stradale, an F1 electrohydraulic shift 360 Challenge inspired variant of a 360 Modena.
Ferrari 360 factory race cars include:
*Ferrari 360 Challenge, a 360 F1 electrohydraulic shift stripped out circuit racing variant of the 360 Modena .
*Ferrari 360 GT, a GT racing variant of the 360 challenge race cars, more extreme than a Challenge.
*Ferrari 360 GT-C, based on the 360 GT with 360 CS parts to compete in the N-GT class.
The Ferrari 360 Barchetta is a one-off wedding present from Ferrari to Ferrari's president.
The first model of the 360 to ship was the 360 Modena, named after the town of
Modena, the birthplace of Enzo Ferrari. Its six-speed gearbox is available as a manual or F1 electrohydraulic shift. The car went into production in 1999 and remained in production until 2005 when it was replaced by the F430. The Modena was followed by the 360 Spider, Ferrari's 20th road-going convertible. Other than weight, the Spider's specifications match those of the Modena almost exactly.
The 360 Challenge Stradale (or 360 CS) was a later addition to the road line. It was essentially a lightened version of the Modena, dropping 110 kilograms. Changes included larger 19" BBS wheels, the use of
carbon fiberfor the frames of the seats and mirrors, titaniumsprings which were also 20% stiffer, and carbon ceramic brake disks. A variety of option allowed for further weight reductions, including replacing the leather interior with fabric, removal of the power windows and mirrors, and leaving off the stereo. Lexanside windows were available in Europe only. It was officially introduced in March of 2003 at the Geneva International Motor Show and went into production shortly thereafter. The 360 CS can be compared to Porsche's GT3 RS model in design approach and many magazines have placed them head to head in road tests. Jeremy Clarksoncompared the two and chose the 360 CS to be his favorite.
All models featured the same layout:
*No. of cylinders: 90° V8 F131
*Bore & stroke: 85 by 79 mm (3.34 by 3.11 in)
*Total displacement: 3586 cm³ (218.8 in³)
*Redline: 8500 rpm
For Modena and Spider:
*Maximum power: 300 kW (400 bhp) @ 8500 rpm
*Maximum torque: 373 N·m (275 lbf·ft) @ 4750 rpm
For Challenge Stradale:
*Maximum power: 317 kW (425 bhp) @ 8500 rpm
*Maximum torque: 373 N·m (275 lbf·ft) @ 4750 rpm
*0-62 mph: 4.5 sCite web|url=http://www.channel4.com/4car/road-tests/full-specification.jsp?version_id=479|title=Ferrari 360 Modena: Full Specification|accessdate=2007-09-01|work=channel4.com]
*Top speed : auto kmh|300Cite web|url=http://www.channel4.com/4car/road-tests/full-specification.jsp?version_id=479|title=Ferrari 360 Modena: Full Specification|accessdate=2007-09-01|work=channel4.com]
kgf(1.77 kN) @ 300 km/h (without rear wing)
*EPA Fuel Economy: 10 mpg U.S. city/16 mpg U.S. highway (24 L/100 km and 14 L/100 km) [" [http://www.epa.gov/fueleconomy/5yearhigh-low.htm Highest and Lowest Overall Fuel Economy] ." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed
19 September 2006.]
The 360 Spider is Ferrari's twentieth roadgoing convertible. The model was regarded a classic even when launched in 2000. Designer
Pininfarinas lines are by many regarded as timelessly beautiful and yet sportingly aggressive.
The engineers worked hard from the start of the 360 project to lay the foundation for a Spider with exceptional torsional and flexional rigidity. They had to strengthen the sills, stiffen the front of the floorpan and redesign the windscreen frame. The rear bulkhead had to be stiffened to cut out engine noise from the cabin. The convertible's necessary dynamic rigidity is provided by additional side reinforcements and a cross brace in front of the engine. Passenger safety is ensured by a strengthened windscreen frame and roll bars.
The 360 Spider displays a curvilinear waistline. The fairings imply the start of a roof, and stable roll bars are embedded in these elevations. Due to use of light aluminium constructions throughout, the Spider weighs in with only 60 kg (130 lbs) more than the coupé.
With its hood up, the Ferrari 360 Spider looks extremely aggressive. Lowering the hood totally transforms the look. Seen from the side, the 360 Spider resembles a sports racer, a sensation underlined by the length of the rear engine bay, the twin roll bars, the rear fairings and the steep windscreen.
As with the Modena version, its 3.6 litre V8 with 400 bhp is on display under a glass hood. The engine - confined in space by the convertible's top's storage area - acquires additional air supply through especially large side grills. The intake manifolds, with the classical Ferrari covers, cuddle up to each other between the air supply conduits in the Spider engine compartment, as opposed to lying apart as with the Mondena.
Despite the car's mid-mounted V8 engine Ferrari's engineers found a way of creating a hood that automatically folds away inside the engine bay, thus ensuring purity of line. The top canopy of crease free material comes in black, blue, grey and beige. The striptease from a closed top to an open-air convertible is a two-stage folding-action that has been dubbed "a stunning 20 second mechanical symphony". After a short to and fro, the entire top disappears into a closed storage area between the seating and the engine.
The interior of the Spider is identical to the coupé.
*Overall: length 4477 mm (176.3 in)
*Overall: width 1922 mm (75.7 in)
*Height: 1235 mm (48.6 in)
*Wheelbase: 2600 mm (102.3 in)
*Front track: 1669 mm (65.7 in)
*Rear track: 1617 mm (63.6 in)
*Weight: 1350 kg (2976 lb)
Curb weight: 1450 kg (3197 lb)
*Weight distribution: 42/58% front/rear
*Fuel capacity: 95 L (25.1 US gal)
The Challenge Stradale is a more track day focused car than the Modena, it was inspired by the challenge racing series and can be thought of as a Challenge car for the road. Ferrari engineers designed the car from the outset with 20% track day use in mind and 80% road use. With only a small 25bhp improvement in engine power from the Modena but with substantially improved power to weight ratio, the Challenge Stradale accelerates from 0 to 100km/h (62mph) in just 4.2 seconds.
In total, the CS is up to 110 kg (243 lbs) lighter than the standard Modena if all the lightweight options are specified such as deleted radio, lexan side windows and fabric cloth (instead of the leather option). As much as 94 kilos (207 lbs) was taken off on the bodywork by stripping the interior carpets, lighter weight bumpers, carbon mirrors and the optional Modena carbon seats becoming standard. The engine and transmission weight was slimmed down 11kg (24 lbs) through the use of a smaller, lighter weight sports (yet still stainless steel) exhaust back box and valved exit pipes.
There are a lot of subtle (and some not so subtle) styling differences between the Challenge Stradale and the standard Modena.
*19" BBS Challenge Styled Alloys with Titanium wheel bolts
*Large Diameter Carbon Ceramic Brakes
*Carbon-fibre side mirrors
*Updated front and rear bumpers
*Pair of rear bumper diffusers
*Sharper side skirts
*Plexi-glass rear window
*Lower ride height on Titanium springs
*Lighter weight challenge grille (black metal mesh) made from Aluminium
*Challenge Stradale badging on rear grille
*Optional Tri-colour Racing Stripe
The car also had the optional carbon racing seats (available in 3 sizes, small, medium and large) which are noticeable from the outside to complement the interior detailing
*New instrument dials with a yellow rev counter and carbon fibre surround
*Carbon Fibre door panels
*Carbon Centre Console
*Fabric Dashboard with deleted stereo and glovebox
*New Steering wheel with optional coloured racing ring
*Overall length: 4477 mm (176.3 in)
*Overall width: 1922 mm (75.7 in)
*Height: 1199 mm (47.2 in)
*Wheelbase: 2600 mm (102.4 in)
*Front track: 1669 mm (65.7 in)
*Rear track: 1617 mm (63.7 in)
*Curb weight: 1180 kg (2601 lb)
*Fuel capacity: 95 L (25.1 US gal)
* 0–100 km/h (62 mph): 4.1 sCite web|url=http://www.rsportscars.com/eng/cars/challenge_stradale.asp|title=2003 Ferrari Challenge Stradale|accessdate=2007-09-01|work=rsportscars.com]
* Top Speed : auto kmh|300Cite web|url=http://www.rsportscars.com/eng/cars/challenge_stradale.asp|title=2003 Ferrari Challenge Stradale|accessdate=2007-09-01|work=rsportscars.com]
* downforce: about 270 kgf (2.6 kN) @ 300 km/h (without rear wing)
* lift/drag: about -1.1:1
The Challenge was a track only car. It was a non-road legal variant of the Modena that shed 120 kg of weight by use of carbon fibre and stripping out of all of the road car's luxuries such as leather interior coverings, electric windows and mirrors. The car boasted a fully stripped out racing interior with full integrated welded in roll cage and fire extinguisher. Lightweight BBS 18" alloys, challenge rear grille and plexi-glass rear engine cover cosmetically distinguished the car from the standard 360. The Modena's advanced electronic suspension system with integrated ASR was dropped in favour of conventional racing Boge dampers. These changes lowered the car by an inch over the Modena while removing the electronic safety net of the road going car.
The engine performance was left the same as the Modena (at 400 bhp) with the focus on handling, weight reduction and weight balance improvements. The Challenge was only available in F1 automatic variant, no manual cars were produced. The biggest differences in driving were attributed to the weight reduction and massive handling improvements through the use of uprated stiffer springs and uprated aluminium suspension flamblocks (bushes).
Handling was described by some journalists as tricky on the limit, similar to its predecessor (the 355)Fact|date=April 2008 while conflictingly others such as the well known
Tiff Needell(from Channel Five's Fifth Gear) loved the handling. In Needell's review of the car he praised how well the car handled at the limit and how progressive the car behaved after driving the Ferrari on the track. Fact|date=April 2008
Much later on in the new format series of
BBC's Top Gear TV program, the 360 was lambasted on various occasions, mostly for its propensity to spin when at the limit of traction. James Mayquipped jokingly, "Actually, this is why it's called the F360 [" sic"] , this model. You drive along, come to a corner, and you go 'Fff...' as you do a 360!".Fact|date=April 2008
* [http://www.fast-autos.net/vehicles/Ferrari/2001/360_Spider/ Ferrari 360 Spider info and official photos]
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